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1864. ^^ 

.^'-^ S^X'jK^^'"^ 







A. S. 

— Anglo-Saxon. 


— Lotharingian(Lorraine) 

Alb an. 

— Albanian. 

M. Du. 

— Middle Dutch. 


— Andalusian. 

M. H. G. 

— Middle High German. 


— Aragonese. 


— Milanese. 


— Basque. 


— Modenese. 


— Bearnese. 


— Neapolitan. 


— Berrichon. 


— Norman. 


— Breton. 

0. E. 

— Old English. 


— Burgundian. 

0. H. G. 

— Old High German. 


— Catalonian. 


— Old Norse. 


— Champenois (Cham- 

0. S. 

— Old Saxon. 



— Languedocian. 


— Comasque. 


— Parmesan. 


— Cremonese. 


— Portuguese. 


— Dauphinese. 


— Picardian. 


— Dutch. 


— Piedmontese. 


— English. 


— Provencal. 


— Florentine. 


— Rhseto - Romance (Gri- 


— French. 



— Frisian. 


— Romagnol (Romagna). 


— Galician. 


— Rouchi. 


— Gascon. 


— Sardinian. 


— Genoese. 


— Sicilian. 


— Genevese. 


— Spanish. 


— Gothic. 


— Swiss. 

H. G. 

— High German. 


— Swedish. 


— Irish. 


— Valentian. 


— Italian. 


— Venetian. 


— Latin. 


— Veronese. 


— Limousin. 


— Walachian. 

L. G. 

— Low German. 


— Waldensian. 

L. L. 

— Low Latin. 


— Wallon. 


— Lombardian. 



The present work is based on the '^Etymological Dictionary 
of the Eomance Languages" by Friedrich Diez (2"^ edition, 
Bonn 1861). The Author has, however, availed himself of 
the labours of other eminent writers on the same subject, 
amongst whom he would specially mention Wedgwood (Dic- 
tionary of English Etymology), Littre (Histoire de la Langue 
fran9aise) and Mahn (Untersuchungen auf dem Gebiete der 
Romanischen Sprachen). He is also indebted to various papers 
in English and Foreign Periodicals, reference to which is 
made, where due. 

As to the plan of the work, the very inconvenient ar- 
rangement adopted by Diez has been abandoned, and the 
whole Dictionary reduced to one Alphabet, a Vocabulary 
being added of such English words as are connected with 
any of the Romance words treated of. 

To prevent excessive bulk, words are excluded: 

(1) where the etymology is unknown, and 

(2) where it is so obvious and familiar as to require 
no explanation. 

For the general principles of Romance etymology, Diez's 
Introduction to the Grammar of the Romance Languages 
(translated by C. B. Cayley B. A.) may be consulted. 



A ad It., Sp. Pg. a, Pr. a az , Fr. a, Wal. a from the Lat. ad, 
sometimes an abbreviation oi apud, Rom. Gr. 3, 145. From 
de ad is formed the It. da, Rh. dad, which correspond to the 
O. H. G. fona, N. H. G. von from «/ ana (Grimm 4, 782). The 
Pr. dans (in meaning = Fr. des) is prob. from de ab with an 
epenthetic s, O. Wald. </05. 

Ab — appo. 

Aba — ^/rtJ^^. 

Ababa ababol Sp., V^. papoula a red poppy, corn-rose: a cor- 
ruption oi papaver , v. pavot. 

Abait, abah Pr. in Gir. de Rossillon, a henchman; from ambac- 
tus or andhahts, v. ambascia. 

Abalear — balicare. 

Abandonner — bando. 

Abarca Sp. Pg. a coarse shoe of untanned hide worn by the 
Spanish peasants , used as a nickname of Sancho one of the 
kings of Navarre: from the Basque abarquia which is made 
up of abarra twigs (of which these shoes would originally be 
made) and quia things : so = things made of twigs. 

Abarear — barcar. > 

Abbaeo It. arithmetic, Pr. abac; from abacus. 

Abbagliare — bagliore, 

Abbandono — bando. 

Abbedul — beiula. 

Abbeille — ape. 

Abbentare — avventare. 

Abbozzare — bozzo. 

Abbrivo — brio. 

Abeja — ape. 

Abellucar — bellugue. 

Abequer — becco. 

Ab^s — avieso. 

Abisso It., Pr. abis abisme, Fr. abime or abyme, Sp. Pg. abismo, 
Sard, abismu, an abyss; It. abissare and sobbissare, Pr. abissar, 
Sp. abismar, Fr. abimer or abymer to precipitate; from abyssus 
(apvaaog). Abisme abismo is a substantival superlative like 



the L. ociilissimus, L. L. dominissimus , It. casissimo &c. cf. 
Rom. Gr. 1, 48- 3; 14. The It. nahisso arose from the frequent 
comhination in ahisso like ninferno from in inferno; hence the 
G. nobis. 

Able Fr. a whiting, L. L. abula; from alhulus euphon. for r//W^ 
(cf. foible for floible), Swiss albele, Austr. «/^^/, Triers «//*, fol- 
lows in meaning the L. alburnus (Ausonius), Sp. albur, 

Abonner Fr., s'abonner to subscribe; from bomts good, well- 
secured, cf. Sp. abonar to bail, secure, E. bonus. 

Abois — aboyer. 

Abome abosme O. Fr. dejected; from abominains one who feels 
abhorrence or aversion (past passive becoming present active) 
R.Gr. 3,253. 

Aboyer to bark, O. Fr. abayer, abboyer; from adbanbari (bcni- 
bariLtUCY.). Hence a sbst. aboJr., etre aux abois to be in the 
last extremity, properly of a stag ^^at bay'\ — The Eng. bay 
(and perhaps the form abayer) is from bada, badare q. v. 

Abra Sp. Pg. a bay, cove, defile, fissure. The Fr. havre differs 
from it both in gender and in sense. Its primary notion ig 
that of an ^^ opening^', so that hke some few other nouns from 
verbs of the fourth conjugation (nmlla from mollirey tupa from 
Uipir) it may come from abrir , Lat. aperire. 

Abrego Sp. the South -West wind; from africns, It. affrico. 

Abrieot v. albercocco. 

Abrigo Sp. Pg. , Pr. abric , Fr. f//;r/ shelter; abrigar , ab7icar, 
abriter (for abrier with euphonic / as in cafeiier ^ caillouteux, 
juteiix ivovRJus &c.) to shelter, cover. In the Jura avriller is 
used for ahriier of which it is a diminutive. The Bernese has 
aprigd with the tenuis. Mahn (Etym. Untersuch.) and Littre 
(Journal d. Savans) support the old derivation from apficus. 
The original and principal meaning of the liom. word is a 
place of shelter from cold, rain, and bad weather generally. 
-This notion would be involved in the Lat. locus ap?icns, which 
meant sunny in contradistinction to opacus shady. In Wallon 
ese a Vabri de V plaive =: etre expose a la pluic, which perhaps 
points to the fact that abri once bore the meaning of ^' expo- 
sures^ and after, by association of contrast, that of ^' shelter s\ 
Diez, without noticing this, argues against the Lat. etymology. 
Besides the difference in meaning the Lat. deriv. is, he says, 
rendered suspicious by the fact that the Rom. word is not 
found in the It. dialects , except in the Sard, which borrowed 
many words from the Span. {Aprico is indeed found in some 
of the poets in its Lat. sense.) It seems to have taken j'oot 
espec. in Spanish, which has numerous compounds and deri- 
vatives : desabrigo desabrigar to strip, abrigada, abrigatta, abri- 
gamienio, abrigador (Pg.). Diez derives it from the 0. H. G. 


rihan to cover, whence hirihan A. S. bevrihariy a being prefixed 
as in numerous Sp. words. It is noticeable that the meaning 
^Uo cover^^ is found in O. Fr.: la ires precieiise corone que Jhesu 
Crist ot en sa teste, si com li Juis ten ahrierent. He also sug- 
gests the O. G. hergan (hergen) to protect, hide. The sbst. 
hero geherc asylum would be nearer ahric in meaning than 

Abrojo — hroglio. 

Abrojo Sp., Pg. ahrolho a thistle, caltrop; a compound from 
ahrc (el) ojo open the eye i. e. beware. 

Abrostino It. a sort of wild grape; from lahruscum , Sp. lam- 
hrusca; sc becomes st as in mistio for mischio, I being rejected 
as though it were the article. 

Abrunho — hrngna. 

Abubilla — upiipa. 

Abutre — avoltore, 

Abuzzago — huse. 

Aea — qua. 

Acabar Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. achever , to bring to a head, finish, 
achieve; from caput which in Rom. meant the end as well as 
the beginning of a thing : far capo = to commence , venire a 
capo to accomplish. 

Acaecer Sp. Pg. (O. Pg. also aquecer to be distinguished from 
aguecer to warm v. calentar) to happen; from accadere (for 
accidere) accadescere. 

Acamar — cama (1). 

Acarar — cara. 

Acariatre — cara. 

Acatar — catar. 

Accabler — caahle. 

Aecattare It., O. Sp. acdbdar , 0. Pg. acliatar S. Eos. to earn, 
gain, 0. Fr. acater to procure, Fr. acheter to buy. Neap, ae- 
cattare; It. accattOy Pr. acapta acapte , Fr. achat; from ad- 
captare (L. L. accapitare) to take to oneself, to buy, a mean- 
ing first developed in Fr. , and supported by the passage in 
Festus: emere, quod nunc est mercari, antiqui accipiehant pro 
sumere. On emo (orig. = to take up, cf. eximo, dirimo, promo, 
demo, sumo, como) cf. Donald. Varronianus. Hence the com- 
pound It. raccatlare, Pg. regaiar, Fr. racheter to redeem = Sp. 
rescatar, Pg. resgatar , from re-ex-captare , subst. rescate, 

Acceggia It., Sp. arcea, Prov. Fr. acee a snipe, L. L. accia, ac- 
ceia; from acies^ or c?xif a point, so = bird with the pointed 
bill. The word has very ancient authority, for in the Erfurd 
Glossaries p. 259 *" we find accega holtana or acega holtana 
= A. S. holt-hana a woodcock, snipe. 



Aceertello It. a bird of prey : dimin. from accipiter. 

Accliinea — haca. 

Aceia azza It., Sp. hacha, Pg. facha acha, Pr. apcha for achUj 
Fr. hache (h asp.), E. adze. Whence M. H. Gr. hdtsche and 
hcische, a hatchet, axe; It. acciare, Fr. hacher to hash, cut in 
small pieces. The form of the Rom. words is against their 
deriv. from the Lat. ascia, but the Fr. agrees with the N.H. G. 
andDu. hacke a mattock, hoe, a word not found in the O.H.G. 
but supported by the masc. form hacco (a hook) and the A. S. 
haccan to hack. The German k is preserved in the Picard. vb. 
hequer to hew wood = Fr. hacher. The other Eom. forms are 
all derived from the Fr. , the Pg. / representing the aspirate, 
V. sub arpa. The It. ascia, Pr. aissa, is a different word com- 
ing from the Lat. ascia; the Sp. aza or axa is not found, but 
there is a derivative from it in O. Sp. axada, Sp. azada, Pg. 
enxada mattock, hoe; also a Sp. form azuela an adze. 

Aceiaceo — achaque. 

Acciajo It., Sp. acero, O. Pg. aceiro, N. Pg. aco, Pr. Fr. acier, 
Wal. otziil, Hung, atzel, L. L. aciare aciarmm steel; from 
acies sc. ferri. Acies ferri is used by Pliny for steel. Hence 
also It. acciale, Ven. azzale &c. , O. H. G. ecchil, M. H. G. 

Aeeidia It., Sp. acidia, Pr. accidia, O. Fr. accide laziness, sloth. 
Chaucer uses accidie = lukewarnmess in religion to be cured 
by fortitude, inFr. theology acedie; cf. the accidiosi in Dante's 
Inferno. The word comes from the Gr. dxr^dia through the 
L. L. accidia acedia. 

Aecism.are — esmar. 

Aeciuga It., Sp. anchoa anchova, Pg. anchova and enchova, Fr. 
anchois, anchovy; from aphya, apua (used by Plin. = small 
fry of any fish) , dcpviq , with the suffix uga might be formed 
in Italian aeciuga = apj-uga, the other words being corrup- 
tions of this. The Piedm. and Sicil. form is anciova, Veron. 
ancioa, Gen. anciua, Ven. anchioa. But Malm (Etym. Untersuch.) 
refers the word to the Basque antzua to dry so = the dried 
or salted fish. A dialectical form of antzua is anchua in Bis- 
cay anchuba (pronounced anchuvci). Both these are represented 
in the Span. Tz and ch are frequently interchanged in Basque, 
thus: baltza, heltza, halcha black, aitza acha a rock, itzuli 
and ichuli to turn, alter, ortza and orcha a tooth. Anchua in 
Basque also means a weaned lamb , doubtless from the same 
root. In the It. aeciuga there is , probably , a reference to as- 
ciugare to dry, the truer form being preserved in the dialects. 

Aceointer — conto. 

Aceordo It., Sp. acuerdo, Pg. acordo, Pr. accort, Fr. accord 
agreement, accordare , accorder &c. to agree: formed in ana- 


logy to the Lat. concordare , discordare from cor, not from 
chorda. The Swiss cordere cordre = Wall, keure opp. : mes- 
keure to grudge. 

Accorgere — corgere. 

Accoutrer — cucire. 

Acebo Sp. , holly -tree; abbreviated from aquifolium with the 
accent thrown back as in trebol from trifolium. An old form 
aceveto is found. Hence also Pg. azevinho. The Cat. grevol is 
from acrifolium. 

Aeechar Sp., Pg. asseitar to lie in wait for, spy, from assectari. 

Aceite Sp. Pg. oil; from the Arab, al-zait (azzait), Heb. zait 
Freyt. 2; 269. 

Acelga Sp., Pg. also selga beet; from Arab, selg (Freyt. % 344), 
which prob. came from the Gr. (SLXsXog Sicilian, whence the 
Gr. tavT^ov or 6svrXov, M. Gr. dsvTcXov, 6€07cXov N. Gr. 
6£v%lov, whence it has passed into many of the Sclavonic 

Acero It., Pg. acer, O. Sp. asre, Sp. arce, Cat. ars maple; from 
acer. The Fr. has erahle (Grenoble izerablo) = erarbre es- 
rarbre = acer arbor, 

Acesmer — esmar. 

Acetre — secchia. 

Acezar 0. Sp. to pant, acezo breath; from Basq. hatsa breath 
with the same suffix as bostezar to yawn. 

Acha — ascla. 

Achaque Sp. Pg. illness, disorder, pretext, excuse, whence It. 
acciacco; from the Arab, al-schakd aschschakd sickness. The 
It. cagione also unites the meanings ^^ illness" and ^^ excuse". 
O. Pg. achague = accusation. 

Aehar Sp. Pg. to find. A word as obscure as its synonymous 
trovare. The oldest form found is aflar (A. D. 1166 S. Kosa), 
ch =1 fi as in enchar from inflare (but Mahn derives enchar 
from inchoare). In the Rh. we find aflar, Wal. afla, Neap. 
asciare {set for fl as in sciume from flumen), also acchiare (Sic. 
asciari). It prob. comes from the Lat. afflare to blow upon, 
then to touch, meet with. Conflare besides the sense of 
^^ blowing together" has that of ^^ bringing together", ^^ join- 
ing". From the notion of blowing we easily get that ot striking 
cf. the Eng. blow and the Germ, puffen (the Pg. ache = a 
hurt), and the German treffen means both to hit, and to hit 
upon, to find (cf. the Lat. offendere). In old glosses we find 
adflavit=^ adtegit (attigit): adfulavit (for afflavit) leviter tetigit; 
afflata pifundan (befunden): Papias has afflare = aspirare, 
aspergere, attingere. In It. we have inaffiare = to besprinkle. 
V. s. hallar. 

Acharner Fr. to set on , incite ; from caro flesh , prop, of dogs 


to urge on by offering flesh : part, acharne provoked , exas- 
perated*, It. accarnare to penetrate into the flesh, of. the Pg. 
encarnicar to provoke, exasperate. 

Achat acheter — accattare. 

Ache Fr. a sort of parsley; from apium, It. appio, Sp. atpo. 

Aehever — acahar, 

Achier — ape, 

Aciago — auce. 

Acibar Sp., Cat. cever aloe -tree; from Arab. al~cahir accaMr. 

Aeiealar Sp., Pg. acicalar acacalar to polish; from Arab, cagala 
Freyt. 2, 509. 

Acicate Sp. Pg. a spur with a single prick instead of a rowel; 
according to some from the Arab, al-schavkah aschschavkah a 
goad; Larramendi derives it from the Basq. cicatea in same 

Acier — acciajo. 

Acipado Sp. well -milled, compact (of cloth); frorn the Lat. 

Aconchar — conciare. 

Acontecer — contir. 

Acotar — cotejar. 

Acotar — quota. 

Acre Fr. a square measure, acre; from G. acker, E. acre. 

Acucia Cucia 0. Sp. agility, dexterity, acuciar to hasten, Sp. 
accioso diligent; from the Lat. acutus v. Ducange s. v. acutia. 

Acudir — cudir. 

Adaga — daga. 

Adala — dala. 

Adalid Sp., O. Sp. adalid, adalir, Pg. adail a commander, ge- 
neral; from Ar. ad-dalil guide, vb. dalla to lead. 

Adarga — targa. 

Adarve Sp. a rampart with battlements ; from Ar. al-darh a nar- 
row way, Freyt. 2, 19. 

Adastiare — astio. 

Addobbare It., O. Sp. adohar, 0. Pg. adiibar, Pr. addbar, O. Fr. 
adouber to fit out, equip, N. Sp. Pg. to prepare, pickle, tan. 
From the A. S. dubhan, O. Norse dubba to strike (Fr. dauber 
to beat), and first used of the accolade or blow with the sword 
given in the ceremony of knighting: A. S. dubban to riddere 
to dub a knight, Fr. addubber ii chevalier ; it was next used 
of any solemn preparation or equipment, cf. Ducange s. v. 
adobare: Kaoul Vadoube qui estoit ses amis: premiers li 
chausse ses esperons massis e puis li a le branc au costel mis, 
en col le fiert si con il ot apris : hence adouber richement to 
equip magnificently, se douber to arm oneself, this simple form 
being rare. Wedgwood (s. v. dub) considers that the notion 


of preparation , -equipment &c. is the primary one and traces 
the word to a Sclavonic root, Bohem. dub an oak, oak -bark, 
tan , duhiti to tan. From dressing leather the term got to be 
used of any kind of dressing or preparation , the dubbing of a 
knight consisting in investing nim with the habiliments of 
his order. In Eng. to duh cloth is to dress it with teasles ; to 
dub a cock to prepare it for fighting by cutting off the comb 
and wattles ; dubbing a mixture of tallow for dressing leather, 
also a dressing used by weavers. 

Adelene Pr. of noble birth (only in Girard de Roussillon), O.Fr. 
elin; from the O. H. Gr. adalinc editing, A. S. ddheling , Eng. 
Atheling (prop, name), L. L. adalingus. 

Ademan Sp. Pg. motion, look, bearing; from the Basque adie- 
man (aditzera eman) to give to understand, from adi aditu to 
understand and eman to give; desman = des- ademan. 

Aderedor — redor. 

Adas — esso. 

Adeser adaiser 0. Fr. , Pr. adesar to stick to, touch, lay hold 
of: a frequent, from adhcerere adhcesus v. s. aerdre. 

Adesso — esso. 

Adizzare — izza. 

Admoneter — amonestar. 

Adonare It. to subject, subdue, Dante Inf. 6, 34: V ombre ch' 
adona la greve pioggia. The Pr. has adonar to give in, Sp. ado- 
narse, Fr. s'adonner to suit oneself to, from donare; hence the 
notion of subduing, cf. Sp. rendir from reddere. 

Adouber — addobbare. 

Adrede Sp. Pg. purposely; prob. from the Prov. adreit rightly, 
exactly , cf . Cat. adretas (1) rightly (2) purposely. 

Aduana — dogana. 

Adur aduras O. Sp. = Lat. vix; from durus. 

Adurer O. Fr. Wall. , Pr. abdurar to harden , also to endure, 
like Fr. endurer. Adure adur at enduring was a frequent epi- 
thet of warriors; from obdurare with change of prefix, cf. 

Aerdre aderdre O. Fr. Pr. to hang, attach to: from adhcerere 
(pronounced adherere aderre) with a d inserted. It. aderire. 

Afa — - affanno. 

Afagar — hatagar. 

Afeitar Sp. Pg. to trim, curl the hair; from affectare, the Sp. 
coming through the Pg. The Pg. enfeitar is from infectare 

Afeurer • — foro. 

Affaler Fr. a nautical word = to let down; from Du. afhalen 
to haul down. 

AjBTanno It., Sp. Pg. Pr. afan, O. Sp. afano anxiety, fatigue, 


Fr, ahan hard labour; affannare to grieve a person, Sp. afa- 
nar y Fr. ahaner to labour, toil, frequentl}^ of field -labour in 
L. L. and 0. Fr. terram ahanare, whence ahans cultivated 
fields, also ahanableSy Rouchi ahan culture, Wall, ahans (re- 
sults of it) = legumes encore en terre. The oldest meaning 
we can arrive at is that of ^^ bodily pain^\ which, under the 
forms afan, ahan, aan, it bears in some of the earliest extant 
poems; in other early passages it signifies grief, torture, and 
bodily toil, fatigue. Carpentier notes also an O. Fr. vb. haner 
to work, whence enhaner e. g. un cortil to work a garden. 
The word is of French origin , being found neither in Latin 
nor in German. From ahan to afan the transition is easy , v. 
Rom. Gram. 1, 311? and for the Fr. affanner v. Pougens arch, 
franc. 1, 11. The derivation from the It. afa anguish is not 
to be thought of, since no suffix ann is known to the Rom. 
languages ; it would rather appear that afa is shortened from 
afi^anno. Ducange and others derive it from an interjection 
han, which expresses the want of breath caused by a stress 
of bodily exertion. This is preserved in the Berrichon ahan- 
ner to be out of breath (which meaning it bore in 0. Fr. up 
to the 16^*^ century), and also in the Rouchi e-han-cer to be 
out of breath, cf. Ven. afana to pant, gasp. The Celtic lan- 
guages present no roots identical with these Rom. , the Gael. 
fann W. gwan weary being certainly not so , for the / = giv 
gives in Rom. not / but v. As to W. afan dispute, tumult, 
which owen quotes from Taliesin, it only remains to consider 
whether their form, confined to one of the Celtic dialects, and 
based on no native root, be still indigenous, or whether it be 
merely adopted from the Rom. The root han is doubtless one 
of those onomatopoeia for which the language is indebted to 
itself alone. 

Affare It. (m.), Pr. afar afaire (m.), Fr. affaire (f., probably be- 
cause chose is f., in O.Fr. m.), O. Sp. afer, affair; from a fare 
in such phrases as avere a fare con uno; in the Romagna dafe 
i. e. da fare. Cf. It. avvenire, Fr. avenir the future = il tempo 
a venire. 

Afficher — ficcare. 

Afilpontare It., Sp. afrontar afrentar, Pr. afrontar, Fr. affronter 
to affront, to contradict or insult one to his face (ad frontem). 
Hence the It. affronto, Fr. affront , Sp. afrenta, affront. The 
Fr. effronte, Pr. esfrontat, It. sfrontato shameless (Eng. ef- 
frontenj) is from effrons (Vopiscus Num. 13. consilium ef- 

Affubler to mask, muffle; for affbler, L. L. se afftlmlare to wrap 
oneself up, prop, to fasten the mantle with the fibula, Pr. 
fievela. It. afftbbiare, Rom. afube. 


AflFut — fusta. 

Afouto — hoto. 

Afre 0. Fr. (Fr. plur. affres, Burg, afre) fright, dismay, Fr. af- 
freux frightful , from the 0. H. G. sbst. eiver eipar. The It. 
afro sour may be referred to the same origin. 

Afrenta — affrontare. 

Afro — afre. 

Agace — gazza. 

Agalla — gale. 

Agasajar — gasalha, 

Agastar — agazzare. 

Agazzare It. , Fr. agacer (Pg. agastar) to irritate , entice , set on 
edge (teeth); from 0. H. G. hazjan G. hetzen to bait, the 
Rom. a being prefixed to help the pronunciation of the h which 
becomes strengthened into a g. 

Age Fr. , O. Fr. edage aage eage; from cetaticum (setas) : so hom- 
mage ^= Jiominaticum , Pr. antigatge= antiquaticum. YoYce = a 
cf. O.Fr. ae =: cetatem. The ed, which in the Lat. was no part 
of the root (a^tas = cevitas) , has vanished. 

Agencer — gente. 

Ageno Sp., Pg. alheo strange, foreign; from alienus, It. alieno, 
0. Fr. aliene. Sard, allenu is used for It. altrui, like the Sp. 

Agenuz Sp. fennel, flower; from Ar. asch-schenuz , v. Engelmann. 

Aggecchire — gecchire. 

AgguefFare It. to add , Dante Inf. 23 ; 1 6 : se V ira sovra U mal 
voter s' aggueffa; prop. = ^Ho weave on^' from 0. H. G. wi- 
fan to weave, cf. adtexere. Of the same origin is the Lomb. 
iviffa, guiffa a mark of possession attached to a property, vb. 
guiffare to attach such a mark to a thing. Hence Fr. giffer to 
mark a house with chalk, confiscate it; v. Genin. 

Aghirone It. Pr. aigron, Cat. agro, Sp. airon, O. Fr. hairon, 
Fr. heron (h asp.), Berrichon egron, a heron; Fr. dim. aigrette, 
E. egret, and heronceau, heronshaw; from the 0. H. G. heigir 

Agina gina swiftness, strength; a grande aina Dante de Vulg. 
Eloq. 1, 11, 0. Sp. agina and ahina, O. Pg. aginha swift. In 
a L. L. glossary we find agina i. q. festinancia et inde agino 
festinare. It cannot be the same as the word in Festus agina 
^^- the opening in the upper part of a balance in which the 
tongue plays: it comes from ago as ruina from ruo and in 
meaning approaches agitatio, agilitas. 

Agio It. (rarely asio) y Pr. ais aise, Fr. aise (m.), Pg. azo, ease; 
Pr. ais, Fr. aise, easy; It. ad agio, Pr. ad ais, O. Fr. a aise, 
Fr. a I' aise comfortably, conveniently, whence It. adagio, O. Fr. 
aaise, O. Pg. aaso convenience &c.; agiare adagiare, Pr. aisar, 
O. Fr. aisier , aaisier to take care of, agiato, aise comfortable, 


well-off. In Pr. there are still more derivatives : aisir to house, 
harbour, ^/^Hodging, dwelling, «m>?rt facility , opportunity, 
aizinar to arrange &c.; so that the word probably spread from 
this source. Its derivation is uncertain. Menage refers it to 
otium, Ferrari to adaptare, Frisch to the German hchagen to 
please. We require a form ais or cm. According to Perion 
Ling. Gall. p. 45, it comes from the Gk. aL0Log luck -fore- 
boding, necessary, proper, convenient, pleasant. Others, as 
Junius, Schilter, Castiglione, recognise in it a Gothic root 
found in the adj. azets easy, pleasant, azeti comfort. J. Grimm 
inclines to this etymology, v. Wiener Jahrb. 46, 188, and his 
Hist, of the Germ, language p. 352, where the Goth, word is 
referred to the A. S. eaclhe, N. H. G. odi. The Pr. vim^e ad 
ais = Goth, vizon in azetjam to live in ease and luxury. To 
hold this derivation we must suppose a substantive azi which 
is very doubtful. The Basque aisia rest, aisina leisure are 
rather from the Prov. than vice versa, such double forms (m. 
and f.) as aisi aisina being common in the latter: cf. plevi ple- 
vina, trahi trahina: aisina would be from the Pr. aise (ph. in 
older form aisi) as the adj. aisa agrees with the Pr. ais. Among 
the compounds from agio are It. agevole, disagio, malagiato, 
Fr. malaise hardship. The It. aggio agio, rate of ex(ihange &c., 
is from agio with a different spelling for distinction. The 
Piedm. agio combines the meanings of both words. 

Aglan Pr. , Cat. agld^ O. Fr. agland which is still preserved in 
Berry, in Lorrain aiguiand an acorn; from the Lat. glans in- 
fluenced by the Greek a^cvAog or rather by the Goth, akran 
(acorn) , the prosthetic a being unusual in Pr. 

Aglayo — ghiado. 

Agognare It. to desire anxiously, Gr. dycoviav. 

Agora — or a (2). 

Agraffer — graffio. 

Agreable agreer — grado. 

Agres Fr. (m. pi.) rigging; vb. agreer to rig; O.Fr. flf/7m = pre- 
paration, agreier to prepare, fit out; from Du. gereide gerei 
apparatus (with prefix «), vb. gereeden parare = Goth, ga- 
raidjan, M. H. G. gereiten to make ready , v. redo. 

Agresto It., Sp. agraz , Pg. agraco, Pr. agras, O. Fr. aigret, 
Dauph. aigrai, Wal. agrisi unripe grapes, juice thereof, ver-, 
juice; from acer , O. Sp! agre^ Fr. aigre with the suffix as, 
corrupted in It. into est. Agraz corresponds closely to pira- 
cium perry (Jerome). 

Agrotto grotto It. a pelican; from onocrotalus. 

Aguet — guadare. 

Aguglia It., Sp. aguja, Pg. Pr. agulha, Fr. aiguille a needle. 
Not from aculeus: the It. agocchia requires a L. acucula (cf. 


colucula, conucula, conocchia, quenouille), which was thus al- 
tered from acicula whilst the c was still pronounced as a gut- 
tural, cf. genuculum for geniculum &c., v. Rom. Gr. 2, 265. 
Among the derivatives are Sp. aguijar, Pg. aguilhar to goad, 
Fr. dim. aiguillette tag for drawing a lace through an eyelet 
hole, English aglet. 

Aguijar — aguglia. 

Aguilen — aiglen. 

Aguzzino — alguacil. 

Ahan — affanno, 

Ahi — ivi. 

Ah or a — or a (2). 

Alb alp Pr. quality, disposition, manners, character, aihit gifted. 
Diez derives it from a very doubtful Goth, word aibr = gift, 
which occurs only once in (jlfilas S. Matt. 5, 24. Mahn (Etym. 
Untersuch.) points out the true derivation from the Basque 
aipua report, reputation, which is from aipatu, aippatcea to 
speak of, mention. The Pr. argued from effect to cause so 
aib aip meant character, espec. good character. Aipatu bears 
a striking resemblance to the Gr. EiTteiv (J^£;r.), Lat. vocare, 
Sansk. vach, v. Pott, Et. Forsch. 1, 180, 234. 

Aide — ajuto. 

Aie Fr. an interjection of pain; an old imperative of aider: aie 
nos MahumI Ch. d. Rol. p. 74. 

Aieul Fr. a grandfather; dimin. from avtis, It. avolo, Sp. abuelo, 
Pg. avo. For a similar use of diminutives in O. G. cf. Grimm 

Aiglent 0. Fr. , Pr. aguilen thorn; hence Pr. aguilancier, aiglen- 
tina, Fr. eglanticr eglantine, eglantine; from aiguille aguilha 
with the suffix ent, as if from a Lat. acuculentus prickly. 

Aigrette — aghirone. 

Aigu Fr. sharp; from acutus. Hence E. ague. 

Aiguille — aguglia. 

Ailleurs Fr. , Pr. alhors otherwise ; from aliorsum which became 
obsolete after the time of Cato and the Comic writers, and was 
revived in L. L., v. Miiller's Festus. 

Aimant — diamante. 

Ain 0. Fr. a fish-hook; from hamus, It. amo. 

Ain9ois ains — anzi. 

Ainda — inda. 

Aine — Aine, inguine. 

Aine Fr. elder; from ains -ne (ante- natus); cf. alnado. 

Ains — anche. 

Ainsi — con. 

Air — aria. 

Airain — rame. 


Aire — aria. 

Airon — aghirone. 

Ais Fr. a plank; from axis assis, It. asse; dimin. aisseau a shingle, 
from axicellus assiceiius, It. assicella. 

Ais — asco, 

Ais aisina — agio. 

Aisil aissil 0. Fr. vinegar; a corruption of acetum, It. acetOy 
Wal. otzet, Rh. as-chaid, ischeu. The same word is the E. eisil, 
esil, O. E. aisyl, A. S. aisil, eisele. The common Rom. term is 
vinum acre , vinaigre &c. 

Aisne O. Fr. grape; from acinus ^ It. acino, 

Aisso — cib. 

Aja It. a threshing-floor; from area, Fr. aire , Pg. eira. 

Ajar to maltreat; identical with the Pg. achar, Obs. Sp. fl;«r 
to find = hallar; cf. the Lat. offendere to hurt and to hit 
upon , find , Pg. ache = hurt. 

Ajo — ayo. 

Aj outer — giusta. 

Ajuto It. help; from adjuius -W5 (Macr. Sat. 7, 7); fem. Sp. ayuda, 
Pg. Pr. ajiida, O. Fr. aiie , Pic. a'iude; It. ajutare, Sp. ayu- 
dar, Pg. Pr. ajutar from adjutare. By the side of this we have 
a shortened form It. a'ita, Pr. ahia, O. Fr. «/V;?^ ate, Fr. «?</^, 
Eng. «/^, It. aitare, Pr. aidar, Fr. aider; the last two =^ «/- 
/«r^, which, however, does not suit the accented i of It. aito 

Al 0. Sp., O. Pg., Pr. al ais, 0. Fr. al el a neuter pronoun some- 
times joined with a sbst. (al ren, ren al), from aliud, or, better, 
from alid (Lucil., Catull., Lucret.), neut. of alis, v. Ritschl 
de declinatione quadam latina reconditiore. 

Ala — enola. 

Alabar Sp. Pg. to praise ; from allaudare (Plant.) , Pr. alaiizar. 
The d being dropped the u takes a consonantal form as in Paolo 
=^ Paulus. In loar from laudare the vowel is kept (o = au). 

Alabarda labarda It., Sp. Pg. alaharda, Fr. hallebarde (h asp.), 
a halbert; from theM. H. G. hehnbarte ((}.heUeharte) ; the purest 
form is found in the Rh. halumbard. 

Alabe Sp. a branch, espec. one drooping to the ground, an olive 
branch , the ladle of a wheel , the eaves of a house ; from the 
Basque aUibea 'Hhat which bends or droops" v. Larramendi. 
Hence Pg. aha a projecting surface, eaves, cf. paco from 

Alacha — laccia. 

Alacran Sp., Pg. alacrao scorpion; from Arab, al-dqrah. 

Alafe alahe alae an interjection of cheering, rousing up &c., 
prop, of protestation from fe = fides. 

Alaga Sp. spelt ; from alica a sort of wheat. 


Alambic — lamhicco. 

Alamo Sp., Pg. ala?no alemo a poplar - tree •, the Sp. philologers 
derive it from ulmus comparing the N. almr aim, Eng. elm; 
but ph. better from alnus. The alder is called alamo negro, 
the poplar alamo bianco. The Sp. avoids the conjunction of the 
consonants In (ana = alna, jalde ^= jalne) , so almo alamo 
from alno. 

Alano It. Sp., Pg. aldo, O. Fr. alan a mastiff; Menage shows 
that Ala7io was used for Albano, and so Alano would be a dog 
of Albania (Epirus); cf. the Lat. Molossus, also from Epirus. 

Alarbe Sp., Pg. alarve a clown, rustic, prop. = an Arab; from 
Ar. al~arab. 

Alarde Sp. Pg. a review of soldiers; from Ar. al-afd, 

Alare — lar. 

Alarido Sp. Pg. a confused battle-cry, outcry; from Ar. al-ar\r 
a song of victory, din, clatter Freyt. 1, 24. In the O. Fr. 
Chans. d'Antioche the Saracens cry aridel aride! 

Alazan Sp., Pg. alazao reddish -yellow, sorel (of a horse); from 
the Arab, al-has-an beautiful, Pihan Gloss., Freyt. 1, 381, 
or, according to Sousa, from al-^hacan a strong tine horse. 
Hence Fr. alesan. 

Alba It., Sp. Pr. Pg. Rh. alva, Fr. aube dawn; from albus light, 
clear, bright, as in alba stella (H.), cf. lux albescil, ccelum al- 
bet (Albunea, according to Pott = Matuta'), Dante ^'il sol im- 
bianca i fioreUV\ Ariosto gives the dawn more colours: pot 
che V aliro mattin la bella Aurora V aer seren fe' bianco e rosso e 

Alban Pr., also albanel, It. albanello, Fr. aubrier a bird of prey. 
The corresponding Pg. form alvdo signities another kind of 
bird. Trevoux explains aubrier by aubere = white and dap- 
pled, from albus. 

Albanal albanar a sewer, gutter; from alveus, 

Albarda — barda. 

Albaro albero the black poplar, Fr. (Berrichon) aubrelle, O.H. G. 
albari, G. alber. In Cat. the poplar (of any kind) is called 
alba, Pr. aubra (aoubre) = the white -poplar, Piedm. albra 
arbra ■=. the black poplar, albron arbron = the white. Mil. 
albera (It. alberelki) = the aspen. From albus, so prop. = the 
white poplar, afterwards used generally. The dialectical 
forms disprove Blanc's derivation from albero (arbor), as being 
the commonest tree. 

Albazano — baio. 

Albedrio Sp. free-will; from arbitrium, Pr. albire. 

Albedro Sp., Pg. ervodo from arbutus; Cat. arbosser from arbu- 
teus, Sp. (dialect.) alborzo, Fr. arbousier. 

Alberare It., Sp. arbolar, enarbolar, Fr. arborer to raise, rear 


(e. g. a mast); from arbor, It. albero, 0. It. alhorc &c. For 
similar formations, cf. viiulari to skip like a calf, It. piomhare 
to fall like lead, hrillare to shine like beryl, hraccare &c. 

Albereoeco albieooeo It., Roman hericuocolajo bricoccolajo, Ven. 
haricocolo y Sien. hacoco, Sp. alharicoque albarcoque albercoqne 
alvarcoque, Pg. alhricoque albercoqne alboquorque , Fr. abricoty 
»N. Pr. ambricoty aubricot auricoi, M. Gr. psQvxoTtov fiaQt- 
TtoTcov, M. Grr. TtQarAO'/ixiov, Psqlxovxlk^ psQhxoxxLa, fisQi- 
xoxKiov, psQLXOXxov, O. Eng. apricock, an apricot, Diez 
derives it from ikv^X^^i. prcecoquus , apricots ripening earlier 
than other fruits of the same kind. (Martial has prwcoqna 
= apricots : Vilia maternis fueramus Prcecoqua ramis Nunc in 
adoptivis Persica cara sumus.) He adds that the Latin word 
finds its truest expression in the M. Gr. TiQaiKoxxiov , the 
Kom. forms having been influenced by the Arabic al-berqiiq. 
This account is not quite right. The Kom. words , doubtless, 
came direct from the Arabic through the Span. The Ara- 
bians, probably, got the word from Dioscorides, who has 
(1, 165): xa ^rjXa dQ^rjvtaxd, 'Pco^al'^zl dh TtQULXOTacc, and 
whose works were early translated into Arabic. The Arabic 
has no p and therefore represents the Latin p hj a b. V. 
Mahn Etym. Untersuchungen. 

Albergo It., O. Sp., Sp. Pg. albergiie, Pr. alberc, and O. Fr. her- 
berc Qielberc Ch. d' Alexis st. 51, 65), fem. Pr. alberga, O. Fr. 
herberge Ch. d' Alexis 116 &c. &c., N. Fr. auberge an inn, O. 
Eng. herberive; It. albergai-e, Sp. albergar^ Pr. albergar ar- 
bergar , Fr. lieberger , O. Fr. herbergier; from the O. H; G. 
, heriberga (f .) (Jieer army and bergen to shelter = station of an 
' army on its march through the provinces), O. N. herbergi (n.), 
O. H. G. verb heribergdn. The 0. Fr. kept the original mean- 
ing ^' army -station". Brut. 2, 160 ses herbcrges et ses foillies 
the tents and huts of the army. Through the Fr. come the 
'Eng. forms herberwe , herber, harbour, arbour, herbergage, 
herbergeour , harbinger (one who looks out for a harbour or 
lodging for another): in Wiclif we find "I was herbariveles 
and ye herboriden me'\ S. Matt. Hence E. harbinger for her- 
bergeour, the n being inserted as in messenger, scavenger &c. 

Albornoz Sp. Pg. a woollen mantle, Fr. bournous; from the Ar. 
al-bornoz a cloak with a cape to it, Freyt. 1, 115. 

Alboroto Sp., Pg. alvoroio outcry, riot*, from Arab, al-foro^i 
^'what is beyond measure'^ Freyt. 3, 336. Hence alborozo joy. 

Albran — halh^an. 

Albrieia Sp., O. Sp. alvistra, Pg. alvicara (generally in plur. 
only) reward for good tidings; from the Ar. al-baschdrah 
good tidings, vb. basclmra Freyt. 1 , 124. In the Sp. the r is 
transposed not inserted , though alvicia is found in Berceo. 


Alcabala duty on goods sold ; according to Sousa from Ar. al- 
(jahalah (which, however, has a different sense, Freyt. 3, 394) 
which is from the verb giibala to take, to receive a price. 
Engelmann refers it to the Ar. al-gabdlah a tax. 

Alcachofa — ariiciocco. 

Alcahuete Sp., Pg. alcayote, Pr. alcaot alcavot a pander; Ar. 

Alcaide Sp. Pg. an alcaid, chief magistrate; from Ar. al-qdid 
Freyt. 3,513. 

Alcalde Sp. a justice of the peace; from Ar. al-qd^di judge 
Freyt. 3,461. 

Alcali It. Sp. &c. alkali, from Ar. al-qali salt of ashes Freyt. 3; 494. 

Alcanoe Sp. Pg. pursuit, capture, grasp, reach, means, alcan- 
zar to pursue, capture; from Ar. al-qanac prey, booty (of 
hunters), vb. qanaca to hunt, Freyt. 3, 504. The Pg. alcancos 
is of the same origin. 

Aleandara Sp. a falcon's roost; from Ar. al-kandarah. 

Alcaparra — cappero. 

Alcaravea — carvi. 

Alcarraza Sp. an earthen pitcher; from Ar. al-korraz. 

Alcatraz alcartaz Sp. , Pg. cartaz bill , account ; from chartaceus 
with the Ar. article. 

Alcavala — gabhdla. 

Alcazar a fort, also a quarter-deck; from Ar. qacr (Freyt. 3, 
452), pi. = castle. Hence It. cassero. 

Alchimia It., Sp. Pg. alquimia, Pr. alkimia, Fr. alchimie, M. Gr. 
dgxYj^La alchemy, It. Sp. Pg. chimica, Fr. chemie, chemistry. 
There are three derivations given (l) from Gr. %v^6g {xico, 
Xvco) = juice, sap, espec. the liquor obtained by infusion and 
decoction of herbs. (2) from the Arab, al-kimia which, how- 
ever (as Diez , who holds this etymology , remarks) , has no 
native root. (3) from chemia, ir\^iaj Egypt, so called, ace. 
to Plutarch, from its dark soil (the Coptic kame kami = black). 
So the word would orig. mean the Egyptian science. This 
last derivation is the one now generally maintained (amongst 
others by Humboldt Kosmos 2, 451): it is, however, rejected 
by Mahn (Etym. Unters.) who successfully asserts the Greek 
origin of the word. The word xrj^sia (v. 1. xv^slo) is first 
used by Suidas (c. A. D. 1100). Jlchefnia (or chemia) is first 
found in J. Maternus Firmicus (c. A. D. 340), where it means 
the art of gold -making. Up to the middle oi the fourth cen- 
tury ;ft>fAffca was used by the Greek physicians to mean the 
art of extracting juices from plants for medicinal purposes. 
From then up to the middle of the 16"^ century it meant the 
art of gold -making, transmuting the baser metals into gold, 
which was supposed, in its liquid form (aurum potabile), to 


lengthen life , renew yotith , and cure diseases , such as gout, 
leprosy &c. The art of gold -making was much practised by 
the Egyptians and Alexandrian Greeks. Hence it was that 
%vyi,ua in becoming pi^Bia was influenced by XTj^ta which 
was the native name for Egypt. From the Alexandrians the 
word passed to the Arabs , who devoted themselves to the 
study of chemistry and alchemy about the middle of the 8^'^ 
' century. The Arabic word was introduced into Spain and 
thence into the other Romance languages. 

Alcohol from the Arabic al-kohl the impalpable powder of an- 
timony used in the East for darkening the eyebrows. From 
the extreme fineness of this powder the word got to be used 
of any pure fine substance, and espec. of refined spirit, pure 
spirits of wine. cf. Pihan, Glossaire des mots frangais tires 
de TArabe. 

Aleor Sp. a rugged hill; from Ar. al-qdrah, pi. alqiir. 

Aleornoque Sp. Pg. (m.) cork-tree, whence It. alcornoch; from 
quern- oco spungeous oak? oco = hiteco q. v. 

Alcorque Sp. Pg. (m.) a shoe with cork sole = Sp. corche, 
whence our cork. From the Lat. cortex^ so = alcorgue, cf. 
codigo from codex, peja ivova. pix, pulga from piilex. 

Aloova It., Sp. alcoba, Fr. alcove (f.), Pr. alcuha, O. Fr. auciibe, 
an alcove , recess in a room &c. Introduced from Spain and, 
therefore, most likely of Arabic origin: al-gohhah in Arab, 
means a vault or tent (Freyt. 3 , 388 ^). It occurs , under the 
form Alcoba, as the name of a Portuguese village , v. Sousa. 

Aleuno It., Sp. alguno, Pg. algum, Pr. alcun, Fr. aucun; from 
aliqtiis unus. In the 0. Fr. (Burgundian) we find the forms 
alquen auquen alcon (m.) (f. auciine), which seem to point to 
aliquis homo alduen, ale' on, though the word is also used as 
an adjective. The Norman dialect has an analogous form 
cascons for quisque, chescon; also ascons (aliqtiis homo 7)^ ascun. 

Aleuno Sp. a surname ; from the Ar. kunje = a christian or sur- 
name. The 0. Sp. feni. alcuna, Pg. alcunha sex, seems rather 
to be connected with the Goth, kuni genus, athala-kuni = 0. 
H. G. adal-kunni nobile genus. But Engelmann gives Ar. al- 
konjah "renombre de linage". 

Aldea Sp. Pg. Cat. a hamlet; from Ar. al-^dafah an estate 
Freyt. 3, 34, like Sp. almea from Ar. almai^ah. 

Aleee — laccia. 

Aledano Sp. a boundary, adj. = contiguous; from limitaneus; 
so = alendano. 

Alenare It., Pr. Cat. alenar to breathe, Fr. halener to scent; It. 
alena lena, Pr. alena, Fr. haleine (h mut.) breath. From an- 
helare (l) to pant, (2) in later writers to breathe; It. anelare, 
Sp. anhelar, Fr. anheler; the sbst. comes from the vb. the 


termination ena being too rare and doubtful to allow the de- 
rivation from halare, 

Alene — lesina. 

Alerce Sp. the larch; from larix, It. larice , with Arab, article, 
perhaps influenced by Ar. al-arzah cedar = Pers. arz pinus. 

Alerte , alerto — erto, 

Alesna — lesina. 

Aleve Sp. faithless, O. Sp. sbst. aleve, Pg. aleive perfidy; not 
from allevare (which verb is not found in Sp.), but, perhaps, 
from the Goth, levjan to betray, A. S. Iwva a traitor. 

Alezan — alazan. 

Alfaee Pg. lettuce; Ar. al-khass. 

Alfadia Sp. a bribe; Ar. al-hadiyyah. 

Alfalfa Sp. lucerne; Ar. al' half ah. 

Alfana Sp. a strong spirited horse; hence O.Fr. destrier aufaine. 

Alfange Sp. Pg. a sabre; from Ar. al-khangar a dagger, Freyt. 

Alfaraz Sp. Pg. a light Moorish cavalry horse; from Ar. al-faras. 

Alfarda — far do. 

Alfarma alharma Sp. wild rue; Ar. al-^harmal, 

Alferez Sp. Pg. , 0. Sp. alferece alferce an ensign, in earlier 
times = a high dignity : alferez del rei comes stabuli , con- 
stable; from the Ar. al- fares a knight; It. alfiere. 

Alfldo alfiere It., Sp. al/il arfd, Pg. alfd alfir, O.Fr. aufm a bishop 
at chess; from the Pers. fil elephant, with the Ar. article, v. 
Due. s. alphinus; cf., however, Pott in Lassen's Zeitschr. 4, 12. 

Alfiere — alferez, 

Alfil — alfido. 

Alfiler alfllel Sp., Pg. alfinete pin, pi. Sp. alfileres pin-money; 
from Ar. al-khildl a skewer. 

Alfoeigo alfostigo alfonsigo Sp., Pg. alfostigo pistachio tree; 
from Ar. al-fostoq. 

Alfombra Sp., Pg. alfambar a small carpet; from Ar. al-khom- 
rah a prayer -carpet. 

Alforga Sp., Pg. al forge a wallet; from Ar. al-khorg , Freyt. 
1, 472. 

Alfoz, Sp. Pg. district; from Ar. al-hauz. 

Algalia bp. Pg. civet-cat; from Ar. al-galiyah. 

Algar Sp. Pg. a grotto; from Ar. al-gdr, Freyt. 3, 301. 

Algara Sp. Pg. a marauding party (like It. gualdana)\ from 
Ar. al-gdrah, Freyt. 3, 301, whence, too, algarear to shout 
hurrah ! 

Algarrobo — carrobo. 

Algebra It., Sp. algebra, Fr. algebre, algebra; from the Ar. al- 
gabr a resetting of anything broken (e. g. limbs) , a meaning 
it still bears in Sp.; hence a combination into one whole, a 



representation of several operations by means of a few sym- 
bols. V. Golius p. 462, Freytag 1, 293''. Contrary to the 
usual rule in Arabic words , the accent is on the article. 

Algez Sp. gypsum, whence it is derived, Sp. also ffeso, It. ffesso. 

Algier algeir a spear, Ch. d. Rol.*, from 0. H. G. azger, A. S. 
dtgdr , O. N. atgeirr. 

Algo Sp. Pg., Pr. alque alques, 0. Fr. (tuques (in Lorrain eque, 
in Champ. gauque)\ from aliquody aliquid; cf. Sp. alguien, Pg. 
cdguem, from cdiquem. 

Algodon — cottone. 

Alguaeil alvaeil Sp., Pg. alguazU alvacil alvacir a magistrate, 
bailiff &c., Pg. guazil a governor; from Ar. vazlr, cd-vazir the 
manager of a state, a vizier, which from vazara to bear, Freyt. 
4, 461. From alguaeil = an overseer comes the Fr. argousin, 
It. aguzzino an overseer of slaves. 

Alguien — quien. 

Algures Pg. = Lat. usquam, O.Pg. algur alhur, for algubre from 
alicubi , like alubre from aliuhi. Cf . nenhures. 

Alholba Sp. a plant, foenum Grsecum; from Ar. ^holbah, Freyt. 
1 , 415; Basque allorhea. 

Alhondiga — fondaco. 

Alhondre — = aliunde. 

Alice — laccia. 

Aliento Sp., Pg. alento breath, vb. alentar; from anhelare, n 
and / being transposed ; cf . peligro from periclum. 

Aliso Sp. an alder- tree; cf. the G. form else, Aliso from alysson, 

Alize Fr. service -berry, service-tree; from G. else (-beere). 
O. Fr. alie, alier. 

Aljaba Sp., Pg. aljaha quiver; from the Ar. al-gahali, Freyt. 

Aljofar Sp. Pg. a small pearl; from Ar. al-gauhar a pearl, a 
word of Persian origin, Freyt. 1 , 327. 

Aljnba — giuhha. 

Alia — la. 

AUarme It. (m.), Sp.Pr. alarma, Fr. alarmey Wal. larme, alarm; 
cdlarmare &Q,.\, from the cry alC armel to arms! Hence ala- 
rum , and occ. alarmo an interjection expressing wonder, It. 

Allazzare It. to tire; from Goth, lafjan, O. H. G. lezjan to let, 
hinder, Goth, hits, O. H. G. laz, lazy. 

AUeger — lieve. 

AUeggiare — lieve. 

Allegro It., Sp. Pg. alegre, Fr. alegre sprightly, merry ^ with 
several derivatives ; from alacer alacrem witn the accent on 
the penult. From the change of a into e, the word would 
seem to have been orig. Fr. ; we find an O. Fr. halaigre pre- 


served in the proper name Aligre, The Basque alaguera is 
nearest the original. 

AUende O. Sp. , Pg. alem on the other side; from alii ende. 

AUer — andare. 

Alleu — allodio. - 

AUevare It., Pr. alevar, Fr. elever to rear, bring up (tollere pue- 

rum). Partly, perhaps, from the carrying the child at baptism. 

In O. Sp. alevo a baptized person, It. alievo, Fr. eleve pupil. 
AUi — II 

Alligator — lacerta. 

Allodio It., Sp. alodio, Pr. alodi aloe alo, Fr. alleu, an allodium, 
allodial lands &c. , held in absolute independence without ac- 
knowledgment of any lord paramount, opp. to fief. The Lat. 
allodium suits all the Rom. forms ; for the Pr. aloe , cf. fastie 
= fastidium, Fr. aleu = aloe , as feu = foe, lieu = loe, Alo- 
dis (Lex Salic.) alaudis are older forms of allodium. Grimm 
(Rechtsalt. p. 493, 950) gives a conjectural derivation from a 
Germ, compound al-6d ^^all one^s own'\ But Wedgwood, 
with more probability, connects it with the Icel. odal in same 
sense, Dan. Sw. odel a patrimonial estate. The landed pro- 
prietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers according 
to Sir W. Scott. Ihre (s. v. od) derives it from the Gothic 
^'alldha odhoV^ an ancient inheritance, like allda-vinr an ancient 
friend, allda-hcefd an ancient possession. The L. L. form 
alaudis was, probably, influenced by laus in L. L. = a grant 
made by a feudal lord, who was said '' allaudare^^ to make a 
grant, whence ^^ allow, allowanee^^ j v. allouer. 

AUodola lodola It., Sicil. lodana, O. Sp. aloeta (aluda Cane, de 
Baena), Sp. alondra, Pr. alauza alauzeta, O. Fr. aloe (whence 
O. N. Ida, Grimm Reineke Fuchs p. 370), aloue, aloele, Fr. 
alouette, L. L. laudila a lark. This is one of the few words 
which we may certainly refer to a Celtic origin. It was known 
to Caesar who raised a ^^legio Alauda^^ in Gaul. This Suet, 
says was the Celtic for galerita or lark. Pliny and Gregory 
of Tours also refer it to the Celtic. Various derivations have 
been given of the Celtic word: (l) from W. al excellent and 
awd song, so = excellent songstress; (2) Villemarque and 
others refer it to the Breton alchoueder eehoueder ehoueder, 
W. alaiv - adar = \i\Y^ of harmony; (3) from alaw-hedez alaw- 
hed (Jiedeg to fly); (4) Bullet derives it from al qui s'^leve 
ehivedl chant: alehiveder qui s'eleve en chantant. llie W. for 
lark is uchedydd ehedydd hedydd Qiedegu to fly, uchedu to soar) 
= prop, the soaring bird; the Cornish form is evidit for echi- 
dit, whence the Breton ecJiouedez chouedez, eehoueder ehoueder, 
alehouedez alehoueder. The Lat. alauda dropped the guttural. 



It is noticeable that other names of birds of the same genus 
came from the Celtic ^ e. g. finch, It. pincione, Sp. pinzon, Fr. 
pincon, from the W. pine; Pg. catovia, Sp. totovia, Fr. coche- 
vis tufted lark from the Bret, kodioch. V. Mahn (Etym. Un- 
tersuch.) p. 23. V. also Dief. Or. Eur. p. 219. 

AUouer It., E. alloiv to praise, approve, permit; from laudare, 
Pr. lauzar alauzar , O. Fr. loer louer alloner. Alloi/et^, allow in 
the sense of granting (an allotvance) is, however, from louer 
= locare, It. cillogare to assign, hence also alloue an attorney, 
substitute (alloeatus). As laudare and locare coalesced in louer 
the confusion was carried back to the L. L., where allocare 
= to approve , laus = a feudal grant. 

Alloza Sp. green almond, allozo almond, tree; from Ar- al-lau- 
zah almond -tree. 

Alma — anima. 

Almacen • — magazzino. 

Almaden Sp. mine, ore; from Ar. al- madden. 

Almadraque — materasso. 

Almagre Sp. Pg. red ochre; from Ar. al-magrah red earth. 

Almanaeeo It., Sp. almanaque, Fr. almanac, Eng. almanack. 
Perhaps from the Ar. al-mana^h a present, vb. mana^ha to 
give as a present. The Ar. expression is taquim (v. Pihan 
p. 33). See Engelmann, p. 50. 

Almea — aldea, 

Almear — meta. 

Almeee Pg. whey; from Ar. macL 

Almena Sp. a battlement; from the Lat. m)na (only in plur.), 
with the Ar. article prefixed. 

Almendra — mandorla. 

Almete — elmo. 

Almez Sp. nettle -tree, celtis australis; from Ar. al-mais. 

Almidon — amido. 

Almirante It. Sp. Pg., It. almiraglio ammiraglio, Pr. amiran ami- 
rahl amiratz , O. Fr. amir ant amiral amir as, Fr. amiral , L. 
Gr. d^rjQalijg d^rjQcclLog an admiral, L. L. admiraldus admira- 
hilis, in which, of course, there is a reference to admirari. 
The Fr. amiral and the Pr. amirahl present the most correct 
form, coming, as they do, from the Ar. am\r al bahr chief at 
sea. The last syllable was dropped, when the word was in- 
troduced into the Eom. during the Crusades. So Mahn. But 
Diez considers the forms without the final / as older, and de- 
rives from amir simply, the various terminations being used to 
give the word a Rom. appearance. Almirante on the analogy of 
imperante, comandante. The orig. meaning, too, was '^ chiefs 
not ^^ chief at sea". 

Aliuizcle — musco. 


Almofalla 0. Sp. O. Pg. an army; from Ar. alma^hallah a camp. 

Almofar almofre Sp.^ Pg. almafre a cap of mail; from Ar. al- 

Almogarave — mugavero. 

Almohada Sp.^ Pg. almofada a bolster; from Ar. al-mekhaddah. 
Almohaza Sp., V^.almofaca a curry-comb; from^hassah. 
Almoneda Sp. an auction, Pg. almoeda; from Ar. al-monddiya 

auction , from nada to cry. 
Almoradux — majorana. 
Almorranas Sp. (plur.) , Pg. almorreimas, Cat. morenas ^^ hce- 

morrhoides, of which it is a corruption. 

Almoxarife Sp. Pg. custom-house officer; from Ar. al-moshrif 

Almud Sp., Pg. almude a \ bushel -measure; from Ar. almudd. 
Almuerzo Sp., Pg. almorco almoco breakfast; vb. almorzar (Cat. 

esmorzar) ; from admorsus (Symmachus) , / for d as in Alfonso 

= Adfonsiis (Hadufuns), cf. M. H. G. anbiz. 

Almussa Pr., Fr. aumusse, O. Fr. aumuce (whence Du. al- 
miitse amutse), Sp. almucio (Seckendorf) , Pg. mursa; dim. Pr. 
almucela, 0. Pg. almucella almocella, Sp. almocela (almucella 
cdmocala Ducange), O. Fr. aumucette, Sp. muceta, It. mozzetta. 
These words signify a headgear falling down to the shoulders, 
worn chiefly by ecclesiastics, in the dim. form = a short 
mantle. They do not belong to the Arab., though like many 
others , they have assumed the Ar. article , but are evidently 
the same as the G. miitze , cap, bonnet, Du. miUse , usually 
derived from the vb. mutzen to crop. v. sub mozzo, 

Alna auna alia It., 0. Sp. O. Pg. Pr. alna, Sp. ana, Fr. aune an 
ell. Probably from the Goth, aleina, O. H. G. elina which is 
of the same gender. This , Grimm (3, 559) says , comes from 
ulnus. So Diez. But there is no word ulnus in Class. Lat.; 
ulna = elhow~= Gk. coX-evi], G. ellen-hogen. 

Alnado andado Sp., Pg. entendo a stepson, from antenatus, Sp. 

also antenado, Isid. Gloss, antenatus privignus; Gr. Trpoyovog. 
Alocco — locco, 
Aloi — lega (2). 
Alors — or a (2). 
Aloser — lusingar, 
Alosna — aluine. 
Alouette — allodola. 
Alquile Sp. Pg. hire, alquilar to take on hire; from Ar. al-kird 

Alquitran — catrame, 
Alrededor — redor. 
Alrotar — arlotto. 


Altaleno It. a swipe ; altalena a see -saw, swing*, from tolleno 
and alhis. 

Altresi It.; Sp. otrosi, Pg. outrosim, Vv. altresi atresi, O. Fr. au- 
tresi; from alterum sic, as aussi from «/m<? sic. 

Altrettale It., Sp. otro tal, Pg. outro tal, Pr. altretal atretal, 
O. Fr. autretel, from ^/^^r ^rtf//s. So altrettanio &c. , from «//6^r 
tantus; Pr. atrestal, atrestan from alter -sic -talis, alter sic 

Alubia Sp. a French bean; from the Ar. , Gk. Xofiog. 

Alubre O. Sp. (and in Berceo a iiibre)-^ from aliuhi. 

Aluine Fr. wormwood; from aloe with suffix ine (as in arnaran- 
tine, argentine, avelline, halsamine, eglantine^, id for 0/ as in 
muid from modius &c. Another form with weak n is found, 
O. Fr. alogne, Sp. Pg. alosna, losna. 

Aluir Pg. to rock, swing, knock at or against, to hollow (of 
water); from alludere or, perhaps, alluere. 

Alumelle — lama (2). 

Alvacil — alguacil. 

Alverja — ervo. 

Alvicara — alhricia. 

Alzare It., Sp. alzar , Pr. alsar ausar, Fr. hausser (h asp., of. 
haut II. c), O. E. haivse (whence hawser), Wal. in-altza to 
raise; from altus (altiare). The Fr. exhausser (Pr. eissausar, 
Sp. ensalzar) deserves consideration from its assuming a dis- 
tinct form exaucer with the meaning to hear (a petition) thus : 
Dieu a exauce mes prieres = has heard (prop, has exalted, 
favoured) my prayers. 

Ama Sp. Pg. housewife, mistress, hence amo master of the 
house; Isidorus uses amma: hsec avis (strix) vulgo '^amma" 
dicitur ab amando parvulos , unde et lac prsebere fertur nas- 
centibus. The word is prob. the same as the Gael am, W. 
mam, Basq. ama mother, Occ. ama grandmother, Ar. amm, 
Sansk. ambd, O. G. amma, G. amme a nurse. 

Amaca It., Sp. liamaca, by transpos. amahaca, Pg. maca, Fr. 
hamac (ji asp.), Eng. hammock from the Du. hangmak, G. han- 
gematte (lit. = suspended bed), or, more probably, a native 
American word, the Du. being adapted to a false etymology. 

Amadouer Fr. to allure , caress , hence sbst. amadou tinder, also 
a lure, cf. esca; hence ramadouer. The O. N. vb. mata, Dan. 
made, meant to feed young birds (Goth, matjan to eat), Eng. 
meat, hence with ou (= cf. evanouir) a-mad-6uer to give 
meat to, entice with meat. It. ad-escare. The Goth, t becomes 
d as in guider from vitan, hadir hair from hatan. 

Amagar — dmago. 

Amago Pg. the core, innermost part of a thing, vb. Cat. Pr. 
amagar to conceal. The Sp. dmago. Cat. dmag dmad denotes 


a peculiar taste of honev; Sp. dmago also = disgust, aversion. 
The connexion has not been made out. 

Amalgamare It. &c, to amalgamate, to form a mixture (amalgam) 
of mercury and some other metal; from the Gk. fidXay^cc. 

Amande — mandorla, 

Amanevir — manevir. 

Amapola Sp. a poppy; from the Basque emalopa ^Hhat sends to 
sleep ^^, from ema eman to give and lopa lopea to sleep. Cf. the 
Sp. adormidera. 

Amargo — amaricare. 

Amaricare It., also amareggiare, Sp. Pg. Pr. amargar to em- 
bitter; from amarus v. Ducange. Adj. Sp. Pg. amargo, Cat. 
amarg, sbst. amargor. Hence It. rammaricarsi to lament, ram- 
mdrico lamentation, adj. amaro grieved (Sic. amaru), Wal. 
amar an interjection of grief: so in O. Pg. amaro de mil Gil. 
Vic. 2, 465. 

Amarillo Sp. , Pg. flr;w«r^//o yellow, amber-coloured; ior amha- 
rillo from ambar amber which is of Arab, origin anbar being 
prop, a fish supposed to yield ambergris. The word was in- 
troduced into Europe by the Phoenicians, v. Mahn (Etym. 
Unters. p. 62). 

Amarrar Sp. Pg. , Fr. amarrer to moor a vessel, Fr. demarrer 
to unmoor; amarra amarre a mooring- cable; from the Du. 
marren to moor, also to delay, retain = O. H. G. marrjan to 
stop (v. s. marrire)'. the form merren has also both meanings 
=:rr A. S. merrau to hinder (mar). 

Amatita matita red chalk, Fr. hematite; from haematites. 

Ambasciata It., Sp. embaxada, Pr. ambaissada, and m. ambaissat, 
Fr. amhassade embassy; It. ambasciadore &c., ambassador ; from 
the L. L. ambaxia ambactia commission, charge, business. 
This ambaxia is seemingly connected with the word ambactus 
used by Csesar (B. G. 6, 15) for servant, vassal: ^^equites 
circum se ambactos clientesque habent'\ From ambactus comes 
ambactia , afterwards pronounced in France ambacsia (amba- 
xia) and by transposition ambascia, cf. Brescia for Brixia. 
The verb ambasciare to convey a message, serve on an em- 
bassy, from which the Rom. derivatives immediately come, 
was also known in L. L. The Pr. masc. = ambasciatum. Fes- 
tus says the word is Gallic ''^ambactus apud Ennium lingua 
Gallica servus appellatur'\ Hence Zeuss 1, 89, 179 refers it 
to a Celtic origin, viz. the W. amaet husbandman, workman, 
for ambaeth (the b being dropped, as often happens after m, 
cf. amarillo). J. Grimm derives the word from the Gothic 
andbahts a servant, O. H. G. ambaht (Goth, andbahti service, 
M. G. amt office, charge). Andbahts he resolves into and and 
bak (back) whence the meaning back -holder , supporter, ser- 


vant (cf. henchman =^ haunchman). Pott and Bopp, however, 
connect and -hah- ts with the Sanskrit hhaj colore, venerari, 
partic. hhakta (= -hactus) deditiis , devotus. In favour of 
Grimm's etymology it may be urged that the Rom. amhactia 
(which does not occur in Latin) is not so easily obtained from 
ambactus (the suffix ia being unusual) as from the Goth, and- 
hahti whence it would be regularly formed, like the Pr. fanha 
= fania from the Goth. fani. The notion of manual labour, 
which appears in the W. word, is preserved in the Du. am- 
hagt a handicraft; amhagts-mann an artizan. Icel. ambatt a 
female slave. The It. uses amhascia amhascio to mean short- 
ness of breath , distress, anxiety; ambasciare tramhasciai^e io 
be out of breath, be in distress &c., prop. = to be oppressed 
with work; for a similar connexion of meanings cf. s. a/fanno. 
Diefenbach (Goth. Diet. 1, 255) has a learned discussion on 
andbahts and ambactus. 

Ambiare It., Sp. Pg. Pr. amhlar, Fr. ambler, to amble; from am- 
bulare not used in Class. Lat. in this sense, which was first 
introduced some time after the 9^** century. The Wal. embla 
still keeps the Classical meaning. 

Ambidos amidos O. Sp. unwillingly; from invHits, It. invito, 
O. Fr. envis. 

Ambone It., Fr. ambon, an ambo, a kind of pulpit in the choir 
from which the lessons were read; from the Gk. a^^av any 
rising as a hill, a stage &c. (umbo). 

Ambra It. (f.), Sp. Pg. ambar alambar alambre (m.), Fr. ambre 
(m.), amber, M. H. G. amber dmer, G. ambra; from the Arab. 
anbar a sweet - scented resin (Freyt. 3 ; 227) ; orig. the name 
of a fish from which ambergris was supposed to come. The 
w^ord was probably introduced into Europe by the Phoenicians 
who used it to express the yellow amber found on the shores 
of the Baltic and called by the ancient Germans glees or gles 
(Tacit, gloisum)^ v. Mahn (Etym. Unters.) 

Ame — anima. 

Amenaza — minaccia. 

Amender Fr., amende, amendement , E. amend, used by Boethius 
(c. 1150) who writes both emendament and amendament; from 

Amido It., Pg. amido amiddo, Sp. almidon, Fr. amidon starch; 
from Lat. amylum (a^vXov). ,The only instance , says Diez, 
of / becoming d in Rom. ; but we have Pg. escada = scala. 
In Latin the interchange was not uncommon : calamitas, cada- 
mitas, scando scala &c. 

Amiraglio ammiraglio, amiral — almirante, 

Amito Sp., O. Fr. amit amice; from amictus. 

Ammainare Sp. Pg. amalnar , Fr. amener (les voiles) to lower 


sails. From ad manus cf. defnener from de manus, L. L. minare 
to lead drive, which is better der. from manus than, with 
Diez, from minari. For a =^ e, cf. menottes handcuffs. 

Ammanare — mafia. 

Aininazzare — mazzo. 

Ammiccare It. to wink; from admicare. 

Ammutinare — meute. 

Amo — ama. 

Amojar Pg. to milk; from. Ar. mascha^ a? 

Amonestar Sp. Pr., Pg. amoestar, 0. Fr. amonester, Fr. admo- 
neter, to admonish , Pr. also monestar, O. Fr. sbst. monneste; 
from monitare (used by Venantius Fortunatus , A. D. 600), 
with s inserted to distinguish it from montar which would come 
from monitare as vantar from vanitare. But v. Littre p. 34, 
who derives it from monestus a partic. of mon^re, cf . semondre. 

Amortiguar — santiguar. 

Amparar — par are. 

Amusco — musco. 

Amuser — muser. 

Ananas It. Fr., Sp. anana mne - si^^Xe , Pg. ananaz (tree), ana- 
nazeiro (fruit); a South American word. 

Anappo nappo It., Pr. enap , O. Fr. hanap henap (h asp.); from 
O.H.Gr. hnapf hnap, G. napf a bowl. Hence L.L. hanaperium 
a cup -basket, E. hamper. 

Anc — anche. 

Anca It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. hanche (h asp.), haunch (henchman), Sp. 
Pg. plur. ancas the croup of a horse &c. Hence It. sciancato, 
Fr. ehanche hip-shot. From (1) Gk. ayxri a bend, or (2) from 
G. anke, O. H. G. ancha nape of neck, neck, prop, a curve. 
The Rom. languages have made use of the Greek word in an- 
other instance (y.anco), and Festus even mentions a Lat. ancus 
= ^^Qui aduncum brachium habet ut exporrigi non possit^^ 
But the German word, particularly in its chief meaning (a 
Joint) lies nearer the Rom. than the Gk. or the obsolete Latin. 
From the 0. H. G. ancha = tibia, crus, is derived the Fr. 
anche a pipe or tube (of an instrument &c.), from Avhich hanche 
was distinguished by the aspirate (cf . the Friesl. hancke henke 

Anceis — esso. 

Ancetres Fr., O. Fr. ancestres, ace. ancessors, ancestors; from 

Anche anco It., Rh. aunc aunca, also, still (etiam), Pr. anc, 
0. Fr. ainc (== unquam), Wal. ince Q=^ adhuc). From adhuc, 
whence adunc aunc (cf. O. Fr. ainsinc =■ ceque sic), Sp. aun 
(Pg. aindd) cf. Sp. nin = nee , Pg. assim = sic, allin = illic. 
In It. a d between two vowels is seldom lost, so the process 


would be: adunc, ctd'nc, anc, anche. The derivation from ^«^j^ 
(sc. Jioranij cf.It. issa sc. hord) suits the form but not the sense; 
moreover, we should have a supply ad as well as lioram. For 
the O. Fr. ainc Ave sometimes have ains e. g. Alex. 66, 3, 
which must be distinguished from ains = Sp. antes. Anc (eu- 
phon. anca, of. Rh. aunca) is, probably, the first syllable of 
the compounds Pr. ancui, O. Fr. encui, It. «wco2 to-day, Pr. 
ancanuech, O. Fr. enquenuit to-night. 

Anche — anca. 

Ancho Sp. Pg. broad; from amplus (It. ampio &c.), like henchir 
from implere; ensanchar to widen = examplare. 

Anchoa anehois — acciuga. 

Anciano aneien — anzi. 

Ancidere It. (poet.) to kill; from inciderCf of. anaffiare, ancxide, 
anguinaglia for inaffiare &c. 

Ancino It., Sp. anzuelo, Pg. anzol, Fr. hamecon a fish-hook; 
from hamus. 

Anco Pg. an elbow, a bending; from the Gk. ccyxog a bend, a 
valley; Sp. ancon (m.) a bay, a road, from dyxav = elbow, 
recess. In Breton aiik = a corner (angulus). v. Ducange, s. 

Ancolie Fr. columbine (a plant), G. aglet; from L. aquileja (un- 
class.). It. aquUegia: for the insertion of n cf. s. anche, andare. 

Ancona anconeta Bresc. a small image; from slxcjVj whence 
also Wal. icoane. 

Ancora — ora, 

Ancse — se, 

Andado — alnado. 

Andamio — andama. 

Andana Com. Piedm. (1) gait, manner of life; (2) the sweep 
that the mower takes at each stride, swath = Fr. andain (f.), ' 
Norm, andain (m.) step, Berrichon andain a layer of mown 
grass &c., a swath, Sp. andana y Pg. andaina a row, rank; 
from andare. The first meaning would be ^^ stride", then the 
length or extent of a stride, and, lastly, layer, row; so the 
G. schwaden, Eng. swath = both the sweep of the scythe in 
mowing and the row or layer of mown corn. Hence, with un- 
usual suffix, the O.Sp. andamio gait, L.L. andamius a passage, 
= O. Pg. andamo (cf. Rouchi andame = Fr. andain)-^ hence, 
too, the Sp. andamio, Pg. andaimo andaime a passage, gang- 
way, also a scaffold in which sense some refer it to the Arab. 

Andare It., Sp. Pg. andar, Cat. Pr. anar, Wald. anar, Lomb. 
ana to go. The Fr. has another word aller; the Rh. and Wal. 
have neither of these forms, the former making up a verb 
from ire, vadere and meare, the latter using mearge (from 
emergere) , which in conjugation (mearsi, mers) betrays its 

AND ARE. 27 

Latin origin. The verb is complete in Sp. and Pg. and was 
once so in It. (as it is still in some of the dialects , e. g. the 
Sard.). It is now mixed up in conjugation with vadere which, 
in Latin wanting the perfect and tenses thence derived, had 
to supply them from elsewhere ; ivi would have been too short, 
so andare was coined.- This had the accent on the syllable of 
flexion (whilst vadere is marked on the root -syllable), and 
was, therefore, used in those parts of the conjugation which 
bear that accent: vo, vai, va: andiamo, andate, vanno; an- 
dava; andai &c.^ cf. esco (exire) , esci, esce: usciamo (ostium), 
uscite, escono. Andare and stare in Rom. were two parallel 
auxiliaries : what wonder then if they tended to adopt similar 
forms in their conjugation? Such analogous formations are 
not uncommon. Thus the Sp. anduve corresponds to estuve, 
andido to estido, andudo to estudo; O. It. andetti to stetti, an- 
diedi to stiedi. In Sp. other verbs of the 1^' conj. had similar 
forms: entrido from entrar, catido from catar (v. s. fegato\ 
demandudo from demandar. It is usually derived from the G-. 
wenden wandern as alter from wallen; but the G. w does not 
disappear thus in Rom. (the Sp. andalucia came through the 
Arab. , which avoided the harsh gu (= lo) of the Rom. Guan- 
dalucia: so impla ior guimpla^ Wenden, Goth, vandjan would 
be in Rom. guandir, wallen in Fr. would be gauler. A Celtic 
verb W. athu, Ir. eath to go, would deserve more considera- 
tion were not the derivation from the Lat. aditare, quite re- 
gular and complete. Ennius uses the word once: ad eum adi- 
tavere; its meaning, '^io enter often'', ^^to go in and out", 
occurs in the various Rom. derivatives: thus, Sp. andante 
cavallero = a knight - errant , andorro a rambler r= Sard, an- 
daredda. The n was inserted to give the word more force as 
in render e from reddere, cf. s. anche, ancolie, and cf. andido 
= aditus, L. L. c. 800 cum viis et aquis et anditis suis v. Mura- 
tori and Ducange. For the termination cf. O. It. O. Sp. renda 
for reddita. The Fr. alter is for 0. Fr. aler {altar occurs in 
the Pass, de J. C. str. 114), which was for aner (cf. Chron. de 
Benoit 1 , p. 92, si qiien exit nos en anium, Choix 6, 300, que 
vos anez por moi fors terre) , the two forms being current at 
the same time, like venin and velin, orphenin and orphelin. 
From aditato by syncope of the d may come the Com. aitee 
~z andato; similarly, from adita the Yen. aida ^= vanne (im- 
perat.). The Wal. defective verb aide aidatzi = dsvQO dsvrs, 
Goth, hiri hirjith, perhaps =■ adita aditate, unless it be of the 
same origin as the Servian ajde ajdate. From adire comes the 
Burg, a'i (air) = alter. From alter comes the sbst. atlee an alley 
which Ducange refers to taie (q. v.) ; cf. It. andata. But v. 
Littre, Hist, de la langue fran^., vol. I, p. 40. 


Andario Sp. a water -wagtail; from andar to go and rio a river. 

Andas Sp., Pg. andes (only in plur.) a sedan, litter, bier; from 
amites; amites hasternarum ^= the poles of the sedans (Palla- 
dius). Cf. hante, and for the change of mt into nd in Spain cf. 
conde, duendo, lindar, senda &c. 

Andorinha — rondine. 

Andouille Fr. a sausage, black -pudding, Rh. andiichiel, Basque 
andoilla. For endouille from inductilis, by Avhich word the O. G. 
scuhiling (a sort of sausage) is translated in old Glossaries, v. 
Graff, 6, 409, Schmeller 3, 313. This latter is from O. H. G. 
scioban, G. schiehen, shove, both being named from forcing the 
meat into the skin (indue ere) ; for in = an cf. ancidere, 

Andromina Sp. a fib, a tale told to deceive, trick, artifice; from 
the Basque andraminac women's sickness (as being often al- 
leged as a pretext) , which is compounded of andrea a woman 
and mina pain. 

Anegare — negar, 

Angar hangar {h asp. and unasp.) a carnage- shed. It is difficult 
to see the connexion between this and the Lat. angaria ser- 
vice, soccage. It meant orig. a covering, and is especially 
used in the Wall, (angdr). It occurs also in Celtic, at least 
in the Gaelic. 

Angarde engarde O.Fr., Pr. angarda vanguard, also =^ a watch- 
tower; from ante and garde, like avant-garde (vanguard). 

Angarier angariser Fr. to compel a vessel, even though neutral, 
to do service for the government (hence generally to compel); 
such compulsion was called angarie. In Eng. we have anga- 
risation = compulsion; from the Gk. ccyyaQog, ccyyaQSvc). 

Angaro Sp. a signal -light; from the Basque garra flame, an 
garra ^-^ yonder flame, v. Larramendi. The word is remark- 
ably like the Gk. ayya^oq, Aesch. Ag. a^' dyyccQOV TtVQog ^ 
from the beacon -fire. 

Anglar Pr. stone, rock ; prop, something angular, from angularis. 

Angoscia It., 0. Sp. angoxa, Pr. engoissa, Fr. angoisse, anguish; 
angosciare, angoisser to vex; from angustia. The Sp. (Pg. 
and Cat.) is congoxa, in which the supposed prefix an is 
changed into con, whilst in Pr. it became en. The idea of 
pressure easily yields that of vexation, torment, cf. oppress, 
Fr. grever. The original meaning of anger was oppression, 
trouble, torment (angor). Ang as a root meaning pressure is 
widely spread: ^sjifi^. an-hu = lyyvg, ay%L (cL presso), G. 
enff compressed enge distress, angere, angina, ccyxco, dyxovrj, 
Sansk. an-hura distressed. 

Angra Sp. Pg. a bay, a cove: in a L.L. Glossary we have ancra 
ayxEa, avX^vEg, cf. dyacdv, ccyTcog a valley, dyxvXog curved, 
anguius, dyxvXi] &c. 


Anguinaglia — inguine. 

Angurria Sp. a water-melon; according to Larramendi; a Basque 

Anima It. , Pr. anma Booth., O. Fr. anime anme, Fr. dme, in It. 
(poet.) Sp. Pg. alma, Rh. olma, also Pr. arma, O. Fr. arme 
airme, soul; Wal. m?>we soul, and heart; ivovo. anima hveii\\\, 
life. The Lat. animus is not found in Fr. and Pr. , one of its 
meanings being supplied by courage, coratge. 

Annegare — negar. 

Anqui — qui. 

Ansare — asma. 

Ansi — cost. 

Antano Sp. , O. Pg. antanho, Pr. antan, O. Fr. antan entan 
= "Isi^t year'' (<^PP- ^logaho, v. uguanno)j once: from ante 
annum. Hence O. Fr. antenois. 

Antes — anzi. , 

Antienne Fr. an anthem; from antiphona (cf. Etienne from Stepha- 
nus), A. S. antefn, En. anthem, as from A. S. stefn, En. 5^^;/?. 

Antif O. Fr. old; from aniiquus, as O. Fr. eve from aqua. Antif 
in the sense of "high" must be for altif = Pr. altiu, Sp. ^Z- 
tivo (haughty). 

Antojo Sp., whence Pg. antojo for antolho y^\\\VL\ ^ freak; from 
ante oculum. In the plur. Sp. anteojos, Pg. antolhos spectacles. 

Antoreha — torciare, 

Antuviar — tuviar. 

Anzi It., Sp. Pg. antes ^ Pr. ans, 0. Fr. ans ains a preposition 
and adverb from the Lat. ante with the adverbial suffix s so 
that the It. form is for ansi. From antea would have come in 
It. not anzi but anza, cf. poscia. A longer form of antes is 
found in the Pr. anceis, O.Fr. aincois, from ante ipsum. Hence 
the It. anziano , Sp. anciano, Pr. ancian, Fr. ancien, ancient; 
It. avanti, Pr. abans avant, Fr. avant, from ab ante; It. avan- 
zare, Sp. Pr. avanzar , Fr. avancer to advance (where the d 
has been inserted from a false notion of the etymology) ; It. 
vantaggio for avantaggio , Pr. avant atge, Fr. avantage, Sp. 2^^w- 
/^7«, Pg. ventagem, vantage, advantage; also It. davanti, Pr. 
davans, O. Sp. Fr. devant , from ^^ fl'^ «;^/^; Pr. davancir, Fr. 
devancer; It. innanzi innante , O. Sp. enante, Pr. enan(s); Pr. 
enantar enantir; It. dinanzi, Sp. denante delante, Pg. diante, 
Pr. denan; It. dianzi &c. 

Anzuela — ancino. 

Anadir Sp. to add, exaggerate; from inaddere, 0. Sp. ennadir, 
O. Pg. emader, Wal. innedi. 

Anafil Sp., Pg. fm«/^/ a pipe or trumpet; from the Ar. al-naftr 
annafir a brasen trumpet. The Ar. is derived from the Per- 


sian (Freyt. 4, 312'^). Pr. has amaftl ^^parva tuba cum voce 
Anagaza nagaza Sp., negaca Pg., a bird-call, lure. Larramendi 
derives it from the Basque ana goza a sweet mirse ! Ferreira 
(Lus. 1, 86) from Lat. illex, whence enagaza (cf. encina from 
ilex) J anagaza as anadir from enadir. This etym. suits the 
meaning well, though an easier change would be that from 
enganaza {enganar to deceive). 

Anil anir Sp., Pg. anil indigo - plant ; from Ar. an-nilah ^^indigo- 
fera tinctoria", which is from Pers. nil (Sansk. nila black, 
dark -blue). 

Anusgar Sp. to be choked, stifled; from the Basque ahusca the 

Apaciguar — santiguar, 

Apanar — pan. 

Ape Tt., O. Fr. Pic. es for ejjs a bee, from apis; It. pecchia, Sp. 
ahcja, Pg. Pr. ahelha^ Fr. aheille, from apicida , Norm. dim. 
avette. Hence too It. apiario, Pr. apiari, Fr. achier, a bee- 
hive, L. apiarium (Gellius), v. Rom. Gr. 1,7. In Wal. the 
bee is called albine, from alvus a hive. 

Apear Sp. Pg. to alight, remove; from pes Sp. pie. 

Apenas — appena, 

Apero Sp., Pg. apeiro implements, farm-implements, sheep-fold; 

aprisco sheep-fold, cf. Com. aper a partition between a stall 

and a hayrick; from apparare, whence a sbst. apparitmi might 

be formed. 
Apesgar ■ — peso. 
Apitar — pito. 
Aposentar Sp. Pg. to lodge a person, aposetito a lodging, room; 

a participial verb from posar (L, pausare). It should have 

been ajmsanlar, but was spelt as if connected with sentar to 

fit, set up. 
Apostille — postille. 
Appaner O. Fr., Pr. apanar to provide for, maintain, whence 

Fr. apanage a provision for a child, jointure, Eng. appanage; 

from pains. 
Appareil — parecchio. 
Appat — pasta. 

Appeau Fr. lure, bird-call. Wall, apell; from appellare. 
Appena It., Sp. Pg. apenas, Fr. a peine = vix; from poena prop. 

painfully, so = with difficulty, hardly, scarcely, cf. L. cegre, 

O. H. G. Aumo. Fix is found in Sp. aves, q. v. 
Appiecare — pegar. 
Appo It., from apud. Hence Pr. ah amh am eml), Bern, dap, Cat. 

ah, AVald. au, O.It. am, O.Fr. ah, r/, oh, o. In the oldest L.L. 


apud was used = cum (cf. Rom. Gr. 3, 157); but its orig. 
meaning was more usual: e. g. encusar ah alcun to accuse to 
a person, Leodegar str. 13; aprendre ab alcun Parn. Occ. 142; 
fud enseveliz od ses ancesires Liv. d. rois p. 304. v. s. avec. 

Approeeiare approcher — proche. 

Appui — poggio. 

Apres — presso. 

Aprisco — apero. 

Aquecer — calentar. 

Aquende O. Sp., Pg. aquem = Lat. citra; from aqin hide (Lat. 
eccu inde) = It. quindi. 

Aquese Sp., O. Pg. aquesse, demonstr. pron.; from eccu ipse. 

Aqueste — questo, 

Aqui — qui. 

Ara — or a. 

Aragan haragan Sp. lazy, inactive: probably from the O.H. G. 
arag arg worthless, lazy, G. arg bad, IceL argr lazy, cowardly 
(Eng. arch = mischievous), hence as a term of abuse; its use 
was forbidden by the Lombard law : si quis alium argam per 
furorem clamaveritf Paul. Diac. 6, 24: memento quod me ... 
vulgari verbo arga vocaveris. In the district of Como , the an- 
cient abode of the Lombards, the word is preserved (arg an) 
■= poltrone. The Sp. word could hardly come from the Gk. 

Araldo It., Sp. haraldo heraldo, O. Sp. haraute, Pg. arauto, Fr. 
heraut for heralt (Ji asp.), Sp. Pg. faraute a herald; from the 
L. L. haraldus heraldus. This would be in O. H. G. hariowalt 
(G. heer army, walien to rule) an army-officer; a proper name 
Chariovaldus occurs, in O. Sax. Hariolt , Eng. Harold y O. N. 

Aramir arramir O. Fr., Pr. aramir, 0. Cat. aremir (Ducange) to 
assure judicially, to assure, promise, appoint &c. e. g. ara-^ 
mir im sairement to promise the performance of an oath , ara- 
mir oujurer to promise or swear, aramir bataille to proclaim 
a combat (notify i. e. the time and place) , aramic a combat so 
proclaimed, in M. Norm. = arrangement. So in L. L. aiTa- 
mire sacramentum , bellum. In old MSS. various forms of the 
word are found : adrhamire, adchramire , adcramire, agramire, 
adframire. These point to a German word beginning with hr, 
with the Lat. ad prefixed. Grimm refers it to the Goth, hram- 
jan to fasten on the cross, fasten, fix, appoint, akin to the 
O. H. G. rdmen to aim at, strive for. According to Miillen- 
hoff L. Sal. p. 277; adhramire = adripere, rap tare. Cf. Dief. 
Goth. Lex. 2 , 589. 

Arancel Sp. Pg. a fixed price of things, a rate; perhaps from 
the Ar. al-risula, ar-risdla a letter. 


Aranoio It., Milan, naranz , Ven. naranza, Sp. naranja^ Pg. 
laranja (Basq. larania), Cat. taronja (sic), Wal. neranze, L. 
Gr. vsQccvT^iov, N. Gr. vsQavr^tj Fr. orange, an orange. Not 
as Salmasins says from aurantia = aurata (aurea mala), which 
would give not orange but orance. The word came from the 
Persian ndrang through the Ar. ndrang (Golius 2346). The 
Fr. had, undoubtedly, a reference to aurwn; but arangia is 
the L. L. form (end of the 13'^^ century). From arancio comes 
the It. adj. rancio orange (of colour). 

Aranar Sp. to scratch, scrape, sbst. arano, also arunar anmo 
(pop.). The former word is derived from the latter, with a 
reference to radere. Is arunar from arare, as rasgmar from 
rasgar, or from the Sp. roha (Pr. runha, v. rogna^ itch? 

Aratro aratolo It., Sp. Pg. arado. Cat. arada (f.), Pr. araire, 
O. Fr. arere, Wal. aratru aratu plough. The Fr. has substi- 
tuted charrue from carruca, Pg. charrua a kind of plough, a 
ship. The G. pflug , Yi. plough is also found in Rom., L. L. 
pious, Lomb. pib, Tyrol. plof = \i. L. plouus or plovus. Piedm. 
sloira, Lomb. sciloira = an O. Fr. silleoire, silloire from siller to 
furrow the sea. Piedm. am is a corruption of aralrum, 

Arazzo razzo It., tapestry, arras; from Arras (Atrehates) , in the 
Pas -de -Calais, w-liere it was manufactured. 

Arbalete Fr., Pr. arhalista an arhalist; from arcuballista (Veget.). 

Arban O. Fr. feudal service; for harhan from O. H. G. herihan 
summons to military service; v. Ducange heribannum. 

Arbolar — alberare. 

Arborer — alberare, 

Arbousier — albedro. 

Arcame — carcasso. 

Arcasse Fr. st^rn- frame (in a ship); it is the same word as the 
It. arcaccia, Sp. arcaza a chest, from area. 

Atqq Sp. , Cat. ars a maple; from acer. It. acero, O. Sp. asre, 
Pg. acer. 

Arcea — acceggia. 

Arehal — oricalco. 

Areigaye — zagaia, 

Arcigno — reche, 

Arcilla Sp. clay; from argilla. A similar change of the medial 
into the tenuis is found in arcen (agger), encia (gingiva), ercer 
(erigere) , uncir (jimgere). In the Vocab. S. Gall, we find at- 
cilia laimo (loam) , and the Wall, has arzeie = Fr. argile. 

Arcione It., Sp. arzon , Pg. arcao, Pr. arson, Fr. arcon saddle- 
bow , saddle. Not from arctio, but from arcus with the termi- 
nation ion (like clercon from cler'cus, oison from auca, ecusson 
from scntxmi) ■= ^^ something bowed or benf , cf. G. bogen, 
sattelbogen , Eng. bow. 


Arcobugio archibuso It. , Sp. arcdbuz, Fr. arquebuse, Eng. ar- 
quebuss; from the Du. haak-bus, haeck-buyse, haeck-busse, G. 
hakenbuchse = a gun fired from a rest (haak haeck haken a 
hook or forked rest, buss busse biichse a fire-arm); this inO.Fr. 
became harquebiise , Wall, harkibuse (^ asp.). The Italians 
altered the word so as to convey a meaning to themselves, 
arco bugio or buso meaning a hollow or perforated bow ; for 
similar false popular etymologies cf. palafreno, battifredOj 
baccalaureus , malvagio, mainbour. 

Ar9on — arcione. 

Arda ardilla Sp. , Pg. harda a squirrel. Larramendi derives it 
from the Basque ^' ari da^^ ^^he is ever moving^', but the B. 
name is different. Perhaps from the Lat. nitella by prosthesis 
anedilla, ■^\i.Q\vQ.^'aredilla ardilla arda. 

Ardid ardil — ardire. 

Ardiglione It., Fr. ardillon, Pr. ardalhd the tongue of a buckle. 
The derivation is uncertain. An old glossary has ardelio acu- 
tus (Class. Auct. 6, 509^); but here we should read glutus. 
Against Casaubon's der. from agdig an arrowhead is to be 
urged the rare use of this word. Menage gets it from dard 
thus: dardillon (which still exists in Mod. Prov.), lardillon, 
V ardillon J ardillon. The Sp. for ardillon is re jo. 

Ardire It. to venture , dare , Pr. ardir en - ardir, Fr. enhardir to 
embolden. The Fr. hardir (Ji asp.) evidently comes from the 
O. H. G. hartjan to harden. The adj. ardito ardit hardi (Eng. 
hardy) must be a participle of this verb since there were few 
Rom. adjectives in it, like theL. auritus, pellitus. The participle 
of ardere (ars) to burn is quite different in form. In Sp., how- 
ever, they gradually came to refer ardito to arder and used it 
as = "inflamed, incensed^'; but the O. Sp. fardido bold, cor- 
responds to the Fr. hardi (Pom. Gr. 1, 311). It is curious 
that in Pic. hardiment is used just like 0. G. H. harto: har- 
diment dur ==-. harto herti. Hence come the Pr. ardit and 0. Sp. 
ardil boldness: but the Sp. ardid crafty, Sp. Pg. ardid craft, 
cunning, seem to come from artitus, v. artigianOy the / being 
assimilated (ardid for artid). 

Ardite Sp. , an ancient Spanish coin, Limous. ordi: from the 
Basque ardita which from ardia a sheep (ef. pecunia from pe- 
cus , and cf. Lecluse , Basque gram.). 

Ardoise Fr. O. Fr. erdoice, L. L. ardesia, ardosia, ardesius la- 
pis, It. ardesia (and lavagnd)^ Pg. ardoisa (and picarrd) slate. 
Adelung says it is Celtic, but without any evidence. The 
Celtic words are connected with the English: W. llech, Gaelic 
sgleat leac, Ir. leac. Vergy derives it from Jrdes in Ireland, 
a place not to be found in the maps. The slate used in France 
probably came from the Ardennes where the hills are composed 



of slate; hence the name: Ar duenna, Ardenna, Ardennensis, 
Ardenois, pierre Ardenoise, pierre Ardoise, lapis Ardesius (cf. 
Burdigala, Burdigalensis , O. Fr. Bordelois, Carthago, Cartha- 
giniensis, Carthaginois). 

Arenga • — aringo. 

Aresta — arista. 

Arete — arista-. 

Arezzo — rezzo. 

Argano It., Sp. argano argana argiie a windlass , crane , Cat. 
arga, Pg. argao a crane; Fr. argue a wire - drawing machine; 
It. dim. arganello, Sp. arganel, Fr. arganeau a ring, anchor- 
ring ; according to Menage, for organo from organum, oQyavov 
a tool. Vitruvius uses ergata = sl windlass, which comes 
from the same root, so, perhaps, from ^gydrrjg, which was 
altered so as to present a more familiar form. 

Argine It. (m.) a dam; from agger, cf. cecino from cicer and the 
Ven. form arzare which preserves the r. Ar in Lat. = ad as 
in ar cesser e &c. ; so argine points to a Lat. arger = agger (ad- 
gerere). Argine = Sp. arcen an edge , border (cf. arcilla for 
argilla). Cf. the Ven. ar/iare = adflarc and v. Pott (Auf- 
recht and Kuhn's Zeitschr. 1 , 326) who quotes armessarius 
from the L. Sal. and Wal. armesariu = admissarius. 

Argolla Sp., Pg. argola an iron ring, iron collar, pillory: from 
aro hoop and gola throat, the Sp. / being liquefied as in 

Argot Fr. slang, thieves' talk: the etymology, according to 
Diez, is unknown. Was argot a term of reproach from G. 
arg bad , mischievous , with a termination formed on the ana- 
logy of bigot, cagot? Some write it ergot from ergo a word 
usual in scholastic disputes, ergoter to dispute, wrangle. Arc- 
age is found = dialect, perhaps formed of the analogy of 
lang - age. 

Argot ergot Fr., Champ, artot the end of a dead twig, the spur 
of a cock &c. Der. unknown. 

Argousin — alguacil. 

Arguer Fr., according to Diez, to embroider, from 0. H. G. 
arahon, Grimm 2, 311, but arguer is to wire -draw gold with 
an argue a machine for drawing it = Sp. argiie for which v. 

Aria It. (poet. aere)y Sic. ariu (m-); ^P* ^^^^^ Pg- ^^^ P^^* ^'^^ 
aire, Fr. air, air all masc; irom aer, the It. fem. coming 
either from the L. L. plur. aer a (air a arid), or from an adj. 
aerea. The same word means also ^'outward appearance'^, 
'^ disposition", and the Pr. aire means "family", "race", 
whence de ton aire, de mat aire, de gentil aire &c. This is the 
L. L. arum = ager, farm, house, family. The Fr. aire (f.), 


E. aery is the same word: un faucon de bonne aire of good 
nest = of good family. 

Aringa It., Sp. arenque (m.), Pr. arenc, Fr. hareng (Ji asp.), Wal. 
hering , a herring ; from the O. H. G. harinc, A. S. hcering, 
G. hering. Called in Du. nering = G. ndhrung nourishment, 

Aringolt. , a pulpit, rostrum, place of combat, course, ring, 
Sp. ¥g. arenga, Pr. arengim, Fr. harangue (h asp.) an haran- 
gue; It. aringare, Sp. arengar, Fr. haranguer to harangue. 
The Fr. asp. shows that the word comes from the O. H. G. 
hring, G. ring a ring, circle, stage, place of combat &c. Hence 
the Rom. word = a speech delivered before an assembly, of, 
homily (b^ikCa). 

Ariseo Sp. Pg. wild, un tractable, shy, according to Constancio, 
who derives it from arena, = also (dry, e. g. terra arisca. Not 
from rigidus (riisco risco), the prosthesis of the a in adjectives 
being supported by no analogy, but from arriscado bold, free, 
rugged &c. 

Arista It., the chine of a pig, Sp. aresta coarse tow, sack-cloth, 
thorn, fish-bone, Fr. arete iish-bone, Sp. arista, Fr. areste 
arete y Eng. arris edge of a stone. It. resta an ear of corn; 
from arista an ear of corn, a fish-bone. 

Arlecchino It., Sp. arlequin, Fr. arlequin (formerly harlequin) , 
a harlequin J a comic personage on the Italian stage, a buf- 
foon &c. , Sp. arnequin = a mannikin: of unknown, and per- 
haps quite fortuitous , origin. For the various etymologies v. 
Flogel, Gesch. des Grotesken p. 35. Genin gets it from arle- 
camps (= Ely camps = Champs Ely sees) a churchyard at Aries, 
next = a ghost -chorus, the chief of which, Hellequin, was 
afterwards ludicrously represented in masquerades. This 
wants corroboration, though we may concede a connexion 
between harlequin and hellequin (g. v.). The word occurs so 
early in Fr. (Ren. 4, p. 146: a sa siele et a ses lorains oc cine 
cent cloketes au mains [moins^, ki demenoient tel tintin con li 
maisnie hierlikin) that its der. from the It. seems doubtful. It 
has a Du. appearance. 

Arlotto It. , Sp. arlote, Pr. arlot, 0. Fr. Pic. arlot harlot (Jierlot 
Trist. 1, 173) a glutton, idler, O. Eng. harlot herlote a rascal; 
a word, says Trench, which though for the most part implying 
slight and contempt (but cf. Chauc. Prol. : he was a gentil 
harlot and a kind) , implied nothing of that special form of 
sin to which the modern harlot refers : cf. for a similar process 
of meaning ^4ewd": it was formerly used of both sexes but 
now, like so many other words (bawd, courtesan, hoyden, 
shrew, termagant &c.), is confined to females. From theW.A^r- 


36 ARMA — ARPA. 

lawd, herlod a youth, lad, herlodes a damsel. Cf. L. adulter 
orig. - r: a young man. 

Arma — anima. 

Armadillo Sp., whence E. armadillo; from armado , so = the 
armed beast. 

Armellino ermellino It., Sp. armiho, Pr. ermini ermin, O. Fr. 
erme ermine, Yv.hermine ermine; from armenius because found 
in Armenia (O. Fr. Ermenie), by the Eomans ^^ Mus ponticus^^ 
(PontusJ. Others derive it from the G. ; O. H. G. liarmo, dim. 
harmelin, M. H. G. hermelin, harmo = Lith. szarmu. 

Armet — elmo. 

Armoire Fr. a cupboard, for armeoire which would correspond- 
to an It. armatoja, prop. == a chest in which arms are kept, 
armarium, whence 0. Fr. armaire, = It. armaria, Sp. armaria 
almario, W. armari, Bret, armel, G. aimer, L. L. armaria al- 
maria a bookcase, armarium a librarian, Eng. amhry almery 
aumbry aumher. The ambry in churches is the niche by the 
side of the altar to hold the sacred utensils. 

Arna Pr. Cat. Sard, a moth (also arda), N. Pr. darna, arnar to 
gnaw. Der. unknown. The Rh. has tarna, which corresponds, 
however, to the It. tarma. 

Arnese It., Sp. Pg. Pr. arnes, Fr. harnois harnais (Ji asp.), har- 
ness; O. Fr. harnas for harnasc , Fr. harnacher, Pr. arnescar 
arnassar to harness; hence M. H. G. harnasch, N. hardneskja. 
Not from the O. N. idrn jam (iron) , which would have given 
another form in the Rom., cf. joli from jol, but from the W. 
haiarn, O. Bret, hoiarn, Ir. iaran (iron) = G. isdrn. It is not 
usual for a language to form a derivative from a foreign root 
which it has not itself adopted. We must, therefore, hold 
that from the W. haiaiiiaez, iron -tools, was formed the Eng. 
harness and from this the Rom. words, v. Villemarque (houar- 
. nach), Schmeller 2, 238, Diefenb. Goth. AVb. 1, 15, Orig. Eu- 
rop. p. 367. 

Arnia It., Sp. Cat. arna bee-hive; from Gael, arcan cork? cf. 
Sp. corcha, Pg. cortico (1) cork, (2) bee -hive. 

Aro Sp. Pg. a hoop, ring &c., 0. Pg. circuit of a town; from 
aXog ? 

Arpa It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. harpe = (l) a harp, (2) Sp. Pr. Neap, 
claw, hook; Pr. arpar, O. Fr. harper, It. arpeggiare to play 
the harp; Sp. Pg. Pr. arpar, Fr. harper to seize, hook, tear; 
It. arpicare inerpicare to clamber ; Fr. harpin a hook , whence 
se harpigner and se harpailler to grapple together, scuffle; It. 
arpignone a large hook, arpione a hinge; Sp. arpon, Pg. ar- 
pao, Fr. harpon, a harpoon, Fr. harpeau a grappling-iron. For 
Sp. arpa a hook the Pg. has farpa (/= aspirate), so also 
f arpar farpao, whence ph. the \i. frappa a lappet, frappare 


snip out, slash, and the Pg. farapo^ Sp. harapo a, shred, 
tatter. All these forms have their origin in the Gr. harfe, 0. 
H. Gr. harplia, O. N. harpa, A. S. hearpe; Venant. Fort, who 
first uses harpa, calls it a barbarous, i. e. a Teutonic instru- 
ment. (Romanusque lyrd, plaudat txbi harharus harpd). The 
hooked shape of the harp gave rise to the second meaning. 
The Gk. aQnri would scarcely have had an aspirate in Fr., 
nor can harpon come from harpago for then we should have 
had an O. Fr. harpaon harpeon. The Sp. Pg. farpa ^^ shaft 
or point of a banner seems to be connected with the Arab. 
^harbah a short spear, Freyt. 1, 361^, -whence, perhaps. It. 
frappa, frappare, cf. Pg. farapo, Sp. harapo. 
Arpent Fr., Pr. arpen, 0. Sp. arapende = Lat. arepennis Colum. 
5, 1, 6: Gralli semijugerum arepennem vocant. The Lat., how- 
ever, is probably from the Celtic. 

Arquebuse — arcobugio. 

Arrabalde arrabal Sp. Pg. a suburb; from the Ar. al-rdba^d, 
Freyt. 2, 111. 

Arracher Fr., Pr. araigar eradicar esraigar to pull out, extract; 
from eradicare exradicare (Plant. , Ter. , Varro) , It. eradicare 
sradicare. With arracher araigar cf . pencher, Pr. pengar from 

Arraffare — raff are, 

Arraial — real (2). 

Arrappare — rappare. ■-' 

Arrate Sp., Pg. arratel a pound of 16 ounces; from Ar. rati 12 
oz. Freyt. 2, 160. 

Arrebol Sp. Pg. red appearance of the sky at sunrise or sunset ; 
from the Ar. rahdh (with the article prefixed) nubes alba aut 
quae modo alba modo nigra' apparet, ph. contracted from ar- 
rebabol the final / as in admiral being the article which be- 
longed to some fuller expression , v. Mahn. But Diez derives 
it with more probability from rubor with the Ar. article, / for 
r as in marmol, arbol, bergel, e for u (or o) as in arredondar 
from arrodondar. The verb arrebolar would = It. arrovellare 
(rubellus) and the subst. may come from the verb the ar 
= Lat. ad. 

Arrecife Sp., Pg. arrecife recife, Fr. recif ressif, Eng. reef\ from 
the Ar. al-racif arracif a row of stepping-stones across water, 
O. Pg. arracef, 

Arrecisse — recio. 

Arredio — radio. 

Arredo — redo. 

Arrel arrelde Sp. a 4 lb. weight; from the Basque erraldea a 10 lb. 

38 ARREO — ARS. 

Arreo — redo. 

Arresto It. O. Sp. , Pg. aresto from the Fr. arret the decree of a 
supreme court of justice from which there is no appeal; pro- 
perly = the conclusion of a law - transaction from arresiare, 
arreter to stop, L. ad-restare, cf. G. beschiuss. 

Arriba Sp. Pg. = supra; from npa cf. derrihar. 

Arriar — arriser. 

Arriere — retro. 

Arriere-ban — hando. 

Arriero Sp., Pg. arrieiro a mule driver; from their shouting 
arre (N. Pr. It. arrt) to urge on their mules : the word is prob. 

ArrifiTare — riffa. 

Arrimar, arrimer — rima, 

Arripiar Pg. to shudder; from liorripilare? 

Arriser Fr., ^^. arriar to let fall, let down, lower sails = prendre 
les ris , replier les voiles par moyen des ris et des garcettes ; 
from the O. H. G. arrisan to fall down. Is ris from arriser? 

Arrivare It., Sp. Pg. arribar, Pr. aribar, Fr. arriver to arrive; 
from ripa, L. L. adripare, It. arripare to come to shore. The 
introduction of this verb caused advenire to assume a special 
meaning, v. avventura. 

Arroba Sp. Pg. a 25 lb. weight; from Ar. alrob\i arrob'a a 4^^ 

part (sc. of a cwt.) Freyt. 2, 113. 
Arroche Fr. a plant, arrach, Wall, aripp (f.) ; from atriplex (n.). 

It. atrepice, 

Arrogere arrosi arroso It. (antiquated) to add; from arrogare; 
for the change of conjugation cf. Rom. Gr. 2, 118. 

Arrojar Sp. , Pg. arrojar to fling, dart, sprout, arrojo intrepi- 
dity, fearlessness; possibly from ruar, as the Fr. ruer tr kick 
,from mere with^" inserted to prevent the hiatus rujar rojar 
arrojar; v. trage. 

Arroser — ros (l). 

Arrostire — rostire. 

Arroyo Sp., Pg. arroio a rivulet, brook, arroyar to overflow, 
O. Sp. arrogio, L. L. arrogium; ph. connected with the Lomb. 
rogia a stream for watering meadows, L.L. rogium (9*'^ cent.), 
which Murat. (It. Antiq. 2, 1105) refers to qoh] qsg). Cf. also 
the Wal. eruge, Hung, urok, 

Arroz — riso. 

Arrufar — ru/j^a, 

Arrtimar — rombo. 

Arrumer — rombo. 

Ars 0. Fr. plur. the fore - quarters of a horse; from armus, m 
vanishing between r and a dental, cf. dors, dort, ferte from 


dorms, dormt, firm'tas, Fr. saigner un cheval des quatre ars fore 
and hind- quarters. 

Arsenale arzana It., Sp. Fr. E. arsenal, L. Gr. aQ6EVuXr]s'^ It. 
darsena, Sic. tirzana the part of a harbour which is chained 
off, a wet- dock = Fr. darse darsine , Sp. atarazana, ataraza- 
nal covered shed, Vg.taracena tercena; from the Ar. ddr ac- 
cind^a house of industry, Freyt. 2, 69, 526. 

Artalejo — artoun. 

Artesa — artoun. 

Articiocco It., Fr. artichaut an artichoke; perhaps corrupted 
from It. carcioffo, Sp. alcachofa, Pg. alcachofra which is from 
the Ar. al-^harshaf ov al-harshof. 

Artiga Sp. Cat., Pr. artigua land newly broken up for culture; 
Adelung refers it to the W. aru to plough. The Lat. arare 

\ would be nearer. The Basque has artica artiga y and to this 
language the word probably belongs. 

Artigiano It., Fr. artisan, Sp. artesano, Pg. artezao an artisan; 
prob. = artitianus from artitus = bonis instructus artibus Fest. 
Then the Sp. must be for artezano. Cf.partigiano horn, p artitus. 

Artiglio It. a claw, talon, Sp. artijo, Pg. artelho a limb, joint, 
Pr. 0. Fr. arteil Twhich form is still found in some of the dia- 
lects) , Fr. orteil tne toe ; from articulus. 

Artilha Pr. a fortification , entrenchment (?) ; O. Fr. artillier to 
fortify; Pr. artilharia, O. Fr. artillerie, 0. Pg. artelharia cata- 
pults &c. or wagons for transporting them, Fr. artillerie. It. 
artiglieria heavy guns, artillery. From ars artis, cf. engin from 
ingenium, machine from ^i^xavij. 0. Fr. artilleux = crafty, 

Artisan — artigiano. 

Artoun N. Pr. bread, It. artone (Veneroni) ; Sp. artalejo artalete 
a tart, artesa, Pg. arteca a kneading trough. Not from agtog 
but prob. from the Basque artoa maize-bread, which Humboldt 
says meant orig. acorn -bread, from artea a sort of oak. 

Arunar — aranar. 

Arveja — ervo. 

Arzon — arcione. 

As — asso. 

Asca Lomb. a preposition =:^prceter; from absque? 

Ascella It., Pr. aissela. Cat. axella shoulder ; from axilla, whence, 
accord, to Cicero, ala a T\[ing, shoulder. Axilla became ascilla 
as early as Isidorus. 

Ascia — accia, 

Asciolvere It. to breakfast, Rh. ansolver = solvere jejunia. 

Asciugare asciutto — suco. 

Ascla Pr. Cat. a splinter, asclar to split; from astula (MSS. for 
assula) , asfla , ascla. Hence , too , the Sp. astil handle of an 

40 ASCO — ASPO. 

axe, astilla a chip, splinter, 0. Fr. astele, astillar to splinter, 
astillero a spear-stand, Fr. attelle (=dtelle) a splint (in surgery) 
also = hames (v. atteler = to yoke), Pr. astela. In Occ. 
fend- asclat = fendu. 

Asco Sp. Pg., Sard, ascu, Pr. ah loathing, disgust, ascoso asco- 
roso asqueroso loathsome. Some derive from the Gk. al(5%oq 
cciOxQogy but the Goth, aiviski, A. S. avise, adj. Du. aisk 
aisch, of the same signification, would be nearer: cf. the G. 
inter] . of disgust aiks! Larramendi and Diefenbach refer the 
word to the Basque asco (asqui) much, too much; but the B. 
word for asco is nasca which from the Sp. would have had no 
reason for altering. Cf. also the Rh. ascher impure, aschria 
impurity. The Sp. has also usgo for asco. 

Ascoltare scoltare It. , O. Sp. ascuchar, Sp. escuchar, Pg. escu- 
tar, Pr. escoutar, Fr. ecouter to listen; from auscultare which, 
however, would not have given ascuUare, so that this latter 
form must have existed in the Latin. Hence It. ascolfa scolta, 
Sp. escucha a scutry, scout. 

Aseua Sp. Pg. red-hot coal; prob. from the 0. H. G. ascd, Goth. 

azgo, G. asche, E. ash, ascua from asca as esUngua from slinga. 

Cf. the Lat. favilla = ashes and spark. The Basq. auscua is 

ph. of the same origin. 
Ascar Sp., Pg. asseiar to adorn; from assidere to suit, become? 
Asermar asesmar — esmar. 
Asestar — sesia. 
Asi — cost. 
Asiento — sentare. 
Asinha Pg. adv. for L. statim; from agina, or from ad signum? 

Asir Sp. Pg., 0. Sp. azir to grasp, seize; from the Lat. apisci, 
whence apiscire (cf. sequi sequire)^ apsir, asir, Pres. apiscor 
apsco asgo. 

Asma asima ansima It. , asthma; horn, asthma (aed-^a). Hence 
ansimare (l) to pant, (2) to desire eagerly, cf. Sp. anhelar. For 
ansimare are used also a?isiare ansare, from anxius (Sp. ansiar 
= to covet). Ansimare ansima are formed as if connected with 

Asolare — scialare. 

Asomar — sommo. 

Aspettare to wait for , Wal. asteptd. If from adspectare (aspetto 
look = adspectus) the 0. H. G. warten = aspicere and ex- 
pectare may be compared ; if from expectare, cf . asciutto from 

Aspo naspo It., Sp. aspa, O. Fr. hasple. Pic. haple a reel; from 
O. H. G. haspa haspel. The gender in It. has conformed to 
that of naspo ivomjnaspare. 


Assai It., 0. Sp. asaz, Pg. assaz, Pr. assatz, Fr. assez; from 
ad satis. 

Assassino It., Sp. asesmo, Pr. assassin, Fr. assassin, an assassin. 
From the Ar. ^hasMshm the members of an Eastern sect, 
who, intoxicated by a drink ('hashish Golius p. 613) pre- 
pared from the hemp -plant, took an oath to the Sheik or Old 
Man of the Mountain f Shaikh al-gahal) that they would do 
murder in his service if required. The word was unknown in 
Europe before the 12*^ century. 

Assembler — sembrare, 

Assentare — sentare. 

Assettare It. , to arrange , set in order , put on table (Pr. asse- 
tar)] hence It. rassettare to mend. It. assetto ornament, Pr. 
assieta an arrangement, Fr. assiette a place at table (v. Case- 
neuve) whence = a plate. The It. assettare also means "to 
cut off^', '^castrate'', in which sense it must come from secare 
sectus. This sense may have given rise that of "ordering, 
arranging^' just as O. H. G. skeran to shear is connected with 
skerjan to portion off, arrange. It. assetto a little board, is 
from assis. 

Assez — assai. 

Assiette — assettare. 

Assisa — assises. 

Assises Fr. (plur.), E. assizes, an extraordinary session of a 
court of justice, a session on a certain day named beforehand. 
0. Fr. also sing, assise, Pr. asiza, which meant, besides, a 
decree passed at such a session, a decree for taxing, a tax, 
hence L. L. levare assisiam to raise a tax. It. assisa tribute, ex- 
cise. Neap, assisa an impost on provisions. It is a participle 
from the 0. Fr. Pr. assire to place, place oneself, Lat. assi- 
dere, and so meant anything placed or laid in position, Fr. 
assise = a layer of stones, Pr. = place, position (also cizias 
plur.). Thus it would prop, mean not the session itself but 
the day appointed for it or the decree passed in it. A variant 
form of assise is found in the Fr. accise (formed as if from ac- 
cidere) ~- E. excise. 

Asso It., Sp. Pr. Fr. as, Pg. az an ace; from the Lat. as which 
denoted a unit. Muratori, misled by the expression /«!5cmr<? 
uno in asso to leave one in the lurch, derived it from L. L. ab- 
sus == ager incultus. But this phrase , like the corresponding 
G. einen im stiche lassen (stich = ace) is, probably, borrowed 
from card - playing. 

Assoager assouagier Fr. , Pr. assuaviar to assuage; from suavis 
cf. levi-are, molli-are &c. 

Assommer — salma. 

Assouvir Fr. to satiate. Perhaps from the Goth, ga-sothjan (xoq- 


rd^Siv) V = th SLS in pouvoir = O. Fr. podoir, Pr. poder. The 
deriv. from adsatire, adsair, assa-ou-ir (cf. evanouir), assouir, 
assouvir, is inadmissible. We should expect assavouir. Gachet 
instances an 0. Fr. asouffir, which points to sufficere, a more 
satisfactory etymon than ga-s6thjan, which is too remote. 

Assoviar — soffiare, 

Astilla — ascla. 

Astio aschio envy, rancour, adasiiare to envy, grudge; from 
the Goth, haifst-s discord, haifst-j-an = ast-i-are. 

Astiou — hate. 

Astore It. , O. Sp. aztor, Sp. Pg. azor (whence the name of the 
islands Azores), Pr. austor, O. Fr. ostor, Fr. autour a goshawk. 
Usually derived from astiir (= the bird of Asturid) , Matornus 
Firmicus A. D. 400; but this would have given astre. The 
grammarian Caper mentions a word acceptor as vulgarly used 
for accipiter; azor would = acceptor em just as rezar = red- 
tare. The Pr. austor is , probably, an irregular form of astor, 
like austronomia = astronomia. The N. Pr. is aston. From 
azor may come the Sp. verb azorar to frighten, bewilder, 
orig. of birds chased by the hawk, perdiz azorada; cf. Sp. 
amilanar to frighten, from milano a kite. Cat. esparverar from 
esparver a sparrow-hawk. 

Astre aistre 0. Fr., Fr. dtre hearth, L. L. astrum; hence Lomb. 
astraCy Sic. astracu, L. L. astricus plastar (pavement), Vocab. 
S. Galli, 0. H. G. astrihj G. estrich. Diefenbach derives it 
from the Lat. asser. The addition of the article gives the It. 
lastra a slab, lastrico pavement, Sp. lastre lastra, Pg. lastro 
a stone -slab, ballast. 

Astreindre — etreindre. 

Astro It. Sp. Pg., Pr. Fr, astre j a constellation, also = fate, 
luck. Hence Sp. Pg. astroso unlucky (Isidor. astrosus quasi 
malo sidere natus); 0. Sp. astrugo, Pr. astruc lucky. Hence 
Pr. henastre , henastruc, 0. Sp. malastrugo , Pr. malastre, ma- 
lastruCf O. Fr. malostru for malastru, Fr. malotru (= inep- 
tus); It. disastro, Sp. desastro, Fr. desastre, E. disaster. 

Astueeio It., Sp. estuche (estui in Berceo), Pg. estojOy Pr. estug 
estui, Fr. etui a case, box, repository; Pg. estojar, Pr. estuiar 
estoiar, O. Fr. estuier to preserve, store up. Estug etui come 
from the M. H. G. stitche stauche a case for arms (v. Adelung); 
the form astueeio (Veron. stuccio) must be referred to an 
O. H. G. stuchjo, cf. guancia from wankja. 

Asurarse Sp. to be burnt (of meat); for arsurarse, cf. It. Pr. 
arsura, Sard, assura (and Lat. assus = arsus). 

Ataballo taballo It. , Sp. atahal, Pg. atdbale a Moorish kettle- 
drum, liJimballo, ^^Mmhal (timbrel) ;, 


Atal — cotale. 

Atalaya Sp. a watch-tower; from Ar. ^tal^aah a view, Freyt. 

3; 65. 
Atambor — tamburo. 
Atancar — stancare. 
Atanto — cotanto. 

Atar Sp. Pg. Cat. to tie, lace*, from aptare (cf. ccQinot^Hv), 
Atarazana — arsenate. 
Atarfe Sp. tamarisk; from Ar. aH-^tarfd. 
Atargea — targa. 
Ataud Sp. Pg. ; Pr. tauc, 0. Fr. taut taiic, Neap, tavuto a box, 

coffin; from Ar. al-tdbict, at -t abut. 
Ataviar Sp. Pg. to adorn, atavio embellishment; from the Goth. 

ga-tevjan to set in order, teva order, or better from Goth. 

taujan (pret. tavidd)^ A. S. tavian, E. taw, Du. touwen, O. H. G. 

zaivjan to prepare, dress, cf. Sp. parar to prepare, adorn. 

The a = Lat. ad. 
Ate 0. Fr. hot, rash, Charlem. v. 613 (not ate's), also aate, aatir 

to incite, aatie, atine deadly enmity. From the Norse atm- 

citement to fight , att incited (hence ate') , etia to incite. The 

form aastie is not connected with the It. astio. 
Ate — te. 
Atear — tea. 
Atelier Fr. a workshop = Pr. astelier, Sp. astillero (from hasta 

but V. ascld) a lance -stand, stand for tools, workshop. The 

N. Pr. astelier astier = an andiron (place for laying logs). 
Aterecer — intero. 
Atisbar Sp. to search, inquire into ; from Basque aiisbeatu which 

is compounded of ateis closed doors , and beatu to spy. 
Atizar — tizzo. 
Atoar — touer. 

Atobar Sp. to astonish ; from tuba , cf . aitonare from tonus. 
Atorar — tuero. 
Atracar Sp. a nautical word = to come alongside a ship ; from 

attrahicare or better from Du. trekken, aantrekken. 
Atravesar — travieso. 
Atre — astre. 
Atreverse Sp. to be too forward, to venture, 0. Sp. treverse. 

From sibi attribuere, sibi tribuere =^ to presume, be arrogant. 

The existence of the verb atribuir tribuir does not affect this 

etymology. The Sp. keeps the Lat. accent atrevo = attribuo. 
Atril Sp. a reading-desk, lectern; ph. corrupted from latril letril 

as if from lectorile, 0. Fr. letrin, el atril being a mistake for 

el latril. The form letril occurs. 
Atropellar — tropa. 
Attacher, attaquer — tacco. 


Atteler — teler. 

Attelle — ascla, 

AttifFer — tiffer. 

Attillare It.^ Sp. atildar, Pg. aiilar, Pr. atilhar to deck , trim ; 
from a L. attitulare to below the utmost care on dress &c., 
prop, to forget not a jot or tittle, from It. titolo = dot over a 
letter ; Sp. tilde , Pg. til, L. L. attitulare = to mark (adorn): 
cnicis signactdo frontem ejus attitulans. 

Attimo It. a moment ; from ato^og. Papias has : hora habet ato- 
mos XXII milia, 

Attiser — tizzo. 

Attizzare — tizzo. 

Atturare It. to stop, Sp. Pg. aiurar to hold out, persevere, 
endure (ph. for aturarse), Cat. Pr. aturar to stop, shut up, 
keep back, s' aturar to hold up, exert oneself, persevere, atur 
exertion; from ohturare (with change of prep.) to stop up, 
hence = to stop, hold out, persevere (cf. G. use of aufhalten). 
The Sp. occurs in the Lat. sense. Shortened from atturare is 
the It. turare (hence tura a dam) , Sp. turar, not from a Lat, 

Attutare — tutare, 

Atufar — tufo. 

Aturdir — stordire. 

Aubain Fr. a foreigner, L. L. alhamis; from alibi with the suffix 
anus which is frequently added to adverbs, cf. proche pro- 
chain y loin loin tain, ante ancien. 

Aube — alba. 

Auberge — albergo. 

Aubier Fr. , Pr. alhar sap , the white soft wood next the bark ; 
from albus (albarius) whence, too, L. alburnum, 0. Fr. aubour, 
Lim. ooubun. 

Aubour — aubier. 

Auce abce 0. Sp. (f.) fate, lot, con dios e con la vuestra auce 
Poem. d. Cid v. 2376; buen auce v. 2379; the etymology is 
doubtful. Apul. Met. 9 has: bona et satis secunda aucilla which 
may come from auce (v. s. bubbone), but it is better, perhaps, 
to refer it to auspicium which might follow the gender of 
suerte. With auce abce is connected the Sp. aciago, Pg. aziago 
unlucky through the 0. Val. form abziach; the i of the Sp. 
supports the derivation from auspicium, though the suffix ago 
for aco is unusual. Diez thinks that the etymology remains 
to be discovered. May not auce abce come from avis avica, 
aucilla = avicella? If so the words abce mala (Alex. 545) would 
correspond to the Lat. mala avis. 

Aucun — alcuno. 

Auferrant — f errant. 


Aufin — alfido. 

Auge It. ; Sp. ; Pg. the highest point (of glory &c.) ; from the 
Ar. aug an astronomical word borrowed from the Persian 
auk, Freyt. 1, 69. 

Auge Fr. (f.) a trough; from alveus, It. alveo. 

Augurio It. ; Sp. aguero, Pg. agouro, Pr. auguri augur agur, aur, 
0. Fr. eur heiir, Fr. heur, Wall, aweure, omen, luck; It. au- 
gurare, Sp. Pr. augurar agurar, Fr. augurer to augur, Pr. ahu- 
rar, O. Fr. heiXrer to bless, Wal. ura to wish luck ; from augu- 
rium augurare, the derivation of lieur &c. from hora being suf- 
ficiently disproved both by the gender and by the forms in 
Pr., O. Fr., and Wallon, though the h may have been pre- 
fixed from a false notion of the etymology, cf. heureux, O.Fr. 
eiireux =■ Pr. aiiros. It. auguroso, L. L. auguriosus ; horosus is 
nowhere found. Hence we have Pr. honaiir, Fr. honheur, ma- 
laiir, malheur; It. sciagurato , sciaurato, 0. Sp. xaurado, Sp. 
xauro wretched from exauguratus , It. sciagura, sciaura mis- 
fortune; E. enure; It. uria is a plur. form from augurium. 

Aujourd'hui — oggi. 

AuUar Sp. {aiular Berceo) to howl ; -from ejulare as ayuno from 

Aumaille Fr. horned cattle (f ., and generally in plur.) ; from anima- 
lia (cf. merveille from mirabilia, and v. oca). Kh. armal. Wall. 
amd a bullock, Piedm. Parm. animal = a pig, Eom. animela 
a sow, cow, mare, bitch &c.: v. Pott, Hofer's Zeitschr. 3; 161. 

Aumone — limosina. 

Aumusse • — ahnussa. 

Aun ■ — anche. 

Aune — alna. 

Aunee — enola, 

Auques — algo. 

Aura ora It., Sp. Pg. Pr. Kh. aura, O. Fr. ore a breeze from 
aura; hence thePr. aur at, O.Fr. ore; Pr. auratge, O.Fr. or age 
a breeze (lo dous auratge, lo fer auratge) , Fr. or age a storm, 
Sp. orage; Sp. orear, Cat. oretjar to refresh, oreo oretj. It. 
oreggio, Pr. aurei a gentle gale. From oreggio is to be distin- 
guished It. orezzo rezzo a cool , shady place , from a form au- 
ritium. Arezzo is also found, a = au SiS in ascoltare. 

Aurone Fr. the plant southernwood; from abrotonum, It. abro- 

Aus N. Pr. (m.) al. aou. Champ, ause the fleece of a sheep ; from 
the Lat. hapsus (Celsus) on which the grammarian Caper 
(Putsch p. 2249) remarks: hapsum vellera lance non hapsus, cf. 
hapsum vellus lame Gloss. Isid, The p is lost as in neipsum, 
Pr. neus, malaptus malaut. 

Aussi Fr. , O. Fr. alsi ausine, Florent. alsl; from aliud sic. 


Autant Fr.; 0. Sp. autan; from aliud tantum, 

Autel Fr. ; from alius talis, 

Autillo Sp. a screech-owl; from otm {(orog) a horned- owl, for 
a- otilla. 

Auto Sp. a decree, edict; from actum, It. atto. Hence auto de 
fe, Pg. auto da fe a religious decree. 

Autour — astore. 

Autruche — struzzo. 

Auvent Fr. a shed, awning; apparently the same as the Pr. 
anvan amban a projection or balcony to defend the entrance 
to a town; an = au as in erraument = erranment. Anvan may 
be from an = ante (cf. angardd) and vannus or vertus. 

Avaeciare It. to hasten, avaccio (accio) haste; a participial verb 
like cacciare; ahigere dbactus dbactiare; hence O. Cat. adv. 
yvac, V. Chron. d'Esclot. 

Avachir Fr. to relax, give in, languish, to become weak, flaccid; 
from O. H. G. weichjan to weaken, the a prefixed as in avilir, 
attendrir &c. (Kom. Gr. 1, 296). Wall, s'avachi = to sink. 

Avalange avalanche (cf. O. Fr. fresenge = fresenche) , whence 
It. valanga an avalanche; from avaler to descend (O. Fr. aval 
= down, amont = up, whence montare, monter, mount, amount\ 
which has also given avalaison a torrent. Another form is 
lavange lavanche, Pr. lavanca partly from avalange, partly 
from L. L. Idbina (Isidorus , who derives it from lahi) , Rh. 
lavina, G. lawine. Others derive these from G. lauen to thaw. 
Valance is the same word. 

Avancer avant avantage — anzi, 

Avanid It. Pg., Fr. avanie oppression, exaction, prop. = a poll- 
tax extorted from the Christians by their Turkish rulers. 
Probably a Turkish word, M. Gk. dpavta. 

Avannotto It. a fish of not more than a year old ; from ab anno 

Avanti avanzare — anzi. 
Avaria It. Pg., Fr. avarie, E. average prop. = damage at sea; 

from the G. haferei; Du. haverij = sea- damage, haf = sea 

Avec Fr. prep. = It. vSp. con, 0. Fr. avoc avuec avec; from 

O. Fr. ah = apud and oc = hoc; cf. O.Fr. por-uec ^^by means 

of this" Rom. Gr. 2, 405. Another form is avecques. Cf. appo 

and 0. 
Aveindre Fr. to take out, take forth, Occ. avedre, Champ. 

avainder (l^* conj.); from abemere to take away (Festus: abe- 

mito significat demito auferto). 

Avel 0. Fr. Champ, (plur. aviaux) = anything precious ; not 
from velle but from lapillus, It. lapillo (== bijou). The first 


syllable was mistaken for the article and thus the word be- 
came avel , cf. It. avello from labellum. 

Avello It. a stone coffin, Mod. lavello, Mil. navell a vessel of 
marble &c.; from labellum a vessel , L. L. (9^^ century), lavel- 
lum = a coffin, v. Muratori and Rom. Gr. 1, 240. Vas also 
in L. L. = a coffin. 

Avenant Fr., Pr. avinen (hence It. avvenante avvenente) becoming, 
next ; from adveniens, cf. conveniens, hecoming, G. bequem from 
hiqueman to come. 

Averiguar — santiguar. 

Aves abes O. Sp. adv. = vix; from ad vix like assaz from ad 
satis, Eh. vess. Hence malavez. 

Avestruz — struzzo. 

Aveu — voeu. 

Aveugle — avocolo. 

Avieso Sp., Pg. avesso perverse; from averso, 0. Sp. envesar 
= enversar, cf. rivescio. 

Aviron Fr. an oar, L. L. ahiro. Perhaps from ad gyrum as 
moving circularly. This derivation is supported by the Lothr. 
aiviron an instrument which in working describes a circle. 

Avis aviser — viso. 

Avocolo vocolo It., Fr. aveugle blind. It. avocolare, Fr. aveugler, 
Pr. avogolar to blind. From dboculus, on the analogy of db- 
normis amens &c., cf. the L. Gr. d% ofL^dtcov or ccTto^^arog 

Avoi 0. Fr. interjection expressing ill-humoured astonishment. 
Various derivations have been given: (l) ah voie =:lt. eh via, 
(2) Lat. evoe, (3) an ecclesiastical refrain evovce, the vowels 
of " seculorum amenV^ The true etymology is ah voi ah! see! 
= Span, afe (Cid 1325); where v =f (cf. he) = ah ve. Cf. 
O. Fr. voici and veci. 

Avol Pr. bad, wretched, sbst. avoleza. The word occurs also, 
but very rarely, in O. Sp., O. Cat., and O. Pg. Avolome 
(Berceo) = ladron (Sanchez). In Pr. the word is commonly 
used as the opposite to pros, Fr. preux, and is written dul, cf. 
fre'ul from frevol. It comes from a L. L. advolus (= ad vena) 
mentioned by Ducange. Advolatus would make advolus avol, 
just as cordatus gives Sp. cuerdo, clinatus Pr. din &c. The 
first meaning would be stranger, homeless ; cf. G. elend = (l) 

• peregrinus, (2) miser. 

Avoltore avoltojo It., Pr. voltor, Fr. vautour, E. vulture; from 
volturius, Sp. biutre, Pg. abutre, from vultur. Hence Sp. bui- 
tron a partridge -net, a fish -net; cf. Fr. epervier = sparrow- 
hawk and fish -net. Littre (hist, de la langue franc.), instead 
of viclturius, gives vulturem (for vulturem) as the original of 
the Fr. vautour &c. 


Avorio It., Pr. avori evori, Fr. ivoire (m.) ivory; from ehoreus. 
Avouer Fr. , Pr. avoar, E. avow to confess , own , acknowledge. 

not from advotare but from advocare^ as avoue = advocatus. 

Pr. Pg. avocar meant to call to one, own, acknowledge, L. L. 

advocare ut filium suum. Hence aveu. 
Avoutre O. Fr. Pr. a bastard, Bret. avouUr; from adulter, It. 

avoltero an adulterer, Wal. votru a pandar. Hence Eng.«i;ow^ry. 

For the v v. Eom. Gr. 1, 164. The Wall, avotron avuiron has 

also the sense of a shoot, sapling. 
Avutarda — ottarda. 
Avvegnache It. = Lat. etsi; from avvenire = prop, it might 

happen that. 
Avvenente — avenant. 
Avventare It. to throw. The Pr. ventar, O. Fr. venter = to 

throw to the wind, whence the It. word. Aventare to thrive 

is from avvenire, Sic. ahhentare to find rest , ahento rest = ad- 

ventus (sc. Christi). 

Avventura It., Sp. Pg. Pr. aventura, Fr. aventure, E. adventure, 
Gr. abenteuer, accident , luck , peril {aventure de mort = death- 
aventure) , particularly of knightly combat 5 from advenire to 
happen (cf. arriver). 

Axedrez Sp., Pg. xadrez enxadrez the game of chess; from Ar. 
ash-sheHrang chess-board, this from the Persian, which has 
taken the word from the Sanskrit cliatur-anga, lit. ^^ having 
four members^^, viz. the four sets of men with which the game 
was originally played in the East, or the four different arms 
of which each set was composed. 

Axedrea — satureja. 

Axenjo Sp., O. Sp. enxenso wormwood; from absinthium. 

Axuar axovar Sp. bride's trousseau; from Ar. ash-shuwar. 

Aye Fr. (also a'ie) interjection; from the old imperative aie 

Ayer — ieri. 

Ayo Sp. governor, tutor, ay a nurse. It. ajo aja. The O. H. G. 
has hagan hagjan to nurse , hence hagjo and heio a warden ; 
but the Sp. is more probably derived from the Basque ayoa 
^^one who guards and attends ^% whence zaya a guardian, 
seinzaya a nurse. Is the It. word from theSp.? Others derive 
ay a from avia, ayo from a corresponding avius. 

Ayunar — giunare. 

Ayunque — incude. 

Aza — haza. 

Aza Pg. (1) a handle, ear of a pitcher &c. = Sp. asa, Cat. ansa, 
nansa, Lat. ansa, (2) a bird's wing = Sp. ala not used in Pg., 
perhaps also from ansa, the wing being regarded as a handle. 


The Gloss. Isid. has: acia ala, but whence is this? Graevius 

mentions in connection with it axilla, whence ala. 
Azada — accia. 

Azafate Sp. Pg. a low basket, tray: from Ar. al-safaH as-safaU, 
Azafran — zafferano. 
Azagaya — zagaia. 
Azaut adaut Pr. agreeable, azautar to cheer, enliven: from 

adaptus, adaptare (cf. malaut from malaptus), thus == It. adatto 

adopted, fitting, agreeable. 
Azcona Sp., corrupted /a5C0w«, Tr.ascona, 0. Cat. escona a dart: 

prob.from O.H.G. asc, G. esche an ash (eschiner schaft Nibel. 

537). Pg- ascona = comet (Lat. hasta). 
Azemar — esmar. 
Azesmar — esmar. 
Azevinho — acebo. 
Azienda — faccenda. 
Azinho — elce. 
Azofar Sp. brass, latten: from Ar. al-cofr ac-cofr. 

Azogue Sp., Pg. azougue quicksilver: from Ar. al-zuwaq az- 
zuwaq or alzibaq azzibaq, which comes from the Persian. 
Freyt. 2, 219. 

Azor — astore. 

Azote Sp., Pg. acoute a whip, azotar, acoutar, It. ciottare to flog: 
from Ar. al-sauU as-sauH. 

Azuear — zucchero. 

Azueena Sp.a white lily; irom. assusan, Heb.shushan, 
Gr. 6ovi5ov, Freyt. 2, 375, whence the name Susanna. 

Azufaifa azufeifa Sp. Pg. jujube -tree, fruit of jujube -tree: 
from Ar. al-zofaizef az-zofaizef. 

Azufre — solfo. 

Azza — accia. 

Azzardo It., Fr. hasard (h asp.), Pr. azary Cat. atsar hazard 
chance, Sp. Pg. azar an unlucky throw, unforeseen accident, 
ill-luck; jeu de hasard = game of chance; It. azzardare, Fr. 
hasarder, to hazard, stake, wager, h. h. ludere ad azarum. 
O. Fr. hazart = a dice -player, hazarder to be fond of dice 
or hazard -playing. The Fr. d is epenthetical , and the It. is 
derived from tne Fr. The original form is evidently the 0. It. 
zaro, It. zara = a throw of 3 aces. Perhaps from the Kv.zahr, 
a die (root zahara to glisten, be white Freyt. 2, 261). The 
Ar. article prefixed, al-zahr az-zahr, gives the commoner 
Rom. form, v. Mahn (Etym. Untersuch.). 

Azzimare — esmar. 

Azzuro azzuolo It., Sp. Pg. azal, Pr. Fr. azur, dark blue azure: 
from Pers. Idzuward, whence lapis lazuli the sapphire. 
DiKz, romance: dict. 4 



Baba babieea babosa — hava. 

Babazorro Sp. a coarse, ill-bred fellow: prop = a sack of 
beans , a nickname of the Alabenses ; from the Basque baha 
bean and zorro sack. 

Babbaccio babbuasso • — hdbbeo. 

Babbeo, babbaccio, babbano, babbuasso It. a blockhead: Pr. 
habau, Pic. baba a fop, dotard; It. babbole, Fr. babioies, 
baubles; the root is seen in the Lat. babulus (Apuleius), babnr- 
rus stultus Gloss. Isid.; baburra stultitia Gloss. Placid.; cf. 
Irish, W. baban a child, Eng. babe, babby. 

Babbo It. father, Dante Inf. 32 ne da lingua che chiami mamma 
babbo, only used by children, but in Sard, babu is the proper 
word for father; so Kh. bab, Wal. fem. babe a midwife, Hung. 
baba, M. H. G. babe. The word belongs to many languages. 

Babbuino It., Sp. babuino, Fr. babouin, Eng. baboon; probably 
akin to the -Fr. babine an ape's or cow's lip , and to the G. 
provincial bdppe a mouth, v. beffa. 

Babeurre Fr. buttermilk = hat-beurre: battre le beufTe = to 
make butter. 

Babil Fr. babiller, Eng. babble, G. babbeln; an onomatop. 

Babine — babbuino. 

Babioies — babbeo. 

Babord Fr. larboard , left side of a ship ; from Du. bak - boord, 
A. S. bcecbord back- board, because in steering the helmsman 
turns his back to that side. 

Babouches Fr. (f. pi.) whence Sp. babuches Turkish slippers; 
from Ar. bdbiig, bdbush, this from Vers, pdpiish foot-covering. 

Bac Fr. a flat-boat, ferry-boat, Rouchi = a trough; cf. Du. 
bak a tray, trough, Bret, bag bak, v. bacino. Hence dim. 
baquet (E. bucket), and bailie (bac-ula), whence Du. balie, 
Swed. balja, G. balge. 

Bacalao — cabeliau. 

Baccalare It., Pr. bacalar, Fr. bachelier, in later It. baccelliere, 
Sp. bachiller, Pg. bacharel. Diez is unable to fix the etymo- 
logy: he mentions some attempts that have been made, e. g. 
Fr. bas- cavalier , Lat. baculus, or G^ael. bachall f=baculusj. 
Littre gives vassal as the etymon. Better from the Celtic, W. 
bach little, bachgen a boy, bachgenes, baches (dim.) a little 
darling, bachigyn a very little thing. Hence Fr. bacelle, bace- 
lote, bachele, bachelette a young girl or servant, baceller to 
make love, serve apprenticeship, commence a study; bacel- 
lerie youth; bachelage art and study of chivalry. Hence bache- 
ler, bachelard, bachelier sl young man , aspirant to knighthood, 


apprentice in arms or sciences, v. Wedgwood. The L. L. 
was haccalarius , which, in the sense of an academician not 
yet admitted to his degree, was corrupted into baccalaureus : 
do haccharo e do sempre verde louro, Lusiad 3; 97. 

Baecello It. hull, pod, husk, also blockhead; from L. hacca. 
The Sp. haya (from hacca) also means husk or pod. 

Bacchetta It., Sp. baqueta, Fr. baguette a switch; from bacillus 
with a change of suffix, cf. Rom. Gr. II, 224. 

Baohele — bagascia. 

Bachelier — bacca. 

Baehiller — baccalare. 

Bacia Sp. Pg. a basin: L. L. baccea, v. bacino. 

Baeino It., 0. Sp. Pr. bacin, Fr. bassin, Eng. basin: first found 
in Gregory of Tours : pateris ligneis quas vulgo bachinon (bachi- 
nosj vocant, v. Ducange. The Isid. Glossary has bacca vas 
aquarium. It cannot be from the G. becken, wnich would have 
given baquin in French, v. s. franco. The Du. bak bowl, 
trough, must be referred to the same root, which is, probably, 
the Celtic bac a cavity, cf. bacia. 

Bacio It. (a better but scarcer form is bagid)y Sp. beso, Pg. beijo, 
Pr. bais, E. buss a kiss; vb. baciare &c.; from basium basiare 
(mostly poetical). 

Bacio It. a site exposed to the North, adv. a bacio towards the 
North. It is formed on the analogy of solatio a place exposed 
to the sun (from solata sunshine with the suffix ivus)y and 
meant properly a shady place, obacio for opac-io; the Cat. has 
obaga, N. Pr. ubaCj Dauph. lubac (=Vubac), Com. ovich and 
vagh, Romagn. begh, Gen. luvegu. 

Baeiocco a blockhead, = baecello with a change of suffix; cf. 
Augustus using baceolus = stultus Suet, Aug. c. 27. 

Bacler Fr. to bar, bolt; horn, baculus. 

Baco It. a silk -worm, worm generally; from bombyx (fio^pv^), 
L. L. bombaxy whence bombdco baco, Parm. beg bega. The 
Wal. has bambdc from bombyx. The form big-atto big-attolo 
is best referred to bombyx, and so shortened from bombigatto. 

Bacocco — albercocco. 

Bacon O. Fr. Pr. E., from the O. H. G. bacJio, Du. bak, E. back 
a chine, but Wedg. from O. Du. backe, Du. bigge a pig. 

Baeoro Pg. a one-year-old pig; perhaps from Arab, bekr the 
first born, a young beast, Freyt. 1, 145^. Nothing to do with 
the preceding word. 

Badalucco It. a skirmishing (velitatio), a trifling or toying, Pr. 
badaluc baluc, Ven. badaloco, Com. barloch baloch. It. balocco 
a gaper (also = badalucco), It. badaluccare baluccare baloc- 
care, Piedm. badole. Menage gives badare whence could come 
only baduccare. Diez suggests Pr. badalhar to gape , badaluc 



= badalhuc. A writer in the Journal of Classical iand sacred 
Philology (June 1855) says that hadalucco, if not from the 
Ostrogoths, is prob. of Etruscan origin. He compares is with 
the Rhseto-Rom.Z?«<?flf/5/? fight, quarrel, which seems connected 
with the Goth, haidjan vexare , Sansk. bddh or vddh vexare. 

Badana Sp. Pg. dressed sheep's leather; from Ar. hi-^tdndh. 
Hence Fr. basane, adj. hasane of the colour of tanned sheep's 
skin, tawny. 

Badare It., Pr. Cat. hadar, 0. Fr. haer heer, Fr. bayer (in Berry 
bader)y E. bay. The word meant (l) to gape, Pr. Cat. Fr. Clt.^, 
in Pr. also = to scoff, in Occit. badado = scoffing, (2) to tarry, 
loiter (stop with open mouth), It. Pr. O. Fr., (3) to long after 
a thing (to gape after), It., 0. Fr. ; Sbst. Pr. bada a sentinel, 
adv. de bada, a bada, 0. Fr. en bades to no purpose. It. stare 
a bada to stay with open mouth, wait. It is probably an 
onomatop. from ba expressing the opening of the mouth, 
whence ba-itare or ba-are, badare. Hence It. badigliare, sba- 
digliare, sbavigliare, Pr. badalhar, O. Fr. baailler, Fr. bdiller 
to gape ; Fr. badaud, Pr. badau gaper, fool, dotard ; Pr. badoc, 
baduel, badiu; Fr. &«fi?m jester, badiner; It. baderla a simple, 
foolish woman, Com. baderla to waste time, Rh. baderlar to 
prate, chatter. 

Badaud, badiu — badare. 

Baderla — badare. 

Badigliare — badare. 

Badile It., Sp. badil, badila a fire-shovel; from batillum. 

Bafo 0. Sp. Pg., Sp. baho. Cat. i;^/' breath, steam; Sp. avahar, 
Pg. bafar to warm with the breath; an onomatop., cf. Mil. 
banfa to snort , Ar. bakhara to emit vapour. 

Bafouer — beffa. 

Bafre Fr. a rich feast, bdfrer, N. Pr. hraffd. Pied, bafre (and 
balafre) to gourmandize, Rouchi bafreux, Piedm. bafron a 
glutton. Perhaps of the same root as bave slaver, cf. Pic. bafe 
a gourmand, baflier a sloverer &c.; r is found in It. bdvaro, 
whence Ven. bavarolo a bib ; v. safre. 

Baga Sp. packthread, Pr. bagua; O. Fr. bague a bundle, cf. 
Lomb. baga a wine -bag; hence It. bagaglia, Pr. Fr. bag age, 
baggage. The word is Celtic, Gael, bag , W. batch, Bret. 
beadh a bundle, bag, Gael, bac to hinder, Norse baga. 

Bagage — baga. 

Bagarre Fr. a tumult, contention; from 0. H. G. baga strife (?). 

Bagascia It., Sp. bagasa (by metath. gavasa), Pg. bagaxa, Pr. 
baguassa, O. Fr. bagasse bajasse &c., a prostitute, E. baggage. 
The term, assa = Lat. acea, in It. ascia. This would make it 
from baga a pack (for the connexion v. s. basto). Other deriv- 


ations are (1) the Celtic bach (v. haccalare), baisele, bachele, 
a maid - servant ; (2) the Arab, bagi a strumpet. 

Bagatella It. a conjuror's trick, a trifle, Sp. bagatela, Fr. baga- 
telle a trifle. Muratori derives it from the Modenese bagattare 
to bungle, huddle, and both words, as well as bagattino a 
small coin, presuppose a sbst. bagatta or baghetta which may- 
come from baga (supra), and so = a ''small property" which 
meaning belongs to the Parm. bagata. 

Bagliore It. a sudden and blinding splendour, a dazzling, ab- 
bagliare to dazzle, abbaglio abbagliore illusion, error, also 
sbaglio sbagliare, barbaglio abbarbagliare ^ where the bar is the 
same as that in barlume (q. v.). Menage derives it from bal- 
luca gold -sand, so of anything glimmering and dazzling, but 
this word was scarcely known in It. (v. bdluz) ; perhaps it is 
of the same origin as the Fr. berlue (v. beUugue)^ so for bar- 
gliare = bar-lucolare (cf. diluculum, anteluculus) ; mbarbagliare 
there is a reduplication. The Gen. abbarlugd has the same 
meaning, and comes nearer the original form. 

Bagno It., Sp. bano, Pr. banh, Fr. bain a bath; bagnare &c., Fr. 
baigner; from balneum with elision of the I, balgno being im- 
possible (Basque mainhud). The Wal. bae (fem. pi.) answers 
to the Lat. baioe, 

Bagordo bigordo It., 0. Sp. bohordo bofordo, O. P. bofordo bo- 
far do, L. L. bufurdium, Pr. beort biort bort, 0. Fr. bohort 
bouhourt behort a sort of knightly exercise, a joust, also a 
lance or other weapon used therein; bagordare &c. to joust, 
break lances. In France the knights rode at the 'quintain' 
with the lance (v. Ducange s. quintana), in Spain the bafordo 
was used for throwing at the tablado, in Germany the buhurt 
was a sort of combat between two bodies of troops. The G. 
origin of bohorder (whence Fr. bohort) is almost demonstrated 
by the Sp. f (cf. faraute from heraut), and the It. g (cf. gufo 
for huette)=^v[ie, aspirate. The latter part of the word is prob. 
not from hurten to thrust, for this gives in Fr. hurter, but 
from G. Mrde, 0. H. G. hurt, O. Fr. horde, vb. horder, the 
form hordeis a fence , hurdle corresponding to bohordeis = ba- 
gordo. Hourdum in L. L. = Sp. tablado == a scaffolding, 
hoarding = Rouchi hourd. Perhaps the first part of the word 
contains the root botar (butt v. s. botta); hence bot-hort bo- 
hort (t being dropped before the aspirate) = something to 
strike the stage or scaffolding. 

Bague Fr. a ring set with precious stones , also = the ring of a 
circus; from bacca a pearl, link of a chain. Also from baca 
bacca is the Fr. baie a berry, Pr. baga baca, Sp. baca, Pg. 
baga, It. bacca. 


Baguette — hacchetta. 

Bahari Sp., Vg.bafartB, kind of sparrow-hawk*, =prop. marine, 
from the Ar. ba^hr sea (ba^hrt marinuS; Freytag 1, 88). 

Bahut — baule. 

Bale — baja. 

Bagner — bagno. 

Bailler — bailo. 

Bailler — badare. 

Baillet — bajo. 

Baillif — bailo, 

Bailo balio It., Sp. bayle baile, Pg. bailio, Pr. baile, 0. Fr. bail 
(whence E, bail) a guardian, tutor, manager, bailiff, Fern. It. 
baila balia, Pr. Rh. baila a nurse; It. balia, Sp. Vwbailia, 0. Fr. 
teV//^ a bailiffs office or jurisdiction, bailiwick; It. balivo, Pr. 
bailieu, Fr. bailli a bailiff, or land-steward; It. balire, Pr. bailir, 
O.Fr. baillir to manage, take care of, so also the Pr. bailar, 0. 
Fr. bailler to reach forth, present, Wal. beia to foster, educate, 
beiat a boy. From the Lat. bajulus (Dante bajulo) in L. L. = 
a tutor &c., prop, one who carries children, baila =■ a nurse. 
Hence = a warden , bailiff &c. 

Bailie — bac. 

Bain — bagno. 

Baionnette Fr. a bayonet; so called from Bayonne where they 
were first made or used. 

Baire It. to be astonished or amazed; 0. Fr. adj. ba'if, Rouchi 
bahi astonish; hence It. sbaire, Pr. esbahir, Fr. e'bahir to be 
astorended, Sp. embair to deceive, delude, prop, to amaze. 
From the sound bah (which is used in N. Pr. as an exclama- 
tion of astonishment). Thus it would be connected in origin 
with badare. 

Baisele — bagascia. 

Baja It., Sp. Pr. Sard, bahia, Fr. bate, E. bay ; Isidorus quotes 
it as a Latin word: hunc portum mercatores a bajulandis merci- 
bus vocabant baias. Frisch derives it from the Fr. bayer to 
open the mouth, so that baie =: prop, an opening, and this 
seems to be confirmed by the Cat. form badia from badar, the 
d of which had disappeared from the Sp. before Isidore's 
time. Others make bahia a Basque word whence Bayonne 
(baia harbour and ona good) ; others refer it to the Grael. bddh 
or bdgh with which the Rom. forms agree well enough. 

Bajalt., Sp.Pg. vaya, Fr. toe jest, jeer; whence It. &«;'MCfl5 a jest, 
a trifle. The Gk. ^aiog and the Fr. baie a berry, have been 
proposed, but it is better to refer the word to the Pr. bada, 
O. Fr. baie, adv. en bada in vain, in jest, Fr. donner la baie 
= Sp. dar vaya to make light of one , v. badare. 

Bajare abbajare It. to bark; from the O.Fr. abayer, which from 


hauhariy or formed from the sound like hauharL The Sard, is 
baulai (haubulari) and Ijeliai dbeliai, 

Bajo It., Sp. hayo, Pr. hai, Fr. hat, Eng. hay (of colour); from 
the Lat. hadim used by VaiTO of the colour of a horse. The 
Sp. has also hazo = brown fpan bazo = pain his). Hence Fr. 
haillet light -red, chesnut, L. L. hadiolettus; It. hajocco a cop- 
per-coin, so called from its colour, like the Fr. hlanc, G. 
weisspfennig. The Sp. alhazano, Pg. alvacao chesnut = alb- 
bazano ? 

Bajocco — hajo. 

Bajuea — haia. 

Baladi Sp. mean, worthless. According to the Sp. etymologists, 
from Ar. halad a city , haladi civic ; haladi would then be a 
word used by the country - people who had been cheated in 
the towns. 

Baladrar Sp. to bleat; prob. a corruption of O.Si^,halitar formed 
on the model of ladrar to bark. 

Balafre Fr. a gash or scar in the face, Rouchi herlafe, Mil. bar- 
leffi, It. sherleffe (= grimace), vb. Fr. halafrer. Prob. a com- 
pound from the part, his = bad , and the O. H. G. le/fur = 
lip^ so = bad lip, then of a gaping wound, like ^fUog. In 
Champ, herlafre = a sore lip. 

Balai Fr. a besom , halayer to sweep. The Pr. halai = a stalk, 
rod, switch, so too the 0. Fr. halais (balai?), 0. Eng. haleis, 
Pr. balaiar to whip. Prob. of Celtic origin: the W. bala = a 
shoot plur. balaon = buds, balant a twig, Bret, balaen a 
besom, 0. Fr. halain a whip, Bret, halan. But the Rom. has 
no substantival suffix ai so that the entire form must have 
been adopted , but W. balai means the tongue of a buckle. 

Balais — balascio. 

Balance — hilancia. 

Balandre — palandra. 

Balanza — hilancia. 

Balascio It., Sp. halax balaxe , Pg, halais halache, Pr. halais ba- 
lach, Fr. halais a precious stone, a sort of ruby, so called 
from Badakschan (Balaschan, Balaxiam) where it is found. 
Cf. Ducange s. halascus, 

Balaustro It., Sp. halaustre, Fr. balustre, E. baluster (corrupted 
banister and ballaster), hence balustrata &c.; from L. L. ha- 
laustium (PaXav0tiov) the flower of the wild pomegranate, 
Sp. It. halaustra. 

Balco palco It. a scaffold, stage, whence Sp. Vg. palco; hence 
It. balcone, Sp. holcon, Pg. halcao, Fr. halcon, E. balcony; 
from the 0. Ht G. halcho palcho , G. balken, E. haulk a beam, 
Du. halke a loft, cf. 0. N. balkr an enclosure. In Picardy 


batique retains the German signification. Others derive bal- 
cone from the Pers. hdlkdna a grated window or more probably 
from hdld-khdna, ^'an upper chamber '\ See harhacane. 

Baldaech-ino It., Sp. haldaquino, Fr. baldaquin a canopy; from It. 
Baldacco, Bagdad, whence was brought the peculiar stiff 
(woven of gold-thread and silk) of which they were made. 
Another form in O. Fr. is boudequin , E. baivdekin a rich em- 
broidered cloth used for copes, palls &c., also the portable 
canopy borne over shrines in processions. 

Baldo It., Pr. baut, 0. Fr. 0. Cat. baud, bold, wanton &c., Pr. 
baudos; It. sbst. baldore, Pr. 0. Fr. baudor wantonness, mer- 
riment, It. baldoria a bonfire, feu de joie; 0. It. sbaldire, Pr. 
O. Fr. esbaudir to be bold or wanton; from the Goth, balths, 
O. H. G. bald bold, frank, Goth, balthjan to be bold, to ven- 
ture. The languages of the S. W. of Europe have a similar 
form baldo empty, bare, de balde, em balde in vain , to no pur- 
pose, ^<z^^/o useless, refuse, uncultivated, balda a useless thing, 
a trifle , baldar to maim , baldon baldao = affront , insult (prop. 
= worthlessness , cf. 0. Sp. en baldon = en balde), baldonar 
baldoar to insult. If from the Germ, the idea of wantonness 
must have passed into that of idleness and worthlessness , cf . 
the 0. H. G. gemeit = insolent and idle. But this is improb. 
for the notion of boldness is nowhere met in the Sp., and the 
Sp. words stand quite apart from the rest. Prob. from the 
Arab. baHala to be useless, whence batla balda, just as spatula 
becomes espalda, rotulus rolde. 

Baldonar — baldo, 

Baldoria — baldo. 

Baleno It. lightning, balenare to lighten; from psXsfivov a dart 
(Psls^vLtrjg = a thunderbolt). The proper form would have 
been belenno. Hence It. arcobaleno rainbow , also called arco 
celeste, arco piovoso , Sic. arcu de donno deu, Ven. arco de ver- 
zene, Sic. arcu de Nue. 

Balevre Fr. the lower lip; for basse- levre. 

Balicare It. (Lomb. balica), 0. Fr. baloier to move to and fro, 
to flutter. Cat. bale jar, Sp. Pg. abalear to winnow; perhaps 
from ballare to dance. The Pr. balaiar to flutter, to lash, is 
different in form. 

Balija — valigia, 

Balla It., Sp. Pr. bala, Fr. balle a ball; It. ballone, Sp. balon, Fr. 
ballon, a foot -ball (E. balloon). The It. has also palla pallone 
which leaves no doubt of the derivation from the O. H. G. 
balla palla, M. H. G. bal, O. N. bollr (which Benecke derives 
from the G.), E. ball. The G. is nearer than the Gk. ^dXlBiv 
TtdXXsLv, sbst. TtdXXa. 

Ballare It., Sp. Pg. bailar, Pr. balar, O. Fr. baler to dance; It. 


hallo, Sp. Pg. haile, Pr. Fr. hal a dance; E. ball. From halla 
a ball •, the Sp. hailar is for an orig. halear (cf . guerrear, ma- 
near), whence baelar hailar , in 0. Sp. also hailar, Pg. halhar. 
Ball-play in the Middle- Ages, as in ancient Greece, was often 
associated with singing and dancing. Hence Rom. hailar e got 
to mean to dance; so in O. Sp. hailar meant to sing, whence 
It. hallata, Fr. hallade a hallad. 

Balme O. Fr., Pr. Cat. halma (in the modern dialects haumo) a 
cave or grotto in a rock, Swiss halm. Some consider the word 
to be Celtic (Schmeller s. v. hal fen), but in the above sense it 
does not occur in this family of languages. The G. has harm 
a bosom (for the change of r into /, cf. Pr. Alvernhe alhre), 
which is found even in Rom. (v. Schott deutsche spr. in Pie- 
mont p. 242); but the sense of cavity, sinus terrse ; seems for- 
eign to the G. word. Steub (Rhset. Ethnol.) considers the 
Rhset. palva to be the original form (found in many names of 
places); hence Bav. Tyrol, hal fen, Rom. halma, Rh. hova. 

Balocco — hadalucco. 

Baloier — halicare. 

Balordo — I or do. 

Balourd — lordo. 

Balsa Sp. Pg.; Cat. hassa a pool; also a raft; Pg. also = straw- 
mat; from the Basque halsa a collection or heap. Humboldt 
refers the name of the town Balsa in Bsetica (Pliny) to this 

Baluardo — boulevard. 

Baluc — hadalucco. 

Balustre — halaustro. 

Baluz O. Sp. a small nugget of gold; Lat. halux hallux goldsand 
(Pliny); halluca (in later authors), prob. an old Sp. word; v. 
Pott; Etym. Forsch.2; 419; 510. Baluz (also haluce) is formed 
by Rom. writers from halux. 

Balza It. the hem or border of a garment; from halteus, Wal. 
baltz a snare. Hence halzano, Pr. hausan, O. Fr. haucant, 
white (prop, striped); generally used of animals; espec. as the 
name of the boar in fables ; Fr. halzan a dark horse with 
white feet; E. hawson a name of the badger from the white 
streaks on its face. 

Balzan — balza. 

Balzare It. to jump; spring; bound upwardS; Vr.balsar, It.balzo, 
Cat. hals, O. Fr. haus, a bound or leap; in It. also = a cliff 
(for which a fem. balza is also used) ; It. shalzare to swing; 
vibratC; sbst. shalzo. The word is prob. Italian; being chiefly 
used in that language (cf. balzellare, halzellonf): so, perhapS; 
from the Gk. fiaXkC^Hv to hop or bound. 

jBambagio bambagia It. cotton ; Milan, homhds, E. bombast prop. 


= cotton- wadding ; from homhyx (Po^pv^) silk, cotton, M. Gr. 
pa^pdxtov , L. L. hambacium. Hence It. hambagino, Sp. hom- 
tasi, Fr. homhasin basin, E. bombasin, L. adj. bombycinus. 

Bambin bamboehe — bambo. 

Bambo It. childish, silly, Sp. bamba a simpleton (Covarruvias) ; 
hence It. bambino, bambolOy bambola, bamboccio (Fr.bamboche), 
Sp. bambdrria (m.) a child, baby, childish man &c., Austrian 
bams a child. The root is the same as that of bambalio (Cicero) 
and of ^a^^aXog, pcc^paXc^SLv ^ pa^PatvsLv to lisp &c. The 
Sp. bamba = a swing, bambolear to swing. Norm, bamboler, 
Wall, bambiio waver. Burg, vambe the swing of a bell; the 
It. bamboleggiare (bambolo a child) corresponds exactly with 
bambolear: cf.the cognate babbeo. It. bimbo is a weakened form 
of bambo. 

Ban — bando. 

Ban bana Pr., Cat. bang a a horn, a stag's horn; prob. from the 
W. ban, cf. also O.H. G.^«m, Bavar. hirschbain a stag's horn. 
Hence Occit. banarui homed, banar(d) a horned beetle. 

Banasta — benna. 

Banco It. Sp. Pg., Pr. Fr. banc, It. Sp. Pg. Pr. banca, Fr. 
banque, a bench; from O. H. G. banc. There is also a W. 
banc (Gael, binnse), but the It. form panca vindicates the G. 
derivation. Hence It. banchetto, Fr. E. banquet, Sp. banquete, 
prop. = a light ornamental dessert, from vb. banchettare to 
give a banquet, prop, to arrange tables and benches; ban- 
chiere &c., banker. 

Banda It. Sp. Pr., Fr. bande a band, string, also a band== a 
troop; from the Goth, bandi (f.), O.H.G. band (n.). Hence It. 
bandiera, Sp. bander a, Pr. bandiera baneira , Fr. banniere 
(Q.panier, E. banner) y a standard, cf. Goth.bandva an ensign, 
and Paul. Diac. 1, 20: vexillum quod bandum appellant; the 
simple bannum is found only in 0. Fr. ban, Pr. auri-ban (cf. 
auriflamma); hence, too, Sp. bandear, Pr. bandeiar baneiar 
float (as a banner), intrans. to pass to and fro, to pass across, 
O.Fr. banoier, esbanoier, M.H.G. baneken, whence orig. Rom. 
form banicare, still seen in Com. banga to waver. 

Bande bander — benda. 

Bandibula Sp. the .jaw; from mandibula. 

Bando It. Sp. Pg., JPr. ban, Fr. ban a public proclamation, bann; 
It. bandire, Sp. Pr. bandir, Pg. bandir banir, Fr. bannir to 
proclaim, denounce, banish, whence It. bandito a bandit an 
outlaw. L. L. bannum == interdictum, bannire = edicere, 
relegare. The root is German, but G. bannan would have 
given bannare banner; so that it is better to derive bandire &c. 
from the Goth, bandvjan, bannir from another form banvjan; 
some G. dialects omit the v. The 0. Fr. arban service = G. 


harihaUf heerhan, whence by a corruption Fr. arriere-han. 
From bando comes the O. Fr. Pr. bandon generally with a 
= (1) ban: vendre gage a bandon^ (2) will; discretion (price): 
prenez tot a vostre bandon. From this adv. a bandon is formed 
a sbst. abandon, It. abbandono abandonment, abbandonare &c. 
to abandon. Trench gets the sense of abandon differently, 
viz. from that of denouncing: "what you denounce you 
detach yourself from, you abandon^\ Another derivative is 
0. Fr. forbanir to outlaw (for = foras), It. forbannuto an out- 
law, O. ¥v. forban banishment, also = an outlaw, a pirate 
(Fr. forban)y L. L. forbannitus , ferbannitus. It. contrabbando, 
Fr. contrebande = non-observance of an edict, smuggling. 
Hence E. contraband. 

Banlieue Fr. prop. = a league's jurisdiction, so a district under 
such jurisdiction, suburbs, environs. So too 0. Fr. ban-moUn 
mill - territory , v. Due. s. bannum leucce. 

Banne — benna. 

Bannir — bando. 

Banque — banco. 

Banse — benna. 

Baquet — bac. 

Bara It., Fr. bar usu. biere, Pr. bera a bier, Eh. bara a corpse; 
from O. H. G. bara, A. S. beer bere, E. bier, Du. berrie. 

Baraeane It., Sp. barragan, Pg. barregana, Pr. Fr. barracan a 
stuff made of goat's hair, barracan ; from Ar. barrakdn a dark 
dress, Freyt. 1, 113, which according to Sousa comes from 
the Persian barak a stuff made of camel's hair. 

Baracca It., Sp. barraca, Fr. baraque a hut, tent, barrack; from 
barra a bar, like It. trabacca from trabs. 

Baragouin gibberish; from the two Breton words bara bread and 
givin wine coined by the French who heard these words often 
uttered by the Bretons whom they regarded as barbarous, cf. 
bretonner to talk unintelligibly. Wedgwood refers it along 
with barbarous, bargain, barter &c. to the root bar signifying 
confused noise, squabble, tumult. 

Baraja — baro. 

Baratto It., O. Sp. barato, Pr. barat, Fr. barat, O. Sp. Pr. barata, 
O. Fr. barate a fraudulent bargain; It. barattare, Sp. Pr. ba- 
ratar, O. Fr. bareter to cheat, truck, exchange barter, Sp. 
baratear to cheapen, O. Pg. baratar to destroy; It. sbarattare, 
Sp. Pr. desbaratar, O. Fr. desbareter to distroy, disorder; Fr. 
baratter to churn (to mix up and stir confusedly); Sp. bara- 
teria fraud, espec. by master of a ship, E. barratry. Barratry 
ace. to Blackstone is the offence of stirring up quarrels. 
Several derivations are given: (l)that from li.barareio cheat 
(baro) would not be regular in form; (2) the Pers. bardtel 


bribery could only have been introduced during the Crusades, 
whereas the Rom. word occurs as early as the first half of 
the 12^*^ cent.-, (3) the 0. N. hardtta battle corresponds to 
Dante's use of haratta, but this rather means the entangle- 
ment, and bustle, and tumult of a fight, 0. Fr. harate, 0. Sp. 
harata; besides the meanings of ^combat' and ^ fraud ^ (en- 
tanglement) could hardly be of common stock. It is best per- 
haps, to derive it from TtgdrrsLv (cf. boite from Ttvl^tg)^ a word 
which may have been introduced by the Gk. merchants. 
Wedgwood gets it from the root bar, v. haragouin s. fin. The 
Sp. harato = cheap, sbst. cheapness, vb. haratar to buy 

Barba It. (m.) uncle, father's brother, Dante Par. 19? 37, Rh. 
larba, L. L. harhas, It. harhano, L. L. harhanus; from harha 
a beard. In Com. it is used generally as a title of honour, so 
Neap, zi = It. zio. 

Barbacane It. (m.), Sp. Pr. barbacana, Pg. barbacao, Fr. barba- 
cane a barbican; from the Pers. bdld-khdna upper chamber, 
a word which also gives balcony, prob. brought from the East 
by the Crusaders , Wedg. ; but v. balco. 

Barbasco Sp. a plant; from verbascum, like O.Sp. bardasca from 
verdasca (viridis) a rod. 

Barbassero — vassallo. 

Barbeeho Sp., Pg. barbeito a fallow; from L. vervacium. In the 
North West the v (as in other instances v. Rom. Gr. I, 187) 
has become g; thus Pr. garag, Fr. gueret, Valen. guaret, Cat. 

Barbotar barbulhar — borbogliare. 

Barca It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Wal. barce, Fr. barque a small trading 
vessel, a bark, barge, L. L. barca. The Pr. barja, 0. Fr. 
barge, Fr. berge, E. barge, requires an orig. barica (cf. carrica 
charge, serica serge), which may be from ^ccQcg (parts Proper- 
tius) like anca avica from avis. Many marine terms are bor- 
rowed from the Gk. cf. poggia, sesto, gol/o, artimone. Others 
derive it from 0. N. barkr, E. bark, prop. = a vessel made 
of bark. 

Barcar Sp. Pg. found in abarcar to embrace , sob ar car to carry 
under the arm. Not from brachiare which would give brazar, 
but from brachicare , like caballicare. Sp. sobaco = armpit is 
the L. L. subbrachium. 

Barda It. Sp., O. Fr. barde horse -armour of iron -plate, Pg. 
barda, Fr. barde a saddle, also a slice of bacon so called from 
its being placed round fowls before roasting: hence Fr. bar- 
deau a shingle. It. bar delta, Fr. bardelle, Pr. bar del a pad, 
pillion, It. bardotto, Fr. bar dot a saddle -mule (one which the 


driver rides). Perhaps from the N. bardi a shield ; though the 
Pg. harda a hedge. Sp. barda the fencing on a wall belongs 
to the Basque abarra "it is grafted" (Larramendi). Or all 
the above words may with the Sp. abbarda a saddle and a 
slice of bacon be referred to the Ar. al-barda^ah a pad or 
cloth put under the saddle to prevent its hurting the back. 
Freyt. 1, 106. The 0. Fr. Champ, barde a carpenter's axe, 
^A.barde, Dauph. j9«r/ow a bill is prob. from a different root, 
0. H. G. barta, Du. barde a pick- axe. 

Bardascia It., Sp. bardaxa, Fr. bardache = pathicus; from the 
Ar. bardag a slave? Lomb. and Piedm. bardassa = merely 
"boy", the Sard, bardascia has both meanings. On the O. Fr. 
bardache sl stake, v. Grrandgagnage v. bardahe. 

Bardeau — barda. 

Bardosso — bisdosso. 

Barga Sp. 0. Pg., Fr. berge a steep slope; prob. from the Celtic, 
cf. W. bargodi to hang over, bar god the eaves of a house. 

Bargagno It., Pr. barganh, Pg. Pr. barganha, E. bargain, 0. Fr. 
bargaine {■= ceremonie Roquefort); It. bargagnare, Pg. Pr. 
barganhar to bargain, Fr. barguigner (for bargaigner, cf. 
grignon) to hoggle, loiter. The L. L. barcaniare shows that 
the^ is for c, so that the word prob. comes from barca, which, 
according to Isidore, was used for traffic, so that bargagno 
would be properly = trafficking. Wedgwood derives it from 
the root bar (in barbarous &c.) from the notion of squabbling 
and haggling. Genin derives it from Rom. particle bar = 
bis, ber and gagner, but the L. L. barcaniare, and the constant 
form bar and gagn for guadagn, are against him. 

Bargello It., Sp. Pg. barrachel, O. Fr. barigel a police-officer, 
a bumbailiff; from L. L. barigildus, certainly a G. word, but 
of unknown derivation, cf. Grimm, Rechtsalt. p. 314. 

Barigel — bargello. 

Baril barile — barra. 

Barioler Fr. to speckle, make a medley of; if from variare, va- 
riolare the b must be due to the particle bar {= bis), for L. v 
does not become b in Fr. (brebis is from L. berbex), or it may 
be from bar and riole striped. 

Baritone It. Sp., Pg. bariton, Fr. baryton (obsol.), E. barytone; 
from ^aQvzovog. 

Barlong Fr., 0. Fr. berlong (a garment) of unequal length; for 
beslong = It. bislungo, bis = anything uneven &c., q. v. 

Barnatge — barone. 

Baro barro It. a rogue; whence barone, bar are barrare to cheat. 
From the same root prob. come: Pr. baran fraud. It. barocco 
usury, O. Sp. baruca craft. It. barullo a fruiterer (cf. treccare 
to cheat, trecca a huckster); Sp. baraja, Pg. Pr. baralha, 


O. Fr. herele a tumult; brawl, bar ajar, baralhar to throw into 
confusion. Perhaps from the root bar, v. s. baratto. 

Barocco — baro. 

Barone It., Sp. varon, Pg. vardo, Pr. bar (ace. baro), 0. Fr. ber 
(ace. baron), Fr. E. baron orig. = vir or maritus, next as adj. 
= manly, whence Pr. barnatge, 0. Fr. baronie barnie prowess, 
embarnir to be courageous, next in L. L. = lord, ^^ gravis et 
authenticus vir", bar ones == nobles or vassals of the crown. 
L. baro = a fool, simpleton, in Scholiast on Persius is ex- 
plained to be ^' servus militum" and is said to be of Gallic 
origin. We find a Gael, bar = champion , but words formed 
like bar baron are either from the L., as drac dragon, laire 
lairon, or from the G., as fel fellon, Uc ugon; so it is better to 
refer it to the 0. H. G. bero (ace. berun beron) porter, from 
vb. ber an, Goth, bairan (bear); others make it radically the 
same word as the L. vir , Goth, vair , A. S. luer , Gael, fear a 
man, v. Bopp. Gloss, s. vira. Com. Bergam. bar, Piedm. ^^rro, 
Romag. berr = ram, Lorr. berra (berardj, cf. s. mar rone. 

Baroque — barrucco. 

Barque — barca. 

Barra It. Sp. Pr., Fr. barre, E. bar; hence Sp. barrio, Pr. Cat. 
barri 2i wall, a suburb, L. L. barrium; Fr. barreau. It. bar- 
riera, Sp. barrera, Fr. barriere, E. barrier &c.; Sp. barrar 
barrear, Fr. barrer &c. From the Celtic: W. bar = a bough; 
M. H. G. bar barre is used in Rom. sense. Hence Sp. barras 
a bar, Sp. embarazo, Fr. embarras, Sp. embarazar, Fr. emba- 
rasser, debarrasser, E. embarrass &c. ; Sp. barrica, Fr. barrique 
a barrel, whence barricata a barricade (of casks &c.); It. ba- 
rile, Sp. Pg. barril, Fr. baril, W. baril, Gael, baraill, E. bar- 
rel, Sp. barral. We find the same word in the Fr. names of 
places, e. g. Bar-sur-Aube, Bar -le- due. 

Barraehel — bargello. 

Barragan Sp., Pg. barragdo a companion, a bachelor. As it is 
used for a man of prowess {buen barragan Poem d. Cid), it 
may be identical with barragan (= baracane q. v.) which 
meant a strong durable stuff. 

Barrette — berretta. 

Barrica barril • — barra, 

Barriga Sp. Pg. the abdomen. Not from barra since the Sp. has 
no suffix iga. As poitrine prop. = breast -girdle, so barriga 
may = girth, from the O. H. G. baldrich, baldriga barriga 
(cf. Rodrich Rodrigo) ; baldriga appears in Parm. bodriga = 
belly (o = alj. In Berry baudru = ventru, cf. baudre, 

Barro Sp. Pg. mud, clay; from Ar. barj earth, potter's clay. 

Barrocho ■ — biroccio. 

Barrucco berrucco Sp., Pg. barroco a pearl of uneven shape 


not round, in Pg. also = an uneven rock, Fr. harroque oval. 
Three derivations are given, (l) verruca which Pliny uses to 
express the unevenness of a precious stone; the Lat. uca, 
however, is not exchangeable with Rom. oc, (2) hrochus a 
prominent tooth, (3) his-roca an uneven rock (v. his), Brochus 
has the advantage in gender, bis roca in sense and sound. 
Hence, perhaps, too the Pg. harroca an uneven stony district, 
which some connect with the Ar. borqah Freyt. 1, 111. 

Barruntar Sp. Pg. to foresee, guess, 0. Sp. barrunta foresight, 
barrunte a spy, a scout. Prob. = barutar with n inserted, cf. 
garganta for gargata, encentar for encetar, cimenterio for cime- 
terio, T}edant for edat; barutar = to sift, cf. cernere, tiqCvelVj 
V. blutar. The N. Pr. has the same word barountd to shake 
which, doubtless, comes from the notion of sifting, cf. Sp. 
mecer =^ to mix , to shake. 

Baruffa — ruff a. 

Barullo — baro. 

Bas — basso. 

Basane — badana, 

Basca Sp., Pg. vasca disgust, nausea, O. Sp. bascar to feel dis- 
gust. Prob. from the Basque, v. Larramendi. The Rh. 
baschizzi has the same meaning. 

Bascule Fr. counterpoise belonging to a swipe or a weigh- 
bridge, see -saw &c.; from bas and cul according to Frisch 
and Scheler. The N. Pr. leva-coua (=^ cauda) is more clear. 

Basin — bambagio. 

Basire It. to die, N. Pr. Dauph. basir; from Gael, bas death, 
basaich to die , N. basa to kill. The Com. has sbasi to die and 
to grow pale, Piedm. sbasi in latter sense. 

Basquiner O. Fr., Wal. bosconi to bewitch; from pa^xaLvetv. 

Bassln — bacino. 

Basso It., Sp. baxo, Pg. baixo, Pr. Fr. bas low; It. bassare &c. 
The Isid. Gloss, has bassus crassus pinguis, Papias bassus cur- 
tus humilis; the former is the earlier meaning ; in fact , the It. 
has bassotto thick = O.Fr. bas broad. The word is a genuine 
Latin one, Bassus having been used very early as a family- 
name, which, like many others, had reference to personal pe- 
culiarity. Perhaps, the orig. meaning of bassus was that which 
extends in breadth not in height, whence the senses of "thick" 
and "short". From the adj. comes It. sbst. basso the under- 
part, Fr. bas stocking (prop, bas-de-chausse, cf. haut-de- 
chausses), Sp. baxosy Pg. baixos (pi.) under garments, also 
shoes , nothing to do with L. baxea, which would have given 
baisse in Fr. 

Basta It. Sp. Pg. Cat. a basted seam, O. Fr. baste, Occ. basto (a 
coat -lap?); Fr. bdtir, Sp. bastear, It. imbastare, Sp. Cat. em- 


hastar to haste; from O. H. G. bestan to repair^ M. H. G. 
besien, which from sbst. bast. 

Bastar — basto. 

Bastare bastione — basto. 

Bastilla — basia. 

Bastille bat — basto. 

Basto It. Sp.; Pr. bast, Fr. bat (E. bat-hox^e) a pack-saddle; 
Pr. bastar, Fr. bdter to saddle. It is generally referred to the 
G. hast of which the materials for the fastenings might be 
made. Wedgwood refers it to basta (sup.) the pad being orig. 
a quilted (stitched) cushion. Diez is led from a comparison 
with bastone to attribute to basto the notion of ^^prop" 
"trestle" on which the burden rests, so that it would be akin 
to pa6rd^8Lv. Basterna a litter may be referred to the same 
root (but V. Grimm, Geschichte d. deut. spr. p. 461). But Gk. 
pdiSra^ {fia0rdt,c3) a porter is found in Pr. bastais. Cat. bastax, 
Sp. bastage, It. hastagio. Of the same origin are It. bastone 
(Fr. baton, Wal. heston &c.); It. bastire, 0. Sp. Pr. bastir, Fr. 
bdtir to build (prob. to prop?), whence 0. Sp. Pr. hastida, It. 
bastia, bastione, Fr. bastille &c. ; Sp. Pg. basto close, compact, 
Sp. also = thick, coarse (espec. in moral sense); It. bastare, 
Sp. Pg. Pr. bastar to be sufhcient (prop, to fill out, cf. Sp. 
harto filled out, sufficient), Ven. bastare to hinder (stop up), 
O. Sp. bastir io furnish, provide for. Hence, too, probably 
comes It. Sp. Pp. bastar do, Pr. bastart, Fr. bdtard^ 0. Fr. E. 
bastard, also called in 0. Fr. fils de bast and by corruption 
fds de has , son of a pack-saddle. The termin. ard is common 
in a bad sense (cf. Kom, Gr. 2, 310, such E. words as drunk- 
ard, niggard &c.). The word prob. had its origin in Provence 
and Spain, where the licentious muleteers were accustomed 
to use the pack-saddles and furniture of their mules for bed- 
ding, cf. Don Quixote, p. 1, cap. 16, where the muleteer's 
bed is spoken of as being "fabricado de las enjalmas" "y de 
todo el adorno de los dos mejores mulos que traia". The 
rest of his story affords further illustration, cf G. bankert, 
bankart a bastard, from hank. Wedgwood derives bastard 
from the Celtic baos (Gael.) lust. 

Batafalua, batafaluga Sp. (obsolete), with m for b, matalahua, 
-hug a, -huva. Cat. Sard, matafaluga anise; from Ar. ^hahbat- 

Bataille — hattere. 

Bat ard — bastar do. 

Batassare It. to shake; prob. from the Gk. Jtatccacstv to strike, 
to rattle, not from buttare, for the It. has no suffix ass. 

Bateau — batto. 

Batir baton — basto. 


Battere It.; Sp. hatir, Pg. hater, Pr. batre, Fr. hattre, Wal. hate, 
Serv. hdtati, E. ^^a^; from hatuere, shortened to batere (Rom. 
Gr. 1, 162). This, though rare in classical, occurs often in 
L. L. where, however, it takes a different flexion: pf. battidi 
(like prendidi , ostendidi), partic. battutus. Among the deriva- 
tives are It. battaglia, Sp. batalla, Fr. bataille, Wal. betde, E. 
battle; It. battaglio and batacchio, Sp. badajo for batajo clapper 
of a bell; It. battigia epilepsy; Sp. batan a fulling-mill; Pr. 
bataria fray, battery, Fr. batterie mounted ordnance, a battery. 

Battezzone It. a coin bearing the image of John the Baptist, 
from battezzare ; hence G. batzen. It. bezzo. 

Battifredo It., Fr. be/froi, O. Fr. berfroi beffroit a tower, belfry; 
from M. H. G. bercvrit bervrit a tower for shelter or assault, 
L. L. berfredus belfredus. The It. word has a reference to 
battere. For similar secondary etymologies cf. palafreno, bac- 
calaureus, lanthorne &c. 

Batto It. a rowing-boat; hence battello, Sp. batel, Pr. batelh, 
Fr. bateau a boat; from A. S. bat, 0. N. bdtr, W. bad, E. boat. 

Bau9ant — balza. 

Bauche 0. Fr. plaster- work on a wall, or a workshop; hence 
ebaucher to work in the rough, embaucher to engage a work- 
man, debaucher to lead astray, to decoy a workman, E. de- 
bauch. Cf. Gael, bale, O. N. bdlkr partition -wall, baulk 
between furrows. 

Baud Fr. a stag-hound, also called chien muet; from Gael, baoth 
deaf, dumb, Goth, bauth Kcacpog, cf. Norm, baude numb. 

Baudet Fr. an ass, fem. baude, in fables Boudouin; from baud 
frolicsome (v. haldo). 

Baudre O.Fr., Pr. baudrat, Yv.baudrier, Fg.boldrie, It. budriere. 
From the 0. H. G. balderich, 0. E, baldrick baudrik. Hence 
0. Fr. esbaudre the waist, cf. cmge (cingulum). V. s. barriga. 

Baule It., Sp. bahul baul, Pg. baliul bahu, Pr. bauc , Fr. bahut, 
bahu, a trunk, valise. From M. H. G. behut (used by Luther 
= magazine, repository) which is from behuten to cover, 
keep. The O. Fr. bahud , L. L. behudum is the orig. form: 
V. Mahn, Etym. Untersuch. p. 89. Diez wrongly refers it to 

Bausan — bugia. 

Bausia — bugia. 

Bava It., Sp. Pg. baba, Fr. have spittle, slaver; Pg. Pr. bavar, 
Fr.baver, Si^.bavear to drivel. An onomatop., expressing prop, 
the drivelling of an infant fcf. pa^d^SLV to stammer), hence 
E. babe, baby, Fr. have = also childish talk, baveux bavard 
a gossip; Sic. vava = slaver and child. Hence Sp. babieca 
foolish (prop. = drivelling, foaming, whence its use as the 



name of the Cid's horse); Sp. babosa = a slug, &c., Cat. emba- 
biecar, Pg. embabacar, Sp. embaucar to cheat, impose upon. 

Baxo — basso. 

Baya Sp. a berry; from bacca baca, Pg. baga. 

Bayer — badare. 

Bazo Sp. Pg. spleen, cf. N. Pr. bescle, 0. Fr. bascle. 

Bazo — bajo. 

Bazza It , Sp. baza, Cat. basa good luck, trump in cards ; from 
M.H.G.^^zz^gain Cbaz=besse?'J. It was prob. introduced by 
the G. mercenaries. Hence It. bazzica a game at cards, baz- 
zicare to have intercourse with, frequent. 

Beau Fr. in beau-pere , beau-fils, beau- fr ere, belle-mere, belle- fille, 
belle 'Sceur, N. Pr. beou-pero, bela-mera, father-in-law or 
step -father &c. Formerly there were words for each: sogre, 
sogredame, gendre, bru or ?iore, serorge (m. f.) to express rela- 
tionship in law; for step - relationship /?«r«5^r^, marasire, ftli- 
astre (m.f.), frerastre, sorastre. When marasire got to mean a 
bad step -mother, belle- mere came into use vjcoKOQianxcogy 
and then beau-pere &c. The words were afterwards used for 
relations in-law. The Du. has schoon (fair), the Bret, kaer to 
express step-relationship. The Mil. ?nessee, Yen. missier = fa- 
ther-in-law, madonna = mother-in-law. 

Beaueoup Fr., whence It. belcolpo = multum ; from beau fine, 
great (cf. beau mangeur = grand z».), raid coup a stroke or 
throw, a heap, cf. Sp. golpe = a multitude. In 0. Fr. we find 
grandcoup, rr. mancolp. 

Becasse beche — beoco. 

Beccabungia It., Sp. Pg. Fr. becabunga, Russ. ibunka, a plant, 
brook-lime; from Du. becke-bunge (brook -clod), G. bachbunge 
one of the very few names of plants which the G. has given 
to the Rom. languages. The usual Fr. is berle de riviere. 

Becco It., Pr. Fr. bee, Pg. bico beak, bill; Sp. bicos (pi.) small 
gold tags. A Celtic word: cui Tolosw nato cognomen in pueritid 
Becco fuerat, id valet gallinacei rostrum Suet. Vitell. c. 18; 
Gael, beic, Bret, bek, Du. bek, IV. pig. Hence Pr. beca, Fr. 
beche for beche a spade, though 0. Fr. has besche; It. beccare, 
Pr. bechar, Fr. becquer to hack, becher dig, G. bicken picken, 
lEi.pick; It. beccaccia, Fr. becasse. Cat. becada a snipe; Fr. 
bequille a crutch, Fr. abequer to feed young birds ; Pg. debicar 
to eat daintily. It. bezzicare to pick with the beak may in- 
clude the two, becco Sind pizza (q. v.). 

Becco It. goat. This word is found in very old inscriptions. It 
cannot be of the same origin as the Pr. boc, Fr. bouc, but is 
connected with Fr. bique = chevre, in the Jura bequi = che- 
vreau, = Camp, bequat, Rouchi bequeriau = lamb, Norm. 



becard = a wether. The Serv. has bekawitza sheep from be- 
knuti to bleat, Serv. bik = an ox. 

Beeerro Sp. Pg. a calf, Pg. fern, becerra; from Basque beicecorra, 
from beia a cow (W. biiv) and cecorra a calf. Hence Sp. &?- 
cerr« a wild -goat, bizerra a roe. 

Bedaine — bed on. 

Bedeau — bidello. 

Bedel — bidello. 

Bedello — betulla. 

Bedon Fr. a tambour , small drum , also = a big belly (= be- 
daine), Com. bidon fat and lazy, Rouchi bidon a fat lazy man, 
Fr. bidon a big -bellied pitcher. Bed = bid in bidet (p. v.). 
Rouchi bedene = bedaine and bidet. 

Beer — badare. 

Befana It. a large doll with which children are frightened on 
the Epiphany (befania), whence the name. So in Germany 
an image of Bertha was used on the same day for the same 

Beffa It., Sp. befa, O. Fr. be/fe, O. Sp. Pg. bafa a scoffing, de- 
rision; It. beffare, Sp. befar, O. Sp. bafar to scoff, Yr.bafouer 
to treat shamefully; Sp. befo the underlip of a horse, also = 
thick-lipped (written also belfo), Cat. bifi, Occ. befe; Pic. 
bafe a glutton. Prob. from the G., cf. Bav. be/fen to bark, to 
scold. Frisch refers to the Thuring. bdppe mouth. Mil. babbi, 
Com. bebb, Occit. bebo a lip ; the Gen. fa beffe = pout the lips 
at. From be/j^a comes the Fr. better, E. ba/fle (formerly r= 
mock; put to scorn, espec. a recreant knight). 

Baffler — be^a. 

Beflfroi — battifredo. 

Befo — beffa. 

Begue Fr., Pic. beique bique a stammerer; hence 0. Sp. vegue, 
Pic. Norm. Burg, beguer, Fr. begayer to stammer, Fr. begai 
stammering. Perhaps contracted from the Pr. bavec a silly 
babbler, Sp. babieca a booby, O. Fr. begaud, Norm, begas. 
For the contraction cf. Pr. sageta, O. Fr. sette. 

Begueule Fr. a booby, prop, a gaper: from beer and gueule. 

Behetria Sp. Pg. a free town; from Basque beret -iria a town 
for itself, i. e. independent; according to others from bene- 
factoria (A. D. 1020), benfetria (A. D. 1129). 

Beignet — bugna. 

Beira — riviera. 

Belare It., Fr. beler to bleat; from belare used by Varro for 
balare. Hence Romagn. be = bleating. Cat. be a sheep, Norm. 
bai a wether, cf. bidet. 
Beldroega — portulaca. 

Bale O. Fr. a weasel, Fr. (dim.) belette, Sp. beleta, Mil. bellora, 



Com. herola, Parm. benla, Gen. hellua, Sic. baddottula (for 
ballottula hellottuld). In form bele corresponds to the W. bele 
a pole-cat, 0. H. G. bille, but it is more probably the same as 
the Lat. bella beautiful, so bellora =^ bellida , cf. the Bavar. 
schonihierlein , schondiglein , Dan. den kjonne (pulchra), a pro- 
pitiatory epithet for an animal which was thought to possess 
mysterious power, O. E. fairy. The Norm, word is roselet 
(red), Lorr. moteile (mustela), Norm, bacotdette. 

Beleno Sp. henbane; from venenum, It. veleno? More probably 
connected with the A. S. belene belone belune, Russ. belena, 
Pol. bielun, Bohem. bljn, Hung, belend-fu, O. H. Gr. bilisa. 

Belier Fr. a ram, in fables Belin, whence Norm, blin; from Du. 
bel, E. bell, cf. Du. bel-hamel, E. bell-ivether, in Fr. also 
clocheman and mouton a la sonnette, L. L. aries squillatus. The 
Fr. beliere the ring on which a bell - clapper hangs , is of the 
same origin. 

Belitre Fr. a beggar, a scoundrel, whence Sp. belitrey Pg. Mitre; 
li.belitrone. Prob. from the G.bettler, the 0,Fr. belistre having 
an s inserted before the t. 

Bellaco — vigliacco. 

Belleguin Sp., Pg. beleguim a bailiff; according to Sousa from 
Ar.baleguin, according to Larramendi from Basque bella=Sij^, 
vela, watch. 

Belletta It. sediment, mud. The Mil. has Utta. It can hardly 
CO we from TCrjXog as Blanc suggests. 

Belletto It. paint; from bello, cf. faitibello = bellelto. 

Bellezour O.Fr., Fr.bellazor a comparative from bel, Pr.nomin. 
bellaire; from the L. bellatior, from bellatus (Plaut» bellatulus): 
cf. ebriolatus, pullatus, bifidatus. Bellatus is found in Q. Fr. 
bele. The 0. Sp. had a peculiar form belido (bellitus). Con- 
nected with this is, prob., the Neap, belledissemo, 

BeUico — ombelico, 

Bellicone — wilecome, 

Bellizear — pellizcar. 

Bellota Sp., Pg. belota bolola boleta acorn ; = Ar. ballu^t Freyt. 
1, 153, which answers to \he\^2ii.balanus. Hence, too, It. 

Bellugue 0. Fr., Pr. beluga, whence Norm, beluette, Fr. bluette, 
Yx.belugeiar (belugueiari), Fr. Z>/w^^^^r to emit sparks. From 
the part, bis and lux, so = properly ^^ feeble light '^ = It. bar- 
lume, Sp. vis-lumbre, l^orm.. berluette. Beluga = bes-luga as 
O. Fr. beloi= bes-loi. The Fr. berlue a dazzling is only an- 
other form of the same word, Berrichon eberluette, Pr. abel- 
lucar, Piedm. sbaluche, Ber. eberluter. Champ, aberluder to 
dazzle. In the Mil. barluss (= berlue) lux is preserved not 
altered to luca. 


Benda It. Pr., Lomb. hinda, Sp. venda, Fr. bande vitta, taenia, 
fascia, It. hendare &c.; from O. H. G. hinda, O. H. G. Goth. 
hindan to bind. G. biindel, E. bundle = O. Fr. boundle. 

Benna It. a basket - cart , Com. a cart, or basket for a cart, Rh. 
a carriage , Fr. banne a large covering for the protection of 
goods &c., a tarpaulin, Com. benola, Rh. banaigl, Fr. banneau. 
benneau, banneton. Festus says: benna lingua Gallica genus 
vehiculi appellatur, so inL.L.= vehiculum and also a kind of 
vessel. The Sp. Cat. N. Pr. banasta is connected, but it must . 
be through the 0. Fr. banastre as no ending asta is found. 
The Goth, banst is found in the prov. Fr. banse (f.) a large 
basket, L. L. bansta. 

Beodo O.Sp.t= drunken, from bibitus, cf. comido = one who has 
eaten, R. Gr. 3; 241. Beo = bib, 

Bequille — becca. 

Berbice It., Wal. berbeace, Pr. berbitz, Fr. brebis, Pic. berbis 
a sheep; from berbex a form used by Petronius for vervex, 
L. L. berbix. Hence Pr. bergier, Fr. berger a shepherd, L. L. 
berbicarius; 0. Fr. bercil a sheep-cote == vervecile; Fr. ber- 
cail = vervecale. 

Berbiqui — vilebrequin. 

Bercail — berbice. 

Berceau — bercer (2). 

Bercer (generally berser) O. Fr. to shoot, also to hunt; 0. Fr. 
bersail, It. bersaglio, berzaglio a butt, bersailler berseiller to 
hit. In an old It. chronicle we find: trabs f errata quern ber- 
cellnm appellabant i. e. a battering-ram, evidently from ber- 
bex vervex; from berbex would be formed It. berciare (imber- 
ciare is found), Fr. bercer = to pierce, cf. Wal. berbeca inber- 
beca to hit. 

Bercer Fr., Pr. bressdr, O.Sp. brizar to rock; O.Fr. bers (whence 
Pic. ber)y Pr. bers bres, O. Pg. breco, Fg.'berco, 0. Sp. brizo, 
whence Fr. berceau a cradle, L. L. berciolum. Prob. from 
berbex (v. preced.), the notion being got from the swing of the 
battering-ram, cf. L. L. agitarium in same sense. Fr. berceau 
= also an arch of vines &c., from the resemblance to the 
covering of a cradle. Besides brizo the Sp. has brezo and 
blezo = a wicker-work bed, combleza = concubine. 

Bergante — briga. 

Berge — barca. 

Berla Mil. a waggon -basket; from 0. H. G. biral cophinus. 

Berlanga — brelan. 

Berle Fr. a water -parsnip; Marc. Empiricus has: herbam quam 
Latini berulam, Greece cardaminen vacant. This may be the 
orig. of berle for though the plants are distinct , yet both are 
found growing in brooks , ana both were used for salad. 


Berlina It. Rh. a whipping -post. Muratori gets it 
as if for pilorina; but no It. dialect has the tenuis. Perhaps, 
from Bavar. Z?r^c^^ pillory, whence hreche-lin herchlin berlina? 
or from M. H. G. hritelin a small bridle. 

Berline Fr. a herlin (carriage); from Berlin. 

Berlingare It. to feast, regale oneself, herlingozzo a tart, ber- 
lingoccio = Jeudi gras. From O. H. Gr. prezilinc a cake. 

Berlue — belluca. 

Berlusco It. squinting. Com. balosc blusc; for bilusco (v. bis) = 
Rouchi befiou berlouque; ivarlouque seems a different compound 
connected with Piedm. galuce to squint. 

Berme Fr., whence Sp. berma, narrow path at the foot of a 
rampart; from Du. breme, A. S. brrjmme, E. brim. 

Bermejo — vermiglio. 

Berner Fr. to toss a ball, toss in a blanket, scoff. The Romans, 
says Cujacius, used the sagum for this purpose: sagwn = 0.¥i\ 
berne (v. bernia), whence berner. The Neap, bernare to amuse 
oneself is from the French. 

Bernia sbernia It., Sp. bernia, Fr. bernie berne a coarse stuff for 
cloaks &c., also a cloak made of it, a rug; from Hibernia 
where it was manufactured. Cf. Sp. holanda, Holland, cam- 
bric &c. 

Berretta It., Sp. birreta, Pr. berreta barreta, Fr. barrelte, 0. Sp. 
(m.) barreie, Fr. birret a cap ; from the late L. birrus (byrrhus) 
a coarse cloth , v. bujo. 

Berro Sp. water- cress; the same as the W. berwr, Bret, beler, 
whence L. benda used by Marcellus Empiricus : herbam quam 
Latine berulam , Greece cardaminen vacant. 

Berroviere — berruier. 

Berruier 0. Fr., Pr. berrovier champion. Murat. (Ant. Ital. 2, 
530) makes the berruiers = les hommes perdus du seigneur, 
little different from the ribaldi. Properly = a man of Berry. 
As in the case of chaorcia we have no means of determining- 
how it came to be used as an appellative. Hence the It. 
berroviere sl highwayman, a birro, police-officer, O. Gen. 

Bersaglio — bercer. 

Berser — bercer. 

Berta It. bantering, railing, Lomb. Piedm. a magpie, chatter- 
box; It. berteggiare to jeer; Vr.bertaut a sorry wight? Rouchi 
bertaud an eunuch, bertauder, Fr. bretauder to castrate. Com. 
bertolda to crop the ears or hair; It. bertone a crop-eared 
horse; bertuccio an ape. Is this root bret or bert (mutilating, 
deriding) from the O. N. britian to cut in pieces, or from 
breton in the lay of Hildebrand translated by Lachmann to 
mutilate? The It. berta has, however, another meaning, viz: 


that of a rammer or beetle for driving posts into the ground, 
Fr. demoiselle. The origin of this is clear enough when we 
consider that the hideous and cruel Bertha of the German 
tales also bore the name of Stempfe, from her stamping on 
those obnoxious to her (e. g. refractory children who used to 
be threatened with her vengeance). Whether the other Rom. 
words are connected with this or not, is not clear. 

Bertouser — bis. 

Bertovello It. a weel, bownet. The L. L. vertebolum (L. Sal.), 
a dim. of vertebra, but, in meaning, directly from vertere, 
the neck of the weel being turned inwards, cf. It. ritroso 
(== retrorsus) mouth or neck of a weel. Hence Ven. bertevelo, 
Pied. Crem. Mil. bertavel, Com. bertavelle bertarel; It. berto- 
vello, as martello from martulus, Fr. verveux (mo»e correctly 
verveu) is for vertveu = vertovello. 

Berza — verza. 

Bes N. Pr. Cat. a birch -tree; from the Celtic: Corn, bes bezo, 
Bret, bezo, W. bedw = Lat. betula, 

Besaee — bisaccia. 

Besaigre Fr. sourish ; from part, bis and acer, 

Besaigue — bicciacuto. 

Besant — bisante. 

Bescio besso It. blockhead ; from bestia, like Pr. pec from pecus, 
cf. Com. bescia a sheep, Rh. beschlar to bleat. 

Besi Fr. (in the W.) a wild pear ; cf. Du. bes besie a berry. 

Beside Fr. (f. usu. plur.) spectacles. Not from bis-cyclus, but 
= bericle (O.Fr. Pr.) = beryllus (used in L. L. = spectacles), 
Occ. mericle. Gen. bericle, Wall, berik. The form beside may 
have originated in Paris, yvh^vQ frese = frere, misesese = mise- 
rere, cf. chaise and pomsiere. 

Beso — bacio. 

Besoin — sogna. 

Bestemmia — biasimo. 

Bestordre bestors — tordre. 

Beta — veta. 

Betarda — ottarda. 

Beter 0. Fr. to muzzle = A. S. bcetan, Du. beeten, M. H. G. 
beizen to make bite (the curb), also to bait, M. H. G. erbeizen. 
Hence L. L. abettum, 0. Fr. Pr. abet deceit, trick, Pr. 0. Sp. 
abetar, 0. Fr. abeter to cheat, Norm, abet a bait, abeter to 
bait, E. abet. The O. Fr. bete, Pr. betat often used with mer 
== coagulatum; cf. M. H. G. lebermer from liberen to curdle, 
E. beestings = colostrum. This , too , is prob. from G. beizen 
to bite , be tart or sour. 

Betula betulla It. Pg., It. bedello (Crem. beddol), Cat. bedoly, 
^^.abedul, Pic. Champ. ^ow^e (for beoule?), whence Fr. bouleau 


a birch -tree; from hetula hetulla, which is of Celtic origin, 
V. hes. 

Beugler Fr. to bellow like an ox; from huculus, whence hengle 
an ox. 

Bevero It., Sp. Uharo, 0. Sp. hefre, Fr. hievre, Wal. hreh, N. Pr. 
vihre a heaver, 0. Norse hifr, A. S. ^?^/br heofer, O.H.G. Mhar, 
G. &/&^r, Lith. behru, Rnss. &o&^r, Gael, heahhar, Corn. /^6?/>r 
:^ L. fiber, the asp. of which, according to rule, becomes a 
medial in German, Lithuanian, Sclavonic and Celtic, cf. Zeuss 
1, 44. Behrinus is found in scholia in Juv. 12, 34. 

Bevue Fr. a false view, an error; from his (q. v.) and vue, 

Bezzicare — becco. 

Biacca It. pale- white; from G. bletch,'\ 

Biadetto — biavo. 

Biado 0. It., Pr. Gsii.Mat, O.Fr. bled bleif, Fr. bled ble, It. biada, 
Mil. Ven. Piedm. biava (cf. Rovigo = Rhodiginni)^ O. Fr. blee, 
L. L. bladum blatum corn. Hence Pr. bladaria, Fr. blairie rent 
of pasture ; It. imbiadare, Fr. emblaver (cf. gravir, parvh, pou- 
voir) to sow with corn. The usual derivation is from the A. S. 
bleed (f.) fruit, but Romance terms of husbandry are not likely 
to have come from so remote a source; rather is bleed from 
the Rom. as G. fruht from Lat. fructus. Diez derives it from 
the neut. plur. ablata, with the Rom. article /' ablata V abiada 
la biada, ra. biado (ablatum); for the meaning cf. G. getreide 
(produce) and G.herbst, Gr.xaQTtos = that which is gathered. 
In L. L. ablatum abladus abladium occur = messis. The Crem. 
biada = Fr. oublie (oblata). Mahn makes the Pr. blat the ori- 
ginal form and asserts its identity with the G. blati a leaf, in 
Bret, and W. blot, blend, bled, blawd meal, all which belong 
to the Sansk. root phull, phal, E. blow, whence also folium 
and g)vXXov. 

Biais Fr. Pr. Val. O. Cat., N. Cat. biax, Sard, biasciu (m.), E. 
bias, Pg. viez obliquity. It. s-bescio awry (cf. Piedm. sbias, 
N. Pr. es-biai), Fr. biaiser, Pr. biaisar, Sard, sbiasciai. In the 
Isidor. Gloss, we find bifax duos habeas obtutus double-sighted, 
squinting, like the Sp. bisojo, cf. Bavar. zweidugeln to squint. 
From bifax (bis -fax for bis-oculusj would come bifais biais 
(cf . refusar reusar profundus preon) first used as an adj . {via 
biayssa Choix 5; 64) afterwards as a substantive. L. L. bifa- 
cies bifaciare = biais biaiser. 

Bianco It., Sp. bianco, Pg. branco, Pr. Fr. blanc white; from 
0. H. G. blanch, M. H. G. &c. blanc a shining white. Con- 
nected with blinken to glitter, E. blink. It was the common 
word to represent the Lat. albus which became extinct in the 
North-West, in the South- West (Sp. albo, Pg. alvo) = snow.- 


white, in Italian dull -white, turbid, dull. Alhus is retained 
in Rh. and Wal., where blank is not found. 

Biante It. a vagabond : for viante from viare to wander (Menage) 
or, perhaps = the Pr. viandan (via andare) wanderer. The 
Parm. is big ant. 

Biasciare biascicare It. to munch, mumble ; perhaps from blcesus 
whence blasare (Com. blassa). 

Biasimo It., 0. Sp. blasmo, Pr. blasme, Fr. blame, E. blame; It. 
biasimare &c. ; from ^Idacpri^ov (adj.), pXaacprj^stv. From 
pXa6(prj^ta, with a change of the / into t, comes It. biastemma 
bestemmia, Rh. biastemma, Pr. blastenh, O. Fr. blastenge, 
Wal. blestem blasphemy; It. biastemmare &c. ; with loss of the 
f (as in lacio for flacio) Sp. Pg. lastima abuse, grief, lamenta- 
tion, lastimar to abuse, move to pity. 

Biastemma — biasimo. 

Biavo Ven. It. (Boiardo 2, 37), O. Sp. blavo, Pr. blau (f. blava), 
Fr. bleu (like^j^w ivom. pan), whence It. blii, E. blue; It. dim. 
biadetto; It. sbiavato sbiadato; from 0. H. G. bldo blaw. The 
Rom. blave also =: green, blavoyer = verdoyer. Hence Wedg- 
wood derives biada (q. v.) first used for the brilliant green 
of young corn, then for corn itself. Biavo also = pale straw- 
colour. The word is widest spread inPr.: blavenc ,\blaveza, 
blaveiar, blavairo, emblauzir. 

Biaza — bis-accia. 

Bica It. a circle of sheaves , a stook ; abbicare to set up sheaves, 
to heap together (Dante Inf. 9 , of frogs crouching) ; from O. 
H. G. big a a heap. 

Biccliiere It., Rh. biche'r a drinking vessel, E. beaker, also It. 
pecchero a goblet, W2I. pehar, Pr. 0. Fr. pichier pechier, Sp. 
Pg. pichel, Basque pitcherra a tankard, pitcher; L. L. bicarium 
picarium; O. N. bikar, 0. H. G. pehhar, G. becher. The radical 
i will not allow it to come from L. bacar (Festus). It may be 
from becco a beak = mouth of pitcher (cf. E. beaker), or from 
Gk. /3tzog an earthen vessel , the p for b coming through the 
0. German. 

Bicciacuto It. two-edged; corrupted from bisacuto, 

Bicha biclio — biscia. 

Biche Fr. a hind, 0. Fr. E. bisse, Wall, bih, N. Pr. bicho, Piedm. 
becia. The form bisse will not suit the der. from bique a goot, 

P N. Pr. bico, so it is better to refer it to L. ibex, 0. Fr. ibiche. 

Biche O. Fr. a bitch; from A. S. bicce, E. bitch, N. bikkia, cf. 
G. betze; but Frisch makes it for babiche = barbiche (barbe) 
a shaggy dog, whence It. barbone, Gen. barbin. From biche 
comes bichon a small long - haired dog. 

Bicocca, biceiocca, bieicocca It. a watch-tower, Ven. bicoca a 


ruinous house, Sard, hicocca a hut, stairs with two landings, 
terrace, Lomb. a reel, Sp. hicoca a sentry-box, a narrow 
chamber, small town, Fr. hicoque, hicoq. Cf. also Sp. bico- 
quele a bonnet, bicoquin cap with two lappets, Piedm. bicochin 
a priest's cap. The first syllable is , perhaps , bis (cf. bicocca, 
bicoquin), but the sense of cocca here is doubtful. 

Bidello It., Sp. Pr. bedel, Fr. bedeau, E. bedell; corresponds 
exactly with the O. H. G. petil emissarius , less exactly with 
the A. S. bydel = 0. H. G. butil, G. biitiel, E. beadle. 

Bidet Fr. E. a little horse, a nag. It. bidetto. From a Celtic 
root, Gael, bideach little, bidein a little creature, cf. W. bidan 
a weakling. 

Bidon — bedon. 

Bieco sbieeo oblique, awry, squinting; from obliqiius which 
should have given obbico bico, but the e is inserted as in piego 
= plico. Dante's plurals bieci Par. 5, 65, biece Ini, 2^, 31, 
come immediately from obliqui obliquce, 

Bied 0. Fr. the bed of a river, whence Norm, bediere (cf. lit 
Mere); from A. S. bed, 0. N. bedr = 0. H. G. betti, whence 
Fr. biez mill-pool, h.h.biezium bietium. From bed come Burg. 
bief, Norm, bieu, Piedm. bial, Gen. beo, L. L. bedum. 

Biere — bara, 

Biere — birra. 

Biffera It. a woman who has two husbands; from bivira, cf. 

Bifolco It. one who tills with oxen ; from bubulcus {f =b, cf . 

Biga Piedm. a sow; Du. big bigge (f.), E. pig. 

Bigarrer Fr. to variegate. Cat. bigarrar, Sp. abigarrar (from the 
Fr.). Menage derives it from bis-variare, but, perhaps, better 
from bi- carrer (carre square) properly = to make square, 
oi.O. scheckig , E. checkered. Bis here denotes irregularity 
(v. bis). 

Bigatto — baco. 

Bigio It., Pr. Fr. bis dark -grey, dark- coloured. Hence Piedm. 
Pr. bisa, Fr. bise the North -wind, Bret, biz North -East -wind 
(cf. aquilo from aquilus). The Pg. buzio and Sp. bazo dark 
(pan bazo = pain bis) are probably connected (but v. bajo), 
all coming from bombycius bambucinus or bombacius. Silk and 
woollen stuffs were dyed scarlet or purple before being im- 
ported to Europe, hence L. L. bombicina = scarlet, It. bam- 
bagello purple pigment, 0. H. G. stdin == coccineus. The first 
syllable was dropped, probably, from its likeness to bombus 
(cf. L. L. bacius, It. baco, Fr. basin). Diez formerly derived 
the word from bysseus: Mahn refers it to the Basque baza 
beza = baltza beltza dark, but the radical i is an objection. 


Bigle Fr. squinting, higler to squint. Probably = Sp. bis-ojo 
from his-oculus, when it would stand for hisigle, contr. hisgle, 
cf. icle in hornide hournicler (Jura). 

Biglia It.; Sp. billa, Fr. hille a ball; probably from the M. H. G. 
bickel a knuckle-bone, Du. bikkel a bone with which children 
play. Hence Fr. billard (E. billiard) and billot a lay of wood. 

Eigne — bugna. 

Bigorne Fr. an anvil with projections like horns (incus cornuta) ; 
from bicornis, It. bicornia, Sp. bigornia. 

Bigoncia It. a tub , a liquid measure ; from bis congius. 

Bigot Fr. E. bigot. In 0. Fr. it was used as a nickname of the 
Norman, its modern sense being unknown before the 16^^ cen- 
tury. An old anecdote gives the following account of its 
origin. Duke Rollo when called upon to kiss king Charles' 
foot made answer: ne se bi god whence the Normans were 
termed bigots, cf. sandio. But we should in this case have ex- 
pected bigoi rather than bigot (cf. bruth brui v. bru). Others 
derive it from Visi-gothus like cagot from canis gothus. This 
is too artificial. Trench and others derive the modern sense 
of the word from the Pr. Sp. bigote a moustache, hombre de 
bigote a firm resolute (and so bigoted) man. It. sbigottire = 
frighten, disconcert, put out of countenance. We find also 
O. Fr. bigote, bigotelle, bigoterre a purse hanging at the girdle, 
bigoter to provoke. Wedgwood's etymology (from bigio grey) 
is untenable. 

Bijou Fr. a jewel; from a compound bisjocare, bijouer, so = 
something doubly sparkling. Then, why not bijeu? no verb 
bijouer is found. Perhaps it is from the Celtic (0. Corn.) bisou 
"anulus^^, Bret, bizou = W. byson (from bgs a finger?). 

Bilancia It., Mil. Ven. Sp. balanza, Pr. balans balansa, Fr. ba- 
lance, E. balance; from bilanx bilancis. 

Bileneo It. crooked, askew; from G. link? 

Billard bille — biglia. 

Billet — bolla. 

Biltre — belUre. 

Bimbo — bambo. 

Bindolo — ghindare. 

Binocolo It., Fr. binocle an opera -glass; from bini oculi. 

Bioceolo It. flock; ivom floccus , cf. bonte (dialect.) ior fonte. 

Biondo It., Pr. blon (f. blonda), Fr. blond, whence, probably, the 
Sp. biondo, G. blond, E. blond. The A. S. has blonden-feax 
= of blended -hair grey -haired, but the transition from grey 
to blond is difficult. Perhaps it is from the 0. N. blaud, Dan. 
blod soft, weak (in colour or quality). The It. biondella (the 
plant centaur) is so called from its blond tresses. 

Biotto It. wretched, Lomb. biott blot, Rh. blutt naked, Ven. bioto 

76 BIQUE — BIS. 

simple, Pr. 0. Fr. hlos destitute, N. Pr. hlous pure (of water 
&C.), Mod. hioss naked, Basque huluza. Of German origin: 
Bavar. hlutt, Sw. hlutt and hlutz, vb. hlutten, L. L. blutare to 
empty, M. H. G. hloz (whence Pr. hlos)^ G. bloss, 

Bique — hecco, 

Birar — virare. 

Birba birbone — bribe, 

Bircio It. weak-eyed, sbirciare to blink, bercilocchio a squinter. 
Perhaps connected with O. H. G. brehan, Bav. birg-aug, 
Aust. bir-augig all of which express a defect in the sight. 

Biroccio baroceio It. a two wheeled vehicle, Sp. barrocho, a 
barouche; from birotus with the ending formed on the model 
of carroccio. The Fr. is brouette for bi-rouette, Wall, berwette. 

Birra It., Fr. biere, Wal. &^«r^beer. Another expression for the 
O. Rom. word, It. cervigia, Sp. cerveza, O. Fr. cervoise, L. cere- 
visia. The It. birra is from the G. bier, the Fr. biere from the 
M. H. G. bier (as one syllable), a German-Celtic word ; 0. H. 
G. A. S. beor, E. beer, O. N. bior, Gael. ^>e^2r, Bret. &?orcA. 
The G. bier is, according to some, only the L. inf. bibere, 
sbst. biber, It. bevere, beere, bere, Sard. &/^re, cf. Wal. beu- 
ture, prop. = drink , E. bever = lunch ; according to others 
the H. G. bier is to be referred to Goth, bins and this to the 
Sansk. piv, pib from ji?« to drink. 

Birraechio — birro. 

Birreta — berreta. 

Birro sbirro a serjeant, police-officer, whence Sp. esbirro; prob. 
from birrus (v. berrettd), the dark cloth with which he was 
clothed. So Menage, who also derives birraechio a steer one 
year old from birrus in its sense of rufus. 

Bis (sometimes in the forms ber bre bar) a Romance particle used 
in composition to denote that which is wrong , false, counter- 
feit &c. ; It. biscantare to sing irregularly, trill, hum a tune, 
Pr. beslei bad faith , It. barlume weak light (twilight), Fr. ber- 
touser bertauder to shear unevenly, Piedm. berliche to taste a 
little, berlaita whey (poor milk = petit lait), cf. R. Gr. 2, 357. 
Various derivations are given. The form is against the G. 
W25, both sense and form against the Bret. besk. The Lat. 
vice (= something not-real, fictitious) would suit the It. and 

. Sp. where v may become b , but not the Fr. Perhaps it is the 
adv. bis, which from the sense of double passed into that of 
oblique, awry (as in Sp. bisojo squinting, Fr. biais), and then 
= wrong, counterfeit, bad, e.g. besivre badly drunk, bes- 
order to pollute, besanca hip -shot, bevue (Fr.) an error. Of 
the same origin is the Sp. bisel, Occ. bizel, Fr. biseau sloping 
edge, oblique surface, E. basil bezel. When a joiner's tool is 

BIS — BIZCO. 77 

ground away to an angle it is called a hasil edge (Fr. taille en 

Bis — bzgio. 

Bisaeeia It., Sp. hisaza, Fr. besace a wallet; from bisaccium, pi. 
bisaccia (Petroniiis). So Pr. Fr. bissac, Piedm. bersac, from 
bis-saccus. For bisaza is found also biaza, perhaps on the 
analogy of. via viage. 

Bisante It., Sp. Pg. besante, Pr. bezan, Fr. O. E. besant a By- 
zantine coin, from L. L. byzantius, Gr. pv^dvtLog. 

Bisarma — guisarme. 

Bisbiglio It. whispering, noise of talkers, bisbigliare, G. pispeln, 
Pic. bisbille; formed from the sound. 

Biscanto — canto. 

Biscia It. a serpent, Lomb. bissa, N. Pr. bessa, O. Fr. bisse^ 
ViQ^LUi. biesso , l^omb.biss, It. biscio a flesh -worm. Usually 
derived from bestia, but this would give bescia. Better, per- 
haps , from the 0. H. G. bizo a biting creature = A. S. bita. 
The Lomb. has bisia besia to prick, bisient biting, bisiell a bee's 
sting, bisioce an insect with sting. The Sp. bicho bicha a grub 
may also come from bizo biza. 

Biscotto It., Sp. bizcocho, Pr. biscueit, Fr. biscuit, E. biscuit; from 
bis-coctus. So It. giiascotto from quasi- cactus. 

Bisdosso bardosso without saddle; andare a bisdosso to ride on 
the bare back, bis expressing the discomfort (v. bis). 

Bise — bigio. 

Bisel biseau — bis. 

Biset — bigio. 

Bislessare — lessare. 

Bislungo — barlong. 

Bismalva — malvavischio, 

Bisogno — sogna. 

Bisojo Sp. squint-eyed, prop, double -eyed from bis-oculus, cf. 
biais, Sard, bisogu, however, = one-eyed (Fr. louche, luscus). 

Bisse — biscia. 

Bissetre bissestre O. Fr.,' Norm, bisieutre, Piedm. bisest disaster; 
prop. = intercalary day, from bissextus, which was even with 
the jRomans considered unlucky, v. Ducange. 

Bistensar — stentare. 

Bistondo — tondo. 

Bitta It., Sp. Cat. bita, Fr. bitte a piece of wood, stake (pitas 
Sp., Fr. bittes = bits to belay the cable), from the 0. N. biti 
a beam, E. bit, Sw. bissen; L. L. bitus = lignum quo vincti 

Bivao bivouac Fr., E. bivouac, vb. bivouaquer ; from G. biivacht, 
beiwacht an extraordinary watch , Sp. vivac vivaque. 

Bizco Sp., Pg. vesgo squint-eyed. The coptraction from bisoculus 


(whence Sp. hisojo) would be harsh. Larramendi derives it 
from the Basque. 

Bizerra — hecerro. 

Bizma Sp. (f.) a plaster, epitima (f.) a poultice; from epiihema, 
It. epittima, pitiima, Fr. epitheme, E. epithem. 

Bizoeeo (Menage) It., hizzoccone a blockhead. From bliteus 
(Plautus) (cf. Papias, hlitea stnltitia) came hizzo, with suffix 

Bizzarre It. irascible, capricious, sprightly, Sp. Pg. bizarro 
gallant, high-spirited, Fr. bizarre whimsical, extravagant. 
For the It. word a prinjitive bizza wrath is given which , if 
not of G. origin (cf. O. H. Gr. bizon to gnash) must be from 
bizzarro, there being no suffix arr. The Sp. is found also in 
the Basque, where another word bizarra = beard (= bizarra 
"he is manly''), whence the wider sense in Sp. 

Blafard Fr. pale; from the O. H. Gr. bleih-faro (G. bleifarb) 
pale -coloured, d epenthetic as in homard. 

Blaireau Fr. a badger, also written blereau, blereau; from bla- 
darellus (It. biadarello) dimin. of L. L. bladarim, It. biadajuolo 
(cf . O. Fr. blairie = Pr. bladaria) -.^= corndealer. The E. badger 
is from the same word bladarius (bladiar, bladger badger) and 
in 0. E. meant also corndealer. The badger is an "animal 
omnivorum" and lays up store for the winter. This store was 
popularly, but wrongly, supposed to be corn , hence his name 
"little corndealer''. Diefenbach derives it from the W. blawr 
iron-grey (cf. E. gray = badger, Fr. grisard), but aw would 
not become at in Fr. The It. grajo is not from E. gray but, 
probably, = agrarius. Another Rom. word for badger is tasso 
(It.), Fr. taisson &c. (q. v.). In O. Fr. it was called bedoneau 
bedouan, Norm, bedoxi = big -bellied. 

Blame — biasimo. 

Blanc — bianco. 

Blandir — brando. 

Blasone It. blazonry, heraldry, Sp. blason, Pg. brasao also = 
fame, renown, Fr. blason coat of arms, escutcheon; It. blaso- 
nare, Fr. blasonner to paint arms, Sp. blasonar to blazon, extol. 
First found in Fr. where it meant a shield or scutcheon, Pr. 
blezo blizo. It is, doubtless, derived from the A. S. blcese , E. 
btaze, whence the sense of 'Hustre^^ would do both for the 
device on an escutcheon and for fame, renoivn; cf. O. H. G. 
bldsa a trumpet, Du. blazen to boast. The Pr. blezon takes its 
e from the A. S. 

Ble — biado. 

Bleehe Fr. weak, weakly, Norm, bleque mouldering, decaying; 
fromGr./3Aa5 /3Aa;{dg mollis (L.lj.blax=stultus), Qi. moustache 


from ^v6ta^. Grandgagnage (v. hleque) derives it from G. 
hleich pale. 
Bledo Sp., Pg. hredo, Cat. hred the wild amaranth , or a kind of 

watercress; iov hlitum {^kCtov). 
Bleme Fr. pale, hlemer to grow pale. The O. Fr. has hleme and 
hlesme, the s, therefore, is inserted; from 0. N. btdmi blue 
colour (hid blue), cf. O. Fr. hlemir to beat (prop, make blue), 
E. blemish (prop, of dark colour of lifeless flesh). 
Blesser Fr. to wound, O.Fr.also to injure: quant li quatre angles 
sont bleciet Liv. de Job 503. The 0. Fr. c often = G. z, so, 
perhaps, from M. H. G. hletzen to patch, hletz (0. H. G. pletz) 
culf leather, whence blesser to slash, M. H. G. ze-bletzen to 
Blet Fr. rotten, now only in the phrase poire blette, Pied, biet, 
Rouchi bletir to rot; cf. 0. H. G. bleizza a livid spot from a 
Bleu — biavo. 
Blezo — bercer. 

Bliaut, blizaut, blial, bliau (robe, habit, justaucorps), blezo 
bleso (tunique), O. Fr. bliaut bleaut bliaus bliaux (justaucorps, 
manteau), Sp. Pg. brial a rich petticoat, L. L. bliaudus blial- 
dus, bliaus. The M. H. G. blialt blidt denotes the stuff merely, 
so also in O. Fr. Diez suggests that the root bli or blid is 
oriental, and Malin refers to the Pers. baljad a plain garment, 
from Ar. root bald to wear a garment. The Fr. blouse, Pic. 
bleude, Norm, plaude (cf. the forms blizant, bliaus &c.) is the 
same word. Ducange derives bliaud &c. from the W. bliand a 
fine linen -stuff, O. E. bleaunt, blehand. 
Blinder Fr. to cover, blind; from Goth, blindjan, O. H, G. blen- 

dan, G. blenden, E. blind. Hence sbst. blindes, It. blinde. 
Bloc Fr. a block, bloquer (It. bloccare), Sp. bloquear to blockade; 
from O. H. G. bloc block, G. E. block , which Grimm derives 
from bi-loh a bolt (Goth, lukan to shut). The Fr. blociis is the 
G. blochiis blockhaus. 
Bloi 0. Fr. Pr. light -coloured, yellow, espec. of flowers and of 
hair, L. L. bloius blodius. Thus we find: Yseut la blonda and 
Ysseultz ab lo pel bloy. From A. S. bled blid colour, so light- 
colour as opp. dark , or better to consider bloi another form 
of bleu, both coming from the O.H.G.^/rtO = flavus and cseru- 
leus , cf. poi and peu from pau (paucus). 
Blois O. Fr., Pr. bles = blcesus. 
Blond — biondo. 
Bloquer — bloc. 
Bios — biotto. 

Blostre O. Fr. a little hillock or mound; from Du. bluyster, E. 


Blouse — hlimit. 

Blu — biavo. 

Bluette — hellugue. 

Bluter Fr. to bolt meal; separate it from the bran, bluteau blutoir 

a bolting-sieve. Bluter is for briiter Tan O.S^.brutar is found). 

Bluter is the L. L. buletare, Kouchi bulter, bluteau the L. L. 

buletellum. The O. Fr. buretel is nearer the original, and = 

It. burattello from buratto a sieve, prop. = a thin stuff, v. 

bure, and cf. etamine. From buretel came buletel blutel bluteau. 

For buratel the Pr. has barutel, Dauph. baritel, Bret, burutel, 

Occ. barutd, baruteld. Others derive the word from the G. 

beuteln.y M. H. G. biuteln. • 

Bobine Fr. a spool, bobbin, ViQdLm.bobina. From bombus because 

of the humming noise it makes (accord, to Nonius). 
Bol>6 Com., Gen. bubii drink (a word used by chimren). Varro 

has bua in the same sense, which onomatop. seems to have 

been reduplicated in the Rom. The words involve the same 

root as bi-bo. The It; bombo bombare bombettare is rather from 

Gk. po^fistv, bombola a flask from po^i^vXog. 
Bobo Sp. Pg., Sard, bovii blockhead, simpleton; from balbus, 

It. balbo, Pr. balb &c., cf. Sp. farfulla a stammerer, Basq. 

/«r/w27/rt a blockhead, and for the form, oi. popar ivom. pal- 
Boca It., Sp. Pg. boga, Pr. buga, Fr. bogue the sea-bream ; from 

L. box bocis (m.) (Pliny), Gk. /36«5 ^^i- 
Bocage bois — bosco. 
Boeca It., Sp. Pg. Pr. boca, Fr. bouche a mouth, from bucca. 

Hence Pr. bucello (L. buccella Martial), bossi, 0. Fr. bomsin a 

morsel', Sp. bozal a muzzle = a L. bucceale, from buccea. 
Boecale It., Sp. Fr. Wal. bocal a mug, pitcher; from L. L. bau- 

calis, which from Gr. ^avxdkiov a vessel,, v. Journ. d. Sav. 

1833, p. 478. 
Boceia — bozza. 
Bocear Sp. to move the lips, 0. Sp. Pg. bocejar to gape, Sp. bo- 

cezar and bostezar (for suffix cf. tropezar) ; probably from Sp. 

buz a lip (q. v.). 
Boeel • — buz. 
Bocha — bozza. 
Boehorno Sp. Pg. a sultry East -wind; from vulturnus. 

Bociare It. to cry, publish; from vox, It. boce, 

Boda Sp. Pg. Cat. a wedding, nuptials. From vota pi. oivotum, 
cf. Cod. Justin, ad tertia vota migrare. An O. Sp. word for 
vow is vota. It. boto. 

Bode Sp. Pg. a he -goat; cf. Com. bida a goat. 

Bofe Sp. Pg. lung; from bufar to blow, Pg. also bofar cf. Ttv^v- 


ii(ov from nvstv y It. mantaco wind-bag, lung; hence Sp. ho- 

fena hohena a pudding made of pig's lung. 
Bofe O. Pg. adv. = L. certo; for a boa fe. 
Bofeton — huf. 


— huf. 

Boga — 


Bogar — 

- vogare. 


— hofe. 

Boisie boisdie — 

■ hugia. 

Boisseau boiter - 

— hoite. 

Boisson Fr. drink; from hoire (hibere) ; hoisson = hetson (hibitio). 

Boite Fr., Pr. hostia hoissa, also hrostia hrustia a box. From 
pyxis was formed L. L. huxis, whence the Pr. hoissa; in the 
10*^ cent, huxida from ace. pyxida (Ttv^tda) was corrupted into 
buxdia bustia , whence Pr. hostia, O. Fr. hoiste, Bret, boest. In 
a 9^^ cent. Glossary we find: pyxides vulgo poxides. From 
boite come dehoiter to wrench, sprain, bolter to limp, Eouch. 
hotier. Hence, too, Fr. boisseau (E. bushel) a dialectical form 
of which is hoisteau h.Li. hustellus. This is to be distinguished 
from the O. Fr. houcel bouchiau, Pr. hossel a liquid measure 
= It. botticello from botte (q. v.). 

Boja O. It., Pr. hoia, O. Fr. buie a chain, fetter; from hoja 
(Plautus &c.); M. H. G. hoije. The Sp. boya, Pg. boie, O. Fr. 
boye, Fr. bouee, G. boje, E. buoy is the same word, prop. = 
a floating piece of wood fastened by a rope or chain (boja). 

Boja It. an executioner, O. Sp. boy a, N. Pr. boiou, Wall, boie, 
Kh. hojer. The It. forms no masculine in a (though it uses 
some masculines as f., e. g. il camerata, lo spia), so the word 
must have existed before in a different sense. It is the 0. It. 
hoja a fetter, halter, cf. Papias: boja tormenta damnatorum. 
In Sp. the same word is used for ^^rod^^ and ^^ executioner ^\ v. 

Bojar Sp. to sail round an island or a promontory; from Du. 
bogen, G. hiegen heugen to bend, cf. L. flectere promontorium. 

Boldrone — poltro, 

Bolegar — houger. 

Boleta — holla. 

Bolgia It., O. Fr. hoge a sack, Fr. houge a little room; hence 
Sp. burjaca a knapsack; Fr. hougette a travelling bag, O. E. 
hogett hougett, E. budget, which last has travelled back to 
France in its new sense. It is the Lat. hulga (Lucil.) which 
Festus mentions as a Gallic word; the O. Irish is bole, Gael. 
huilg, W. hwlch hole&c, O.H.G. hulga (belgen to swell). The 
Rom. forms come through a L. adj. hulgea. 

Bolla bulla It., Sp. Pr. hola hula, Pg. holha bulla, Fr. hoide bulle, 
a bubble, bladder, ball, and, from the form, a seal affixed to 



records (for which the form with u is generally used^ ISi.buU); 
from L. bulla. The Sp. bola, O. Fr. Pic. boule = brag, deceit 
arose out of the meaning '^ bubble", hence bouler (of pigeons) 
to swell the crop. From bolla &c. come It. bolletta bulletta, 
Fr. billet note {~= sealed paper), It. bulletino, Fr. E. bulletin; 
Sp. bollon, Fr. boulon a thick-headed nail, O. Fr. = bolt, cf. 
L. bulla = head of a nail. From the same root, through L. 
bullire, come It. bollire , Sp. Pr. bullir , Pg. buiir bolir, Fr. 
bouillir to boil; hence It. bollone, Fr. bouillon broth (E. bullion), 
cf. Sp. caldo, Pic. caudiau, O. Fr. caudel, E. caudle; Sp. /^m//^/, 
Pg. Z?mM« noise, whence Cat. esbulyar to disturb, and, per- 
haps, Vg. esbulhar to search thoroughly, bereave, which is 
gen. derived from spoliare. 

Bolsa — borsa. 

Bolso It. asthmatic, (of a horse) broken -winded. Mil. sbolza to 
cough; iroTd pulsus , whence also Yv. pousse , poussif, Limous. 
poussd to breathe with difficulty, Sw. biUsi have a dry cough. 
Cf. Pr. bols ^^equus nimis pulsans'\ 

Bolzone It., 0. Sp. 0. Fr. bozon, Pr. bosso an arrow with blunt 
point, also a battering-ram; from bulla the head of a nail 
with the suffix cion (cf. boulon Fr. a bolt, arrow), cf. hamecon 
from hamus. There is no necessity to derive it from the Gr. 
bolz bolzen. 

Bomba Pr. O. Valen. brag, pomp, show; It. boynbanza rejoicing, 
O. Fr. bombance sumptuous cheer &c., bobance, Pr. bobansa 
= bomba; Pr. bobans for boban, O. Fr. bobant. From bombus 
buzzing, bustle, bombicus noisy, boastful (Venant. Fort.), 
whence also bomba bombarda a noisy missile, a bo7nb, bombar- 
dare to bombard &c. ; It. rimbombare to re-echo. 

Bomba Sp. Pg. Cat., Fr. pompe, Yi. pump. So called, according 
to Adelung, from the noise which it makes, but, perhaps, 
better from the Eom. bombare to drink, suck, which, how- 
ever, is itself an onomatop., cf. bobo. In Italian it is called 
tromba, which represented the L. tuba, and = a water-pipe. 

Bombasin — bambagio. 

Bombero It. a ploughshare, Ven. gomiero; for vomero, L. vomer. 

Bomerie Norm, bottomry ; from Du. bodemerij, Gr. bodmerei, E. 
bottomry, these from boden, bottom (of a ship) ~~ a ship. 

Bonaceia It., Pr. bonassa, Fr. bonace, Sp. bonanza a calm; from 
bonus, cf. Sp. bonazo peaceful, good-natured, Wal. resbune it 
clears up. Malina in O. Sp. = bad weather, a storm, from 

Bonde Fr. a sluice, tap, bondon a bung (Pr.); from the Sw.punt, 
Swab, bunte, O. H. G-. spunt. 

Bondir Fr. to bound, leap, bond a bound. The O. Fr. Pr. meant 
to hum, sound, doubtless from bomlntare to hum, bondar. As 


is often the case in intransitives , hondir took the form of the 
S'^'^ conj.; cf. tentir from tinnitare. 

Bonete Sp. Pg.^ Pr. boneta, Fr. E. bonnet. It was orig. the name 
of a stuff, but whence derived is uncertain (Bonnet in Ire- 
land?). J. Grimm connects with this obbonis {obpinis abonnis 
a sort of net or coif), Merkel, L. Sal. p. 54. 

Bonheur — augurio. 

Bonina Sp. Pg. ox-eyed camomile; prob. a corruption of Ar. 
bdbunag=: Pers. bdbunahy Freyt. 1, 78. 

Bor — ora. 

Borbogliare It., Pic. borbouller to mutter, Sp. borbollar, Pg. bor- 
bolhar borbulhar to bubble out. Cat. borbollar to cheat, con- 
fuse; Sp. burbuja, Pg. borbulha a bubble, a knob. The Sp. 
is prob. from a reduplicated form of L. bullare, the rest are 
more doubtful though the meanings "murmur^' and '^sputter'' 
may easily be connected. Besides borbogliare there is another 
form borbottarey 0. Fr. borbeter, Pic. borboter, and another 
word for the Sp. borbollar is borbotar, prob. formed from the 
sound like PoQ^vQi^stv, Gael, borban a muttering. It. burbero 
morose. Another form (influenced by barbd) is Sp. barbotar, 
Mil. barbotta, Pic. barboter, Cat. barbotejar, hence It. barbu- 
gliare, Sp. barbullar to talk confusedly. 

Borboleta Pg. a butterfly ; from borbolhar to ramble, bound , cf. 
Kh. bulla = borboleta, bugliar = borbolhar, cf. also Loth. 
bouble, Du. bobbeln to rove, v. mariposa. 

Borbottare borbotar — borbogliare. 

Borchia It. a buckle on horse -trappings, a large head of a nail, 
a golden heart or similar ornament worn by women. Prob. 
from bulla though it is difficult to get bul-cula from bullacula. 
Cf. the O. H. G. bolca = Lat. bulla, 

Borda Pr. Cat., 0. Fr. borde a hut; from Goth, baurd, O. N. 
bord , O. H. G. bort, E. board, cf. Ir. Gael, bdrd, W. bwrdh. 
Hence It. bordello, Pr. Fr. bordel , Sp. bur del , O. Fr. bordela 
(fem^, E. brothel. 

Borde Sp., Pr. bort, O. Fr. borde a bastard. Prob. the original 
of the late Lat. burdo a mule (burdonem producit equus con- 
junctus asellce. Due), which some derive from the G. beran 
to draw. 

Bordel bordello — borda. 

Bordo It. Sp. (also borde) Pg., Fr. bord, O. Sp. Pg. borda hem, 
border, side (e. g. of a ship); from O. H. G. bort, 0. S. bort 
rim , &c. Hence Sp. bordar, Fr. border, E. border. The Sp. 
verb also means to embroider, for which the others have a 
distinct form ; Cat. brodar, Fr. broder, E. broider, W. brodio, 
cf. Gael, brod, O. E. brode a prick, s^ prod, embroidering and 
pricking (Fr. brocher) being cognate. Another form is the 



Wall, hrosder, O. Sp. O. Pg. hroslar for brosdar (L. L. hrostns, 
hrustus), evidently from the 0. H. G. ga-prorton (from a Grotli. 
hruzdon, cf. A. S. hrord, O. N. hroddr a point). 

Bordone It.^ Sp. Pr. bordon, Fr. horddo, Fr. hour don a pilgrim's 
staff, which he might regard as his mule (hurdo) from its sup- 
porting him. Cf. Sp. muleta = both ^^mule^' and ^^ci^utch^\ 

Bordone It., Sp. bordon, Pg. bordao, Fr. bourdon, E. burden (of 
a song); Fr. also = humble-bee; Fr. bourdonner to hum. If 
it be true that this word meant orig. a long trumpet or organ- 
pipe , it may be the same as the preceding bordone from the 
resemblance to a staff. In this case the Gael, biirdan a hum- 
ming ; 0. E. bourdon are of foreign origin. 

Borgne • — bornio. 

Borgo It., Sp. Pg. bur go, Pr. bore, Fr. bourg a small town, a 
borough. The word is of G. origin, Goth, baurgs, O. H. G. 
burg (from bairgan berg an to shelter), E. burgh borough. Burgus 
was also a late L. word, cf. Veget. de re milit. 4, 10: castel- 
lum parvum quern burgum vocant; if this be from the G., it 
seems to owe at least its masc. form to the Gk. Tivgyog. It is 
from this L. word that the Eom. forms come, for the G. burg 
could not have given the soft g in It. borgese, Sp. burges, Pg. 
bur gel, Fr. bourgeois, though its influence was sufficient to 
create other forms. It. borghese, Pg. burguez, Pr. borgues, O. 
Fr. borgois. The Sp. town Burgos is a relic of the same word, 
L. Burgi-orum. 

Boria It. pride, arrogance, boriare boriarsi to be arrogant; per- 
haps from the O. H. G. burjan to uplift, G. em-pOren to rebel. 
According to others, from Boreas or from vapor eus (v. brhui). 

Borino It., Fr. burin, Sp. Pg. buril, O. Sp. boril, E. burine a 
graving- tool; perhaps from O. H. G. bora terebra, boron 
terebrare , E. bore. 

Borla — burla. 

Borne Fr. (f.) a boundary -stone, L. L. bonna, O. Fr. bonne 
boune bousne, N. Pr. bouino, and L. L. bodina bodena, O. Fr. 
bodne. The oldest form is bodina, which would give both 
bonne (bodna) and borne. The root bod is found also in Pr. 
boz-ola C== borne) contr. bola, L. L. bodida, v. bonder . 

Borni Sp. Pg. a kind of falcon; from Ar. burnt, plur. bardni, 
said to come from the province of Bornou in Africa. 

Bornio It., Cat. borni, Fr. borgne one-eyed; O. Fr. borgnoier to 
be one-eyed. Orig. = squinting, cf. bornicle (E. barnacles) 
squint-eyed. Jura bournicler to squint; Sp. bornear to bend, 
twist, evade, is of the same origin; cf. /?/^r^o= twisted, squint- 
ing, and one-eyed. The derivation is uncertain, the Bret. 
born seeming to come from the French. The Limous. has 
borli. Hence It. borniola a false sentence. 



Borra It. Sp. Pr., Fr. hourre short wool, goat's hair, flock &c. 
It is the sing, of Ausonius' hurrcB = quisquilise, ineptise, in 
which sense It. borre, and Sp. borras (pi.) are also used (cf. 
fiocco in both senses). From this hurra comes the L. L. rebur- 
rus rugged, rough. Hence come Sp. borra borro a lamb (with 
short wool) also borrego; It. borraccia, Sp. borracha a wine- 
skin (of goat's skin?); Pr. borras, Fr. bourras a coarse cloth; 
Fr. bourrer, It. abborrare to stop with wool, Sp. Pg. borrar to 
blot; Sp. borron, Pg. borrdo a blot, cf. burro. 

Borraecia borracha — borra. 

Borrace It., ^^.borrax, Yr.^.borax; ixovuKv.biiraq, Vers.burah. 
It comes from China and Japan. 

Borraggine It. (contr. borrana), Sp. borraja, Pg. borr agent, Pr. 
borrage, Fr. bourrache, Wal. borantze, E. borage, L. Lat. bor- 
rago; prob. formed from borra (q. v.), with the suffix aggine 
= L. ago (cf. capr- , fus-, lent- , uliv- aggine), because of the 
its rough hairy leaves, unless, indeed, the word be of Oriental 
origin. It is found in the Levant countries, espec. in the 
neighbourhood of Aleppo. 

Borrasca — burrasca, 

Borrego borro — borra. 

Borrero — p bourreau. 

Borrico — burro. 

Borro It. the bed of a mountain -stream, dell, clift, Moden. bu- 
drione; from ^od'Qvg ^od'Qtov. Hence burratto (Dante) a broken 
precipice, burr at o an abyss. Cf. Wal. buture a cave, Sp. town 
Val-de-buron, N. Pr. bauri a precipice. 

Borrofler — bouder. 

Borsa It. Pr., Sp. Pg. boha, Fr. bourse, E. purse, from L. L. byrsa 
(PvQiSa) = leather. Hence, too, Wal. boase, Basque molsa. 

Borzacchino It., Sp, borcegui, Fr. brodequin, E. buskin; from 
Du. broseken, brosekin, a dimin. of broos (f,), probably a cor- 
ruption of bgrsa leather, cf. leerse = boot from leer leather. 

Bosco It., Sp. Pg. bosque, Pr. bosc, Fr. bois, L. L. boscus buscus 
a wood. J. Grimm refers this word to the Gr. bauen to build, 
whence buwisc buisc building -material, wood (cf. Fr. bois). 
The G. u has been shortened in the Kom. bosco for busco, cf. 
busca. The Fr. bosquet and bocage for the obs. boschet boschage 
are formed after It. boschetto, Sp. boscage; Fr. bouquet is for 
bousquet (for the meaning cf. L. silva). Hence It. imboscare, 
Sp. Pr. emboscar, Fr. embusquer (0. Fr. embuscher and embuis- 
sier) to lie in ambush, embuche, E. ambush. 

Bosquet — bosco. 

Bosse — bozza. 

Bosseman Fr. from the Du. bootsman, boosmann a boatman. 

Bosso It., Sp. box, Pg. buxo, Pr. bois, Fr. buis, ^. box (tree) ; 



from buxus. Hence It. huscionej Fr. buisson , Pr. boisson a bush 
(not from bois bosc which would have given in Pr. boscon) ; It. 
bossolo box -tree and a box, Sp. bruxida a compass (for the 
inserted e, cf. Pr. brostia with boite), Fr. bomsole, also Sp. 
buxeta, Pr. bosseta, Fr. bossette. 

Bossolo ^0550. 

Bostar Sp., Pg. bostal an oxstall. The Gloss. Isid. has: bostar 
locus ubi stant boves: some compare the Gk. ^ovotdaiovy from 
which, however, the Rom. word could hardly come. 

Bostezar — bocear, 

Bot — botta, 

Botequin Sp. a small boat; from Du. bootje (orig. ph. bdtkin), 
Rouchi botequin bodequin. 

Botta It., 0. Fr. botte (and boz) a toad, Champ. Dauph. bote; 
from a G. root which appears in bdtzen to thnist, drive, so 
= that which is banished, driven out. Hence Sp. boto dull, 
Fr. bot {pied bot clump - footed) botte a lump, Rh. bott a hill, 
Wal. butaciu dull; the G. butz butzen, L. G. E. butt are con- 

Bottare It. (in dibottare to strike, agitate), butt are to bud (of 
trees), Sp. Pg. Pr. botar, Fr. bouter, E. butt; from M. H. G. 
bozen to strike. Hence Mil. butt a bud. It. botto, botta, Sp. 
bote, Fr. botte a push &c., bout end, whence debout, aboutir, 
E. abut, buttress. Hence It. bottone, Sp. Pr. boton, Fr. bouton, 
E. button, ph. = O. G. bdzo a lump. The W. bot bdth a round 
substance is sometimes compared, but the It. forms with the 
double t and double z (v. bozza) seem to come from a G. 

Botte It., Sp. Pr. bota, Fr. botte boute, Wal. bote bute tub, skin, 
boot &c. The word is common to many languages , cf . Gr. 
PovtLg ^vtig a flask, A. S. butte, G. biitte a butt (vessel), Gael. 
bot a boot. Hence It. bottiglia, Sp. botilla botiga, Fr. bouteille, 
L. L. buticula, E. bottle pottle (cf. L. L. ivovo. puticla) ; It. ^o^ 
^mo a cistern, O. H. G. butin, A. S. byden &c. 

Bottega It., Sp. botica, Pr. botiga , Fr. boutique, E. booth; from 
apotheca, Nq^^. potiga, Sic. putig a. 

Bottino It., Sp. ^o^m, both, probably, from the Fr. butin booty; 
from N. bgti, M. H. G. buten. 

Bou O. Fr. a bracelet; from O. H. G. boug (from biugan), O. N. 
ftflJM^r a ring. The Pr. was bauc. 

Bouc Fr., Pr. &oc a he -goat, Rh. bitck (E. buck)^ Com. bocch, 
Cat. &0C, Arag. boque, 0. Sp. &mco. A word common to the 
Celtic and German languages , but , according to Grimm , in- 
troduced into the G. from. the Rom. The It. has instead becco, 
the Sp. bode. Hence Fr. boucher (== It. beccaro), Pr. bochier, 
E. butcher, pr. = one who kills goats (cf. It. beccaro)^ Fr, 


boucherie, Pr. hocaria, Cf. brecaria a place for slaughtering 
sheep ; cabreria for goats &c. The O. Fr. for boucher was 
maiselier = macellarius. 

Bouohe — bocca, 

Boucher — bom. 

Bouclier Fr. to stop up , bouchon a stopper , = Pr. boco, It. boc- 
cone meaning prop, mouthfull, so = that which fills the mouth 
of bessels &c. 

Boucle Fr. (f.) a metal ring, a lock of hair (Sp. bucle); O. Fr. 
bode blouque, Pr. boca bloca, 0. Sp. bloca = clasp of a shield, 
L. L. bucula scuti, M. H. G. bucket, E. buckle; hence Fr. 
bouclier y Pr. bloquier, It. brocchiere, O. H. G. buckeler, E. 
buckler a shield with a buckle ; from buccula dim. of bucca a 

Bouder Fr. to pout, boudin (com. bodin) a black-pudding (= E. 
pudding , W. poten), boudine a knot, 0. Fr. the navel, N. Pr. 
boudoli boudougno a buckle, a tumour, Piedm. bodero thick- 
set; hence N. Pr. boud-enfld boud-oufld boud-ifld to blow; Fr. 
bour-souffler (= boud-souffler) , borrofler (but cf. Wal. ^05- 
unfld from borsa a tumour, and inflare). The root is bod which 
denotes something projecting (e. g. in bouder the underlip), 
and which also gives rise to bodina a boundary (v. borne), cf. 
G. schwelle a threshold from schwellen. The root bot is found 
in L. bot-ulus, v. bottare, botte, 

Boudin boudine — bouder. 

Boue Fr. mud, 0. Fr. boe; prob. the W. baw (m.). 

Bouee — boja. 

BouflEler bouflPon — buf. 

Bouge — bolgia, 

Bouger Fr., Pr. bojar to move, cf. Wall, boge to retreat. From 
0. H. G. biugan, G. biegen (to give in, yield), or, perhaps, 
better from O. H. G. bogen, Du. bogen, Sw. bojen, O. N. buga, 
G. beugen to bend; the former would require a radical u 
(buger). The proper Pr. word is bolegar = It. bulicare, from 
bulir bolir to boil, cf. Sp. Z>w//«r to move about, bustle, Pg. 
bulir to move a thing from its place (cf. bouger). 

Bougie — bugia. 

Bougran — bucherame. 

Bougre Fr. = Bulgarus, and meant orig. a heretic, Bulgaria 
being the chief seat of the Manichsean heresy, bougerie = 
heresy. Bougre = pcedico, the punishment of this and of the 
heretic being the same. Menage. V. Ducange, s. Bulgarus. 

Bouhourt — bagordo. 

Bouillir bouillon boule — bolla. 

Boulanger Fr. a baker. Cf. Sp. bollo a roll. Com. bulet a sort of 
bread. The word is prob, from boule, whence would come a 


form houlange = bread in a round form. Bulengarius is found 

in the 12^^ century. 
Bouleau — hetula. 
Boulevard boulevart Fr. (houlever Moot) a fortification , hence 

It. haluardo , Sp. haluarte; from G. holhverk a hulwork, cf. 

Estr abort from Strdzhurc. Roquefort has holleiverque. 
Bouleverser Fr. prop. = to turn over like a ball (bottle). The 

Lim. has corrupted it into polo -versa {polo clunis). 
Boulimie — bulimo, 
Bouline Fr. (naut.) bow -line, 0. Fr. boline, boeline; Du. boe- 

lijne, E. bowline, G. boleine, 
Boulon — bolla. 
Boundle — benda. 
Bouquer Fr. to yield, to truckle; from N. bucka, to stoop, G. 

Bouquet — bosco. 
Bouquin Fr. a bad book; from Du. boeckin (G. buch-chen). Cf. 

mannequin, brodequin, helleqiiin, Rouchi peneqnin =■ bad bread, 

verquin a small glass. 
Bourbe Fr. (f.) mud, Wall, borboii; cf. Gr. PoQ^ogog. 
Bourde Fr., Pr. borda a lie, vb. bourder. The old sense of the 

word (jest, pastime) points to thePr.&o/Y for biort {y .bagordo) ; 

the O. Fr. behorder had the meaning ^Ho sport, jest'\ From 

^^y^or^ jest came the E. boord, Gael, biird. 
Bourdon — bordone. 
Bourg — borgo. 
Bourgeon Fr., E. burgeon. Perhaps from the 0. H. G. burjan to 

lift, so = something protruding, breaking out. In Langued. 

boure = the eye of a shoot. 
Bournous — albornoz. 
Bourrache — borraggine. 
Bourras — borra. 
Bourrasque — burrasca. 
Bourre ■ — borra. 
Bourreau Fr., Pr. borel an executioner. The contraction from 

bouchereau (boucher) would be too violent. Borel might come 

from boja (q. v.) with the double suffix er-el, cf. Fr. mdtereau 

from mat, thus = an hypothetical boi-er-ello, cf. Rh. bojer, 

0. Sp. borrero. From bourreau comes bourreler to torture. Or 

it is the same as the O.Fr. borel, buret, O.E. borel a clownish, 

common fellow, prop. = clad in borel or the undyed wool of 

brown sheep, v. buio. 
Bourreler — bourreau. 
Bourrer — borra. 
Bourrique — burro. 
Bourse — borsa. 


Boursoufler — houder. 

Bouse Fr., Pr. boza buza cowdung. The Rh. has bovatscha, Com. 
boascia, Parm. boazza, so we might have a Fr. bouasse; but it 
is doubtful whether this could give bousse bouse, such a trans- 
position of the accent from the suffix to the root being un- 
known in French. Better from M. H. G. butze clod, cf. etron 
s. stronzare. 

Boussole — bosso. 

Bout — boitare, 

Boute bouteille — botte. 

Boutique — bottega. 

Bova It. (only in pi.), Lomb. boga fetters for the feet; from 0. 
H. G. bouga an armlet, L. L. bauca armilla Papias: cf. bou. 

Boveda — volta. 

Box — bosso. 

Boya — boja (2). 

Boyau — budello. 

Bozal — bocca. 

Bozar — versare. 

Bozza It., Pr. bossa, Fr. bosse, Pic. boche a lump, a boil, Eng. 
boss J Fr. bossu humpbacked. It. boccia a bud, ball, Sp. bocha 
ball, bowl, Pg. bochecha the cheek puffed out ; the same word 
as, thetl.G.&M^^:^ butzen any blunt point or lump, oi.JyM.butse 
a boil , from M. H. G. bozen to thrust (protrude), v. bottare. 
The It. bozzo and bozza mean a rougn unformed block of 
stone, whence abbozzare to work in the rough, to sketch, E. 
boast, Pg. esbocar, Sp. bosquejar, O. Sp. esbozo = abbozzo, Fr. 
bossage any stone indeed for sculpture. Other forms have a 
radical u instead of the o: thus It. buzzo a belly, a pincushion, 
Sp. buche crop, bosom, pad; Sp. buchete = bochecha-^ Fr. but 
a raised knob, a butt, whence scope, design (cf. Gr. 6K07t6g, 
G. zweck), whence debut; Fr. butte (f.) a raised mound. From 
buzzo in the Mil. buzzecca, Piedm. buseca, It. busecchio the 
bowels , cf. O. H. G. gebuzze exta. From Sp. buche seems to 
come bucha a bread-chesty money-box, bucliar to hide. From 
boccia a bud prob. come bozzacchio and bozzacchione (Dante 
Parad.) a withered plum. 

Braca It., Sp. Pg. braga, Pr. braya, O. Fr. braie breeches (usu. 
in pi.), Sp. braga, Fr. braie a child's napkin; from Lat. braca 
of Gallic origin , Bret, brages, 

Bracco It., Sp. braco brae, Fr. braque a hunting dog, pointer; 
It. braccare to track; from O. H. G. braccho, G. bracke. The 
Sp. adj. braco = flat -nosed. From 0. Fr. bracon came bra- 
connier a poacher, braconner to poach. 

Braeonnier — bracco. 

Bragia brascia bracia It., Sp. Pr. brasa, Pg. braza, Fr. braise 


glowing coal, Fl. hrase; It. ahhragiare, Sp. abrazar, Fr. em- 
braser, O. Fr. esbraser to set on fire. From the O. N. brasa 
solder, whence A. S. brdsian to braze, whence It. bragiare; 
bracia is like cacio from casern. Mil. brasca ^^ embrassei\ 
Hence E. vb. brase, sbst. braser a pan of hot coals. E. brass 
is from the same. 

Brago It., Pr. brae mud, mire, O. Fr. brai mire, whence le pays 
de Bray, Pr. = matter. Cat. brae ulcer, pitch, Fr. brai pitch 
whence Sp. brea, Pg. breo breu, vb. brayer, brear, cf. Wall. 
briac mire. From Gk. Pgccyog = sXog (Menage) ? 

Brague 0. Fr. diversion, Fr. braguer to be merry, N. Pr. braga 
to E. brag , O. Fr. bragard, E. braggart, Du. braggaerd. It is 
not found in 0. Pr., hence prob. from the N. brak noise, braka 
to brag. Dief. Goth. Worterb. 1. 268, derives it from the 
Celtic, W. brag = malt, bragiaw to swell, brew. 

Brai ■ — brago. 

Braidif • — braire. 

Braie — braca. 

Brailler — braire. 

Braiman Pr. a freebooter; prop. = a man of Brabant, 0. Sp. 
hreimante, v. Due. (s. Brabanciones). 

Braion — brandone. 

Braire Fr. E. bray, O. Fr. Pic. Norm. Pr. braire generally to 
cry, also to trill (of birds) : (lo rossinhols brai), particip. brait, 
whence brait a cry. As 0. Fr. muire from mug ire, bruire from 
L. L. brugire , so braire from L. L. bragire. Prob. the same 
as raire (q. v.), cf. bruire from rugire. From brait comes Pr. 
braidar, Pg. bradar, whence Pr. braidiu, O. Fr. braidif im- 
petuous, stormy; prob. also Pr. O. Fr. braidir, 0. It. bradire. 
The Fr. brailler, Pr. braillar to blare (for braailler?), Piedm. 
braje may come from braire as criailler from crier, piailler from 
a form pier, It. piare. 

Braise — bragia. 

Bramare It., Rh.brammar to long for, Sp. Vr.bramar, Fr. bramer 
to scream, N. Pr. bramd in both senses, cf. 0. Cat. glatir to 
bark, N. Cat. to desire, and Festus has: latrare Ennius pro 
poscere posuit. It is the O. H. G.breman, Du. bremmen to roar, 
Gr. ^QS^Siv, L. fremere, Sansk. bhram. 

Bramangiere It. a first course; from Fr. blanc- manger a blanc- 
mange , dish made with milk, M. H. G. bldmenschier. 

Bran — brenno. 

Branca It. O. Sp. O. Pg. Pr., Fr. branche, Pr. also m. branc, E. 
branch, Wal. brence a forefoot, L. L. branca leonis a plant. 
The L. brachium could only have give brancia. Branca was 
probably an old Rom. word, perhaps even used in the spoken 
Latin. The O. Gael, brae, Corn, brech, W. breich arm, are 


connected , the Bret, branc preserving the purer form. From 
hranca comes It. hrancolare to grope. 
Branche — hranca. 

Brande Fr.^ N. Pr. brando brushwood , Berr. brande broom. 

Brandir brandon branler — brando. 

Brandistocco It. a javelin; from brandire to brandish and stocco 
a stick. 

Brando It., Pr. bran, O. Val. brant, 0. Fr. brant branc bran a 
sword -blade (branc de Vespee); from O. H. G. brant a brand, 
O. N. brandr a sword, cf. Sp. Tizon Tizona (titio) the sword 
of the Cid. This from G. brennen to burn. Hence come It. 
brandire, Pr. Fr. brandir, Sp. blandir, E. brandish; dimin. Fr. 
brandiller, cont. branler, ebranler, for brandoler, E. brandle, 
orig. used of waving a brand or sword. Hence too Pr. brando, 
Fr. brandon, Sp. blandon a stake, a torch; O. Fr. brander to 
brand, N. Pr. brandd, Piedm. brande to boil, O. Pr. abrandar 
to ignite. Thus Diez, but Wedgwood connects brand with 
the following word (^fire-brand = prop, a splinter or faggot). 
Brandish &c. he gets from the Manx brans to dash. This is 
prob. related to the Sansk. bhranc cadere, in Cans, dejicere. 

Brandone It., cont. brano a piece or collop of flesh , shred of 
cloth &c., O. Sp. brahon (for bradon) a patch of cloth, Pr. 
bradon brazon braon, O.Fr. braion, Lorr. bravon, WslX.breyon, 
E. brawn a lump or roll of flesh, the buttocks; It. sbranare, 
O. Fr. esbraoner to tear piece -meal, from the O. H. G. brdto, 
ace. brdton a lump of fleshy the calf of the leg. 

Brano — brandone. 

Brana — brenno. 

Braque — bracco. 

Braquer Fr. to bend, manage; from O. N. brdka to subdue (E. 

Bras O. Fr. malt, L. L. bracium, Fr. brasser to brew, O. Sp. 
brasar, L. L. braxare; from Gallic brace (Pliny), Gael, braich 
bracha, W. brag. The Wallon form is bra or brau, Wal. brahe 
malt. From the L.L. comes the Q^.brauen (J.Grimm); whence 
E. brew. 

Brasa — bragia. 

Brasile It., Sp. Pg. brasil, Fr. bresil a wood furnishing a red 
dye; found in Brazil to which it has given its name. Some 
connect it with brasa glowing coal , because of its bright red 
colour, but Diez prefers to make the vb. bresiller to dye with 
Brazil-wood, the same word as bresiller (Pr. brezilhar) to 
break in small pieces, splinter (briza), the wood being usually 
brought to Europe in splinters. 

Brasse — braza. 

Bratta Gen. dirt, whence It. imbrattare to soil {Imbratta a nick- 


name in Bocc. Dec. 6, 10), sbrattare to purify. Diez gives no 
derivation. Perhaps it is shortened irom. baratta which = en- 
tanglement, trouble, v. s. haratto. 

Bravo It. Sp. Pg.; Pr. hrau (f. hrava), Fr. brave (G. brav , E. 
brave); Sp. Pg. bravio. Diez traces the meanings thus: bravo 
meant (l) unruly, stormy; 0. It. unde brave; it was then used 
specially of wild animals or plants: L. L. bravus bos, It. bue 
brado (a young untamed o^^ ^^.ganso bravo a wild goose, Pg. 
uva brava wild grape; thence it came to mean impetuous, 
valiant, fine. The Fr. preserves the orig. sense only in ebrotier 
and rabrouer. Diez prefers the derivation from O. H. Gr. faiv, 
E. raw (cf. bruire, brusco, braire), and compares the senses of 
crudus. Wedgwood, however, refers it to the same root as 
brag (v. braguer), viz.: the N. brak braka crash, noise (cf. use 
of crack in 0. Eng. = boast, brag). Brag = Gael, breagh 
fine, Sc. braWf Bret, brao brav , whence the Rom. words. 

Braza Sp. Pg., Pr. brassa, Fr. brasse a fathom; from brachia the 
(outstretched) arms, cf. 0. Fr. brace levee with open arms.i 

Brea — brago. 

Brebis — berbice. 

Breccia — breche, 

Breeha — breche. 

Breche Fr., E. breach, Pr. berca a notch, and from breche It. 
breccia, Sp. breeha, Pr. bercar enbercar, Pic. eberquer , Fr. 
ebrecher; from O. H. G. breeha a breaking, cf. W. breg a 
breach. The It. briccola, Sp. brigola, Fr. bricole a battering- 
ram , belong to the M. H. G. brechel a breaker. 

Bredouiller Fr. to stutter ; prob. from O. Fr. bredir, Pr. braidir 
to sing, warble (v. braire). 

BretLaigne Fr. barren (of animals), 0. Fr. baraigne, Wall, brou- 
hagne, Pic. breine, Burg, braime, Bret, brechan, O. E. barrayne, 
E, barren. Diez makes baraigne the orig., and derives from 
baro a man, cf. Sp. machorra from macho, Pr. tauriga from 
taur. Wedg. from the Du. braeck sterilis. 

Brelan Fr. a game at cards , brelander to play at such game, 
brelandier a gamester. The O. Fr. form was brelenc berlenc 
= a dice -board; from the G. bretlin or bretling a little board. 
Hence Sp. berlanga a game of chance. ^ 

Breloque — loque. 

Breme Fr. (E. bream) for bresme, from G. brachsme, brassen, 
N. Pr. bramo. 

Brena Sp., Pg. brenha ground covered with brambles, L. L. 
brenna (Ducange). Perhaps from G. brahne a bush or hedge. 
Diez. May it not be connected with bren refuse (v.s. brenno)'} 

Brenna It. a jade, a sorry nag; cf. Serv. barna a nag, brnja a 
horse with a blaze or white mark. 


Brenno Gen., Com. Piedm. Pr. 0. Fr. O. Sp. hren, Piedm. also 
hran bran, Fr. bran refuse, Sp. hrana dung, withered leaves*, 
Fr. hren ordure, herneux snotty; a Celtic word, W. hrdny Gael. 
hrarij Bret, hrenn, E. hran. 

Brenta It., Piedm. hrinda, Rouchi hrande a wine -vessel, G. 
hrente, brdnte a wooden vessel. 

Bresca Mant. Sard. Sp. Cat. Pr., Sic. vrisca, 0. Fr. hresche, L. L. 
brisca a honey-comb. Prob. Celtic: Ir. briosg, W. bresg, Bret. 
bresk; Diez after Villemarque. But the Ir. briosg == brittle, 
and no W. bresg exists. Slahn connects it with the Pro v. 
brusc, L. L. ruscus, Fr. ruche a bee -hive, which is from the 
Celtic : W. rhisg, Bret, rusk, Gael, rusg bark. Pott connects 
bresca &c. with ^ICtxslv, /3/lr<?at, Brisceus (Kuhn's Zeitsch. 
Vol. 6, p. 328). 

Bressin Fr. (naut), E. brace, Du. Sw. bras, G. brasse; all from 
Fr. bras, the rope having the appearance of an arm, e for a to 
distinguish it from brassin brewing. 

Bretauder — berta. 

Bret Pr. ^^homo linguae impeditse", Yr. parler bret or breionner 
to stammer*, prop, to speak Breton, cf. Sp. vascuence, al- 

Brete Sp. fetters, Pg. a snare for birds = Pr. bret, O. Fr. bret; 
hence 0. Fr. broion a noose, Fr. bretelle a strap, brace. Com. 
breiela bartela a crupper, Sp. bretador a bird-call, Sp. bretel 
brace, N. Pr. bretella, bratella. From the 0. G. brettan strin- 
gere, gabrettan contexere; A. S. bredan bregdan to weave, 
braid; E. to braid and braid in O. E. =^ to deceive (Chaucer: 
brede). Wedg. connects braid with bray to make a noise (to 
rush, to bend, to twist). 

Brette Fr. (f.) a backsword, vb. bretailler; cf. N. bredda a short 

Brettine ■ — brida, 

Bretto O. It. unfruitful, poor. Cf. bretauder, s. berta, 

Brettonica It., Sp. Pg. bretonica; from betonica, Fr. betoine, E. 
betony, cf. s. brida. 

Breuil — broglio. 

Breuvage Fr. beverage; for beurage, Pr. beuratge, It. beveraggio, 
from boire, L. bibere; abbreuver for abbeurer, Pr. abeurar, Fr. 
embreuver to moisten, soak, embruer = E. imbrue. 

Brezo — bercer (2). 

Brezza It., Fr. brise, E. breeze, Sp. briza brisa a North -East- 
wind. Hence It. ri-brezzo a shudder. Perh. from It. rezzo. 
Wedgwood says that the origin is in the imitation of a rust- 
ling noise. He makes the Fr. bise.i\ie same word as brise, but 
V. bigio. 


Brial — hliaut. 

Bribe Fr. 0. E. a lump of bread, Wall, hrib alms, E. bribe; 
Wall, briber, Pic. brimber to beg. For b?ibe the Pic. has brife, 
whence O. Fr. brifer to be greedy, brifaud glutton, Bret, brifa 
brifoad, It. briffcdda a vagrant woman. Hence Sp. bribar to 
be a vagrant, briba, It. birba a vagrant life; Sp. bribon, It. 
birbone, birbante, O. Fr. b7iban, O. E. bribour a vagrant, a 
rogue, a robber (v. Marsh, Lectures on the English language). 
Diez suggests the derivation from 0. Gr. bilibi bread, A. S. 
bilifen; others derive it better from W. briwo to break, briw 
a fragment , bar a briw a lump of bread. 

Brieco It., Fr. brique a brick; from A.S. brice a bit^or fragment, 
E. brick (from break); brique de pain=^ K. S. hldfes brice a bit 
of bread. It. briccolino briciolo a crumb. Connected with these 
are It. bricca a rough country, Piedm. brich, Com. sbrich a 

Brieco It., in sbricco, whence briccone, Pr. brie bricon a rogue, 
knave. Prob. from O. H. G. brecho a violator, breaker, A. S. 
brie a. 

Brieco — burro. 

Briecola — breche. 

Brieia brieiolo — briser. 

Brico Sp. a sandbank; from N. breki a sunken rock. 

Brida Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. bride, O. Fr. A. S. bridel, E. bridle, It. 
predello; from the O. H. G. brittil, pritil (M. H. C briten) to 
weave. Another form is briglia (from britl) Wal. bregle; also 
It. brettine (for brettile?). Wedgwood gets it from Icel. bitill 
a bridle from bit (that which the horse bites) by insertion of 
r, cf. brettonica betonica, brulicame bulicame, Du. broosekens, 
E. buskins &c. 

Brifer — bribe. 

Briffalda — bribe. 

Briga It. 0. Pg., 0. Fr. brigue, Sp. Pg. Pr. Cat. brega strife, 
quarrel (It. also trouble, business. Cat. also tumult, Fr. 
convassing); It. brig are, Fr. briguer to strive, Sp. bregar, Pg. 
brigar to quarrel , Pr. Cat. bregar to rub ; It. brig ante a busy- 
body, intriguer, pirate, Pg. brigdo a quarreller, Sp. bergante, 
Pg. bargante a rogue, Fr. brigand a skirmisher, a light-armed 
trooper, a brigand (cf. latro and It. malandrino). The under- 
lying notion of briga is exertion, trouble, from root brak 
(brachium, break), whence r— business, so brigata = a com- 
pany (engaged in same business), Fr. E. brigade. From b?i- 
gante a pirate come brigantare to rob, brigantino a pirate-ship, 
a small two -masted vessel, E. brigantine, brig, Fr. E. brigan- 
dine a sort of scale armour, so called because worn by the 


Brigand — hriga. 

Brigantino — briga, 

Briglia — hida. 

Brignole — brugna. 

Brigola — breche, 

Brillare It., Sp. Pr. brillar, Fr. briller to shine, hence brilliant, 
Diez refers it to O. Fr. bericle from beryllus, but Wedgwood, 
with more probability, to makes it the same word as griller 
to crack, crackle; gresiller griller corresponding to breziller 
briller. Words denoting light are commonly derived from 
those expressing sound, e. g. Gr. hell clear, from hall a sound, 
etincelle from tinkle, so bright in O. E. was used of sound. 

Brimborion Fr. a trifle, bawble; ph. from brimber (v. bribe) to 
beg, with a Lat. ending (brimborium). 

Brin Arag. Pr., Pg. brim, Fr. brin a fibre, blade of grap &c. v. 
brenno, with which it is prob. connected. 

Brin O. Fr. noise. Ph. from O. N. brim surf, roar of the sea, 
or connected with O. Fr. bramer to cry with desire, bram a cry, 
It. bramare (fiQS^Siv). 

Brin d*estoc Fr. a leaping -pole; from G. springstock, 

Brina It., Langued. ^rmo breino, Wi\. prinna rime, hoar-frost. 
From pruina the b for p being unusual but not unexampled ; 
or, better, from vapor, through the Ven. borina (cf. boricco, 
bricco)\ cf. Ven. borana bur ana a cloud, Wal. bore steam, 
rime (Wal. abor = vapor). Sard, borea. Cat. boira a cloud 
come from vaporea better than from boreas. 

Brincar Sp. Pg. to leap, skip, dance, play, brinco a leap &. 
brincos, jewels (play things). Prob. from G. blinken to glitter, 
cf. micare, coruscare &c. 

Brindar — brindisi. 

Brinde — brindisi. 

Brindisi It., Sp. brindis a health (propinatio) ; from G. bring dii^s. 
Hence Fr. brinde, horr. bringue'i to drink a health, Sip. brindar. 
The O.S^.carduz in the same sense Covarruvias derives from 
G. gar-aus, but more prob. it comes from Du. kroesen krosen 
(kruyse a cup, cruse) to tipple, whence carouse. 

Brio It. Sp. Pg., Pr. briu, O. Fr. bri, vivacity, courage, spirit; 
hence Pr. brivar abrivar to press, partic. abrivatz, O. Fr. 
abrive hasty , ph. also It. abbrivo way (of a ship), abbrivare to 
get underway, and not from ab-ripare. Brio is probably con- 
nected with the 0. Ir. brig, Gael, brigh strength (i^Qi^v to be 
strong), cf. Pr. crau from crag. 

Brique — bricco. 

Brisa Sp. (common in Aragon and Catalonia) skins of grapes; 
from L. brisa (Columella). 

Brisa — brezza. 


Briscar Sp. Cat. to embroider with gold twist (O. Fr. hroissier). 

Brise — hrezza. 

Briser Fr,^ Pr. hrisar hrizar to break, Fr. hris rubbish, Pr. hriza 
a crumb, E. hreeze dust &c., hriss hrist rubbish. It. hricia 2i. 
crumb (cf. A. S. hrice = a bit, E. brick), briciola hriciolo (v. 
hricco), shriciolare to crumble; hence Pr. desbrizar, abrizar, 
desabrizar to shatter, Fr. debris rubbish ; Fr. bresiller, Pr. bi^e- 
zilhar to break up , Fr. bresilles bretilles little bits of wood. 
From a G. root brist found in O. H. G. brestan (pres. bristu) 
O. N. bresia to break, G. bersien to bursty O. N. brestr, M. H. 
G. breste a breach, O. E. brise to crush. The Fr. bruiser (q. 
v.), E. bruise, A. S. brysan are connected. There is also a 
Gael, bris to break. It. bricia, briciola, briciolo may be a 
form of Lomb. brisa (cf. cucire from cusire), Pr. briga, Lomb. 
brica &c., vb. Pr. esbriga = brizar may belong to G. brechen, 
E. break, 

Britar 0. Pg. to break = A. S. brittian to break , whence brit 
brittle, connected with the former word. 

Brive Fr. fragments a Celtic word found in Samarobriva (inter- 
sected by the Somme). Humboldt makes it the same as the 
Celtic briga (q.v.). Dauph. briva brio = rosidj cf. route, O.Fr. 
bris = fragment and road. 

Brizar brizo — bercer (2). 

Brocard, broche, brocher — brocco. 

Brooca It., Pr. Fr. a jug, Sw. broke brog tub. Ferrari derives 
it from 7tQ6%ov£, but more prob. connected with brocco (q. v.), 
so = a vessel with a projecting nose, a beaker. Dim. Prov. 
broisson (broccio) neck of a vessel, Pic. brochon also = vizor 
of a helmet, prop, something projecting. Hence Fr. E. embro- 

Broceliiere • — bouclier, 

Brocco It. (sbrocco sprocco) a sharp stump, or spur of a tree, a 
snag , bud , peg , short, Parm. broch a bough , O. Fr. Pic. b7^oc 
a point, spike, also Pied, brocio = It. brocco, Lomb. broc = 
broch. It. f. brocca a split stick, Sic. brocca also a shoot, 
sucker. Pied. Parm. Ven, broca a small nail, Lomb. a bough, 
Sp. broca a reel, drill, Pr. broca, Fr. broche a spit, skewer 
(v. Due. brocca) &c., Sp. brocha a button , broche clasp, = E. 
brooch; dim. It. broccolo, Sp. broculi, E. broccoli (cf. It. sverza 
a cabbage sprout and splinter); It. broccare, Pr. brocar, Fr. 
brocher to prick, embroider (E. broach abroach), broccato bro- 
card brocade, Sp. broccado, brocadel. Brocard Fr. n= taunt 
may be the same word, though usu. derived from Burchard 
Bishop of Worms, author of treatise called ^^Brocardica^\ 
The Lat. has brocchus broccus (Plaut. Varro) = a protruding 
tooth (whence the name Brocchus): from this we easily get 


the senses of the Romance words. Wedgwood traces all to 
the root 'brak , E. 'break. From hroclie comes Fr. hrocart, E. 
brocket a hart 2 years old , because of the single snag on his 
antler. The fallow-deer was called d^. pricket. 

Broehet Fr. apike (fish); from broche (brocco), because of its sharp 
head; cf.E.j92/r^(in two senses), Yv.bequet a beak, bill, and also 
2^ pike, Fr. lanceron a young pike, from lance. The It. broc- 
chetto (= brocket) means a small bough. 

Broder — bordo. 

Brodo, broda It., Sp. Pg. brodio bodrio, Pr. bro, whence Fr. 
brouet broth; from O. H. G. brod, A. S. brodh, G. briihe, E. 
broth, Ir. broth, Gael, brot, from G. brilhen to pour boiling 
water , W. brivd hot. 

Broglio bruolo It. (Dante brolo a crown), Pr. bruelh, Fr. breuil, 
fem. Pg. brulha, Pr. bruelha, 0. Fr. bruelle, G. briihl a bushy 
place; It. brogliare, 0. Sp. broUar, Pg. Pr. brolhar, Fr. brouiller 
(Pg. also abrolhar, sbst. abrolho, Sp. abrojo) to sprout, break 
out, rebel, raise a disturbance, It. broglio, E. broil. Prob. 
from the Celtic: W. brog a swelling, whence brog-il in O. G. 
From brouiller comes brouillon a disturber, a makebate, also 
= a sketch, rough copy. 

Broigne brunie 0. Fr., Pr. bronha, L. L. brugna (A. D. 813) a 
coat -of- mail; from Goth, brunjo, O. H.G. brunjd, which from 
brinnan brennen to burn, glitter. 

Broion — brete. 

Broissier — briscar. 

Broisson — brocca. 

Broneher — bronco. 

Broncio It. morose, angry look, imbronciare =■ pigliar broncio to 
wear such a look, L. L. broccus obstinatus, O. Fr. embrons 
soucieux, E. in a broivn study (v. Wedgw.); perhaps connected 
with Sw. briitsch morose, vb. brutschen, (j.protzen. 

Bronco It, a stock, trunk, Sard, bruncu a shoot, Fr. f. bronche 
a bush, O. Sp. broncha a bough; It. broncone a broken bough, 
Fr. broneher to stumble (cf . It. cespo a bush , cespicare to tot- 
ter), Vr.abroncar to knock at. Perhaps fromPr.^rwc a stump, 
trunk, burcar (brucar?) to stumble, with inserted n (cf. Parm. 
brocon = broncone. Mil. brocca = bronche), so that bronc may 
be referred to the same origin as brocco, viz. luSit.broccus bron- 
cus. It may, however, be from O. H. G. bruch, Du. brok any- 
thing broken, a stump, v. brocco ad fin. The Sp. Pg. bronco 
= rude, coarse, morose, cf. L. truncus, G. klotz. 

Bronde O.Fr., YiQdiVCi.bronda, Langued. broundosi twig, whence 
Pr. dim. brondel brondill. 

Brontolare It. to murmur: Pqovttj'? 

Bronzo It., Sp. bronce, Fr. E. bronze. It. abbronzare , O. Sp. 



'bronzar, Fr. hronzer to scorch, bronze, Ven. hronza, It. pi. 
&ronz^ glowing coals. The metal is so called from being used in 
soldering, an operation performed over hot coals ; cf. brass 
from brasa embers. Bronza coals is prob. of same origin as 
G. brunst heat, brennen to burn. Connected with bruno, brown, 

Brosse — broza. 

Brote brota Sp., Vr.brot, Fr. brout a bud, sprout;, Sp. Pr. broton; 
Sp. Pr. brotar to sprout; from O. H. G. bi^oz a sprout, brozzen 
to sprout. 

Brouailles Fr., O. Fr. breuilles the entrails of birds or fishes, 
L. L. burbalia intestina (Gloss. Isid.). V. Dief. Celt. 1, 200. 

Brouee Fr. mist; a participial form \i\ieguilee, gelee, S'p.nuvada. 
Pic. brouache = fine rain, Berrichon brouasser to drizzle, 
berrouee = brouee. Ph. from A. S. brodh, G. brodem, Sc. 
Z^ro^/i = steam (from heated bodies): brouillard fog, from a 
form brodel brudel rising damp. v. brodo. 

Brouet — brodo. 

Brouette ■ — biroccio. 

Brouillard — brouee. 

Brouiller brouillon — broglio. 

Brouir Fr. to burn; from M. H. G. bruejen, Du. broeijen, G. 
bruhen. Piedm. broe brove, Ven. broare, Mil. sbroja. Langued. 
braouzi = brauzir which is related to brouir, as auzir to ouir, 
jauzir to jouir, blauzir to blouir. 

Brouques Pic. breeches; from Du. broek = O. H. G. bruoch, 
V. braca. 

Broussaille — broza. 

Brout — broie. 

Brouter — • broza. 

Broyer — briga. 

Broza Sp. fallen leaves, chips, rubbish, also a brush (bruza), 
Pr. brus (but v. bru), Fr. brosse small bushes, heath, brosse 
also = a brush; hence Fr. broussailles brush -wood. It. bruz- 
zaglia rabble. The O. Fr. broce. Pic. brouche shows that ss 
= St, so the Pr. brostar, Fr. brouter (brouter) to browse (O. Fr. 
broust fallen leaves &c., pasturage) belong here; the It. brustia 
= Sp. bruza points to the same fact. The origin is to be 
sought in the O. H. G. burst brusta a bristle, comb (something 
bristly), plainly seen in Fr. rebours y against the grain, re- 
bourser rebrousser to stroke against the grain (stringere), L. L. 
rebursus bristly. The forms with st favour the derivation from 
the A. S. brustian (burst) to sprout, Bret, broust a bramble 
bush, brousta to browse. 

Bru Pr. heath (only found in the nom. brus), Langued. Mil. 
brug, Gen. briigo; from the W. brwg bush, Bret, briig, Sw. 

BRU — BRUNO. 99 

l)ruch heath (but v. hrozd). Hence Fr. hruyere, Cat. bruguera, 
O. Fr. hrueroi. 

Bru Fr., O. Fr. Z^rw?/ = belle - fille , a daughter-in-law. From 
Goth, hruths, O. H. Gr. M. H. Gr. brut, G. hraut, 0. S. brud, 
Du. bruid, A. S. bryd, E. bride , O. N. brudhr, Swed. ^rw^. 
Norm. Champ, bruman = briidhgumi = bridegroom, Swed. 
brud -man a bridesman. 

Bruces — buz. 

Bruciare brusciare (in ahbrusciare) It., Pr. bruzar bruizar, Rh. 
brischar; hence It. brustolare, ab -brustiare , Pr. bruslar, Fr. 
brider, E. broil, Diez derives from Lat. perustus whence per- 
ustare prustare brustare brusciare bruciare (cf. cacio for cascio), 
Pr. bruzar = brussar; also from perustulare brustolare &c., 
which represent the O.Rom, ustolare (ustulare) found inO.Sp. 
uslar, Vv.usclar (ustlar), W^sX.ustura. Wedgw. makes all these 
words onomatopoeia, and compares Sc. birsle brissle to broil, 
G. prasseln, E. brustle to crackle, also Fr. griser, gresiller 
griller, grill, It. grullo = brullo parched. 

Brueio — bruco, 

Bruco It. a caterpillar, Sp. brugo a worm, from bruchus (Pru- 
dentius), PQOv%og'^ hence brucare to strip off leaves. The form 
brueio points to an adj. hrucheus. Cf. Wal. brug a cockchafer. 

Brugna It., Pg. brunho abrunho, Sp. bruno, Fr. brugnon, Mil. 
brugnoeu, Fr. brignole a plum, plum-tree. Brugna = prugna, 
brugnoeu = pruynuolo and prugna = prunea, cf. ciriegia = 
cerasea. The ^i^. bruno, however, seems to connect itself with 
the adj. bruno. Brignole in Provence (Broniolacum) was noted 
for its plums. 

Brugnon — brugna. 

Bruine Fr., Pr. bruina cold fine rain. Not from pruina, but ana- 
logous to the Pr. forms calina, plovina &c. The root is per- 
haps found in brugir bruir bruire, which last in Champ. = to 
make a noise and to be foggy. Is it the same as the bru in 
bruma (not brevima). 

Bruire It. Fr., Pr. brugir bruzir, Com. brugi, O. Cat. brogir to 
rumble, make a noise; It. bruitOj Fr. bruit, Pr. bruit bruida; 
from rugire, or ph. connected with Sansk. bru to speak, W. 
brud a chronicle, Sc. bruidhean to talk, E. to bruit. 

Bruiser bruser 0. Fr. to bruise, whence combruisser, debruisier, 
O. Sp. abrusar. From A. S. brysan, E. bruise; connected with 

Bruit — bruire. 

Bruler — bruciare. 

Bruma Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. brume. Cat. broma vapour, mist, Wal. 
&rwm^' hoarfrost ; from bruma which in L. L. = hoar-frost. 

Bruno It. Sp. Pg., Pr. Fr. brun^ brown; from 0. H. G. brun, 



G. hraun, E, hrown. Hence hrimire, Sp. brumr hrohir, Pg. 
hornir, Pr. Fr. hrunir, E. burnish, cf. M. H. Gr. hriunen. 

Bruno — hrugna. 

Brusca — husca. 

Brusco It. Sp.; Fr. hrusc (whence G. briisch), Pg. fern, brusca 
holly; from ruscum, cf. JPr. brusc bark, bee -hive from rusca, 
It. bruscare to strip bark from Com. rusca. Hence Pr. brusca 
a rod (cf. Fr. houssine from houx). 

Brusco It. sour (e. g. of wine), rude, abrupt, Sp. Pg. brusco 
morose, gloomy, Fr. brusque passionate &c. ; Fr. brusquer to 
treat rudely. Prob. from 0. H. G. bruttisc brutfsc gloomy. 
But Ferrari derives it from the LtSit. labruscus, the It. dropping 
the first syllable. 

Brustolare — bruciare. 

Bruttolt. ugly, rude, misformed ; irovabrutus senseless, shapeless. 

Bruxa Sp., Pg. Cat. bruxa a screech-owl, a witch, cf. siriga (It. 
Strega), bruxo a wizard, sorcerer. Perhaps another form of 
bruza bristle, the owl being so calledfrom its shaggy head. A 
rough-haired man is called in Sw.huwei=owL Witches were 
thought to take the form of owls (convertidas en gallos, ^'lechu- 
zas'^, Cuervos Cervant. Nov. 6), v. Ducange, s. broxa. 

Bruxula — bosso. 

Bruyere — bru (l). 

Bruza — broza, 

Bruzzaglia — broza, 

Bubbola — upupa. 

Bubbone It., Sp. bubon, Pg. bubdo, Fr. bubon, Wal. buboin a 
bubo, a tumour; from /3oL>/3a3V, h. bubo. Hence Si^. buba bua, 
Pg. bouba bubo, Fr. bube, Wal. bube, unless these are to be 
referred to a lost Lat. primitive, cf. s. manto, mazza, mozzo, 
frag a, sap, 

Buc — buco. 

Bucato It., Sp. Pr. bugada, Fr. buce buck-\men, bucking. Burg. 
buie. It. bucaia ^wcA-- ashes ; bucatare. Ph. buadar, Bret, buga, 
Fr. buguer buqiier buer to buck, G. beuchen, buchen &c. Diez 
derives bucato from buca a hole, because the ashes were 
strained through a pierced dish, cf. Sp. colada lye from colare 
to strain. But bucare does not mean to strain, so Wedg. 
would refer the word to the Celtic bog = moist, Sclav, mok 
(whence L. macero to soak). In l^.imbuere the guttural is lost 
as in Fr. buer. 

Buccio buccia bark , peel, skin. Perhaps from lobuccio, from 
Xo^og or Xonog peel. Cf. loppa and Rom.Gr. 1, 240, 253. The 
lo was perhaps mistaken for the article , cf. lierre. 

Bucha buchar buche — bozza. 

Buche • — busca. 


Bueherame It., Cat. hocaram, Tr.bocaran hoqueran, Yr.bougran, 
E. buckram coarse stiffened stuff with open interstices ; from 
It. bucherare to perforate. Others derive it from boc a goat 
(boc-ar-an) so = stuff made of goat's hair. 

Bueo buca It., Sp. buco buque, Cat. buc a hole, Pr. O. Fr. buc, 
Com. bugh a trunk, Pr. buc (which, however, Mahn makes 
= brusc) a bee -hive; It. bucare to perforate; from 0. H. G. 
buh, M. H. G. buch, O. N. bukr, Du. buk bulk = belly, trunk. 
Hence Sp. Pr. trabucar, Fr. trebucher to fling to the ground, 
to stumble, prop, to overthrow in wrestling, cf. tram-bustare 
from busto. Hence Sp. trabuco, Pr. trabuc, trabuquet, Fr. tre- 
buchet a catapult. The It. traboccare trabocco trabocchetto have 
reference to bocca (mouth); theVen. trabucare, O. It. trabucco, 
Com. trabuc , Ver. strabuco preserve the original form. 

Buda burda It. = Gk. rvcprj , L. tomentum. Servius has: ulvam 
dicunt rem, quam vulgus budam vocat. 

Budello It., O. Sp. budel, Pr. Fr. boyau (0. Fr. boel), E. bowel; 
from botellus (Martial) a sausage; L. L. botelli = bowels. 
Gellius 17, 7 gives botulus as a word used by the vulgar. 
Wedgwood says the word is probably derived from the rumb- 
ling of the bowels, but it would, perhaps, be better to connect 
it with It. boite, Sp. bota &c., A. S. butte = a hollow recept- 
acle, V. s. botte. 

Budget — bolgia. 

Budriere — baudre. 

Buega Sp. a boundary-stone ; cf. G.&wX: a boundary, buiky Frisch 
1, 151; cf. also E. balk, q. v. s. balco, 

Buer — bucato, 

Buf Pr. Fr. an interjection; It. buffo. Mil. boff 2^, puff of wind; 
It. buffa, Sp. bufa a scoff (whence buffone &c^, 0. Fr. buffe a 
buff, blow, bufet a box on the ear, a buffet, Wall, bofet a pin- 
cushion, Sp. bofeton = O. Fr. bofet, N. Pr. buffo the buttock; 
It. buffare, Parm. boffar, Sp. Pg. Pr. bufar, Fr. bouffer bouffir 
buffer, N. Pr. buffd bouffd to puff, blow, O.Yv.buffler a buffet; 
for the connexion in meaning cf. blow in its two senses , and 
Fr. souffler soufflet. From buf an imitation of the sound of a 
blow. The G. has buf puf, puff, puff en, puffer, Fr. pouf, pouf- 
fer. The It. boffice soft, yielding, is formed on the analogy of 
soffice. The Fr. buffeter meant to ^^mar wine by often tasting 
it^^ (Cotgrave) properly to let in air by taking out the vent- 
peg , then , generally, to tap , vin de buffet wine on tap , buf- 
fetierh. L. bufetarius (E. corr. beef -eater) a tapster. Hence 
buffet would = the tap of a tavern, next in E. any sideboard, 
in Sp. a writing -desk, in Fr. an office for business. 

Bufera It. a hurricane; from the root buf n. supr. 

Bugia It., Lomb. busia a lie, Pr. bauzia and bauza, 0. Fr. boisie 


deceit; hugiare to lie, hauzar hoiser to deceive; Vv.haussan 
(f. -anci) a deceiver; Sp. hausan an effigy. Prob. from the 
0. H. G. l)6si, G. hose wicked, hosa = tricks (= Pr. hauzd), 
bdson to slander (cf. nugari = to lie). The It. hugiare husare 
also = to perforate, hugio O. Sp. huso = a hole. It. hugio 
huso = perforated , empty. These are referable to the same 
word host = vain, idle, empty. The Fr. hoisdie ^adj. hoisdif) 
is formed on the analogy of voisdie (v. vezzo). 

Bugia It. Sp. Pg., Pr. hogia, Fr. bougie a wax- taper; from Biigie 
in North Africa, whence the wax was imported (Menage). 

Bugna Mil. Ven., Romagn. hogna, N. Pr. hougno, 0. Fr. hugne, 
Fr. higne (Menage heugne) a bump (from a blow), boil &c., 
also in masc. Mil. hugn, Sard, hugnu, Romagn. hogn; Veron. 
hugnon a blow, ^.hunion a lump on the foot, hun?iy a swelling; 
Crem. hugnocca a boil; E. hun, N. Pr. hougneto , Fr. heignet 
hignet, ^i^.bunueio, Limous.&ow;i/a small round cake, properly 
a lump, cf. Gael, bonnach = bannock. The origin is in the 
idea of striking, Bret, bunia, E. to bunt, Du. hunsen to strike. 
The Manx bun = butt -end, Gael, bun, Ir. bon = a root or 
stump, Prov. E. bun = the tail of a rabbit, hence hwmy = 

Bugno It. a bee-hive, bugna bugnola a basket of straw- work, 
O. Fr. hugnon = bugno, N. Pr. bugno = stump of a tree, v. 
bugna (Celtic bun), 

Buho Sp., Pg. bufo, Wal. buhe an owl; from bubo influenced, 
however, by the O. H. G. hitf huf. 

Buie — boja (l). 

Buis buisson — bosso, 

Buitre — avoUore. 

Bujo It. dark, Ijomh.buro (bur). From bureus burius for burrius 
from burrus which Festus says = ?ntfus (cf. fujo from furvius 
for furvus). 0. Fr. hure huire, Pg. Pr. buret, Sp. buriel dark- 
brown, specially of sheep, then = a coarse woollen cloth 
made of the fleeces of such sheep. This being worn by the 
lower orders gave rise to the O. E. horet a layman, a boor, 
cf. grisette. Bureau was properly a desk covered witli such 
cloth. The It. huratto a coarse cloth, buratelto &c., hurelta, 
bujose dungeons are from bujo huro. For the same L. word 
in another form (hirrus = a coarse mantle Vopiscus and Pa- 
pias) V. berretta, 

Bula — • hotta. 

Bulicare — bouger. 

Bulimo sbulimo It. intense hunger; from ^ovXi^og^ Fr.boutimie. 

Bulla — bolta. 

Bulletin — hotta. 

Bullir — bottire. 

BULO — BUSCA. 103 

Bulo Ven. Piedm. Lomb. a fop, beau, a fighter, bully; from Gr. 
huhle a lover. 

Bulto vulto Sp., Pg. vulto a lump, bulk, pillow-case, also = 
form , figure. In the latter sense evidently from vuUus, in the 
former from the Du. hult, E. bulch hulk a hump, of. Wedgw. 
s. bulge, holster, and v. holgia. Diez refers it to volutuSy so ::= 
volumen, cf. volta, 

Bunuelo — hugna. 

Buquer Fr. to knock; from the Du. heuken. Hence prob. houc, 
E. huck, W. Invch from its hutting. Butt and huck are con- 
nected , cf . rehuter with rebuke. 

Bur Norm, a dwelling, O. Fr. huron a hut; from O. H. G. hiir 
a house , G. hauer. 

Bur at bureau — hujo. 

Burbero — horhogliare. 

Burbuja — horhottare. 

Burella — hujo. ' 

Burga Sp. a hot -spring; from Basque hero-ur-ga warm- water- 
spot, V. Larramendi. ' 

Burgo — horgo. 

Buriel — hujo. 

Buril — horino. 

Burin — horino. 

Burjaca ■ — holgia. 

Burla It. Sp. Pg., N. Pr. hourlo scoff, jest; It. hurlare, Sp. Pg. 
hurlar to scoff; Pr. hurlaire, O. Fr. hourleur; It. hurlesco &c. 
Ausonius has hurra a jest, prop. = shaggy hair, cf. It. fiocco 
= flock of wool and trick; hence hurrula hurla, Sp. horla = a 
tassel. Wedgw., however, traces the word to the Celtic hurd 
hurl mockery, whence 0. E. hourd a jest. 

Burrasca li. (sidi^.h or r a scosd), Sp.Pg. Cat.^orr^scflf; Yr.hourasque 
a storm, tempest. As Sp. nieve gave nevasca, so It. horea, 
Mil. Ven. Romagn. hora (= h.horeas) horrasca hurrasca. Per- 
haps the double r shows a reference to hurrus dark -red (of a 
tempestuous sky), v. hujo. 

Burro Sp. Pg. an ass. Hence Pg. hurrico, Sp. Neap, horrico, Fr. 
hourrique , l^omh.horich, It. t^ricco an ass. Buricus a, nag is 
found as early as the 5*'^ century. Isidorus has : equus hrevior 
quem vulgo huricum vocant. So called either from its shaggy 
hair (v. horrd), or from its dark colour (huricus from hurrus, 
V. hujo). 

Burrone ■ — horro. 

Busare — hugia. 

Busart — huse. 

Busca Lomb. Piedm. Pr., Sic. vusca, 0. Fr. husche a splinter. 
Cat. hrusca husca a rod, Fr. hiiche a log, Fr. hucher to hew 

104 BUSCARE — CA. 

wood. Prob. connected with hois hose (v. hosco), cf. O. Fr. 

emhuscher with It. imhoscare. 
Buscare It. to catch, Sp. Pg. huscar, 0. Sp. hoscar to search, 

track, Yr.husquer to seek after, It. Sp. Pg. husca seach. From 

the Sp., where huscar = lt. cercare, YY.chercher. The original 

meaning was ^^to go through the bush'' (hosco) (cf. montar to 

go up a hill), hence to hunt, track; Sp. husca = a hunting 

dog, O. Sp. husco = a track. 
Buschetta — husca, 
Buscione — hosso. 
Buse Fr. a sort of falcon, also husart, Pr. huzac, It. hozzago 

ahuzzago = L. huteo, G. huse, hufshart, 
Busecehio — hozza. 
Busquer — huscare. 
Bussare It. to knock; from G. huchsen (E. hox), cf. hossen to 

knock, beat, Du. hmjsschen. Hence, too, the 0. Fr. huissier, 

which Roquefort refers to hiisqiier. 

Busse buse buee 0. Fr., L. L. hucia huza, Pr. (m.) hus, 0. Sp. 
huzo; from A. S. hutse {hutse-carlas = shipmen), E. huss, Du. 
buyse, 0. N. hussa a fishing -boat. A particular application, 
says Wedgw., of the many -formed word meaning bulk, 
trunk &c., v. boss, hox, hulch, hust. V. seq. and hulto. 

Busto It. Sp. Pg., Pr. hust, Fr. huste , E. hust. L. L. husta = 
arhor ramis truncata. Ph. connected with husca (huche = a 
log), E. husk J Sp. hucha = a chest, huche = breast, L. L. 
husta = area (from huxida, pyxida, y.hoite), cf. area, It. casso, 
E. chest, Gr. rumpf. Hence It. imhusto bodice, busk, Sp. e?n- 
huste gewgaw, artful story &c., emhustero an importer, It. 
tramhustare to fling , overthrow. 

But buto — hozza. 

Butin — hottino. 

Buttare — hottare. 

Buz Sp. Pg. a reverential kiss , Pr. hus lip , E. huss. From the 
Celtic hus a mouth or lip. Sp. huces or hruces =-- upper lips, 
bocel edge of a vessel, bocera crumbs sticking to the lips, 
though the two last may be from bocca. The L. hasium and 
Pers. bds are perhaps connected. 

Buzzo — hozza. 


Ca 0. It. O. Sp. 0. Pg. = L. nam; from qua re (Pr. Fr. car), 

or from quia. O. It. ca after comparatives = quam. 
9a — qua. 


Caable cliaable 0. Fr. a machine for throwing stones, from 
caddble L. L. chaddbula. The Pr. is caldbre (I for d), O. Fr. 
cadbles also = fallen branches of trees ^ Fr. chablis. Hence 
Fr. accdbler to crush. The der. from TcatapoXfj would suit 
both form and meaning of caable. Wedgw. makes calahre the 
original form, and connects cable, cable, but Y.cappio, calibro. 

Cabal Sp. Pg. Pr. exact, perfect; from cabo (caput). 

Cabala It. Sp. Pg., Fr. cabale, E. cabal \ from the Hebr. kabalah 
a secret traditional interpretation of scripture. Hence the 
secondary meaning of a conclave of secret plotters. 

Cabane cabinet — capanna. 

Cabana — capanna. 

Cabaz • — cava. 

Cabdal — caudal. 

Cabe Sp., 0. Sp. cabo, O. Pg. cabe cabo = juxta; prop. = a 
cabo, O. Fr. a chief at the end or side, sbst. cabe a shake. 
O. Sp. cabear = to adapt. 

Cabeliau Fr. a cod-fish; from Du. kabeljaauw, whence, too, per- 
liaps with a reference to baculus, the Sp. bacalao, Basque ba- 
cailaba, Ven. Piedm. bacala. 

Cabestan Fr. (m.), E. capstan; from ^^^.cabrestante = standing- 
goat (cabra), cf. G. bock , E. ram (aries). 

Cabeza — cavezza. 

Cable cabo — cappio. 

Caboral — ■ caporale. 

Caboz — chabot. 

Cabrer Fr., N. Pr. cabrd (reflex.) to rear; from caper. 

Cabus Fr. in chou-cabus a cabbage with a head; ■-=■ It. capuccio 
(caput), G. kappes, E. cabbage. 

Cacao caccao It., Sp. Pg. Fr. Yj. cacao fruit of a South American 
tree, Sp. Pg. cacao-tree; from the Mexican kakahuatl. The 
tree is also called in Sp. cacagual, Pg. cacaoeiro, Yr.cacaoyer, 

Ca9apo — gazapo. 

Cacciare It., Sp. Pg. cazar, Pr. cassar, O.Yr. chacier, Pic. cacher 
(whence E. catch), Fr. chasser (whence chase); sbst. caccia, 
eaza, cassa, chace chasse &c. This word is the representative 
of the L. venari, and comes from captus, whence captiare cac- 
ciare, cf. succiare (suctiare) from suctus, conciare (comtiare) 
from comtus, pertugiare (pertusiare) horn, pertusus. 

CachCj^cacher cachot — quatto. 

Cacho — quatto. 

Cacho^Sp. a slice, a piece, cachar to break in pieces; from L. L. 
capillar e caplare to cut off? Cf. cacha handle of a knife, from 
capulus, and cf. ancho = amplus. 


Caehorro Sp. a whelp, cub. Prob. from catulus caflus, as ca- 
chonda from catuliens. The suffix is, however, of Basque 
form, and the word may be of Basque origin, B. chakhuira 
= dog. 

Caco Pg. a potsherd 5 from cacabus (xdTcxajiog)^ cf . Jaffo from 

Cadahalso — catafalco, 

Cadalecho — cataletto. 

Cadastre — ccitastro, 

Cadauno It. cadiino, Sp. cada uno, Pg. cada hum, Pr. cada un 
(cadun), O. Fr. cadhun, clieun = L. quisque. From usqtie ad 
unum (cf. Rh. s-cadin -— s-cadim), or from quisque ad unum (cf. 
O. Sp. quiscadauno, O. Pg. quiscadaun). Cada was afterwards 
used as an independent pronoun ; cf. N. Gr. xad-svag = quis- 
que, from xad"^ sva^ Tcdds like cada being used as an ad j . xccd-s 
devdgov -- Sp. cada arbol. 

Cadeau Fr. a flourish of caligraphy, an ornament (hence = 
present), vb. cadeler (obs.); from catellus a dim. of catena, cf. 
It. catenella a chain -like ornament in needle -work. 

Cadenas — candado. 

Cadera Sp. Cat., Pg. cadeira hip, hip -joint; from cathedra. 
Hence Sp. caderillas (pi.) ladies' hoops. 

Cadet Fr. E. the younger son of a family; from capitettum 
(caput), a little chief. 

Cadimo Pg. crafty; from Arab, kadem (kadim) Freyt. 3, 409, 
which, however, has only the meaning of vatia?it. Pr. cairn 
is the same word. 

Cadran Fr., Pr. quadran a sun-dial; from quadrans, It. Sp. 
quadrante, a quadrant. 

Cadre — quadro, 

Caes — cayo. 

Cafard — cafre. 

Caffe It., Sp. Fr. cafe, coffee; from Ar. qahivah a sort of wine, 
a drink prepared from berries, the form following the Turkish 
pronunciation kahve. 

Caffo It. an uneven number: giuocare pari caffo = iudere par 
impar. From capo that exceeds measure (rcEQi^Oog) : essere il 
caffo = 7teQt6(S6g, sans pareil, unique; or from the L. caput 
in the formula caput aut navem. 

Cafila a caravan; from Ar. qdfilahy a coffle of slaves. 

Cafre Sp. Pg. rude, barbarous; from Ar. kdfr unbelieving, 
profligate. Hence Fr, cafard a hypocrite. 

Cage — gabbia. 

Cagione It. occasion, pretext (Pr. ocaison, O.Yr.ochoison); from 
occasio, cf. Wald. cay son, 0. Pg. cajdo. 

Cagnard — casnard. 


Cagot Fr. a hypocrite. The Goths and Arabs fled from Spain 
to Aquitaine, where they were protected by Charles Martel 
and his successors ; by the French they were regarded as 
Arian heretics , and called canes Gothi, cagots (Pr. cd a dog 
and Got := Goth). From unbeliever the jivord came to mean 
hypocrite, cf. cafard, Frisch derives it from cap-gott = Caput 
Dei; an expression used in oaths. 

Cahier Fr. pamphlet, copy-book, quire. Pic. has coyer, quoger, 
E. quire; from codicarium, not from quaternio (Dante qua- 
derno), which gives carrignon, quaregnon. 

Cahute Fr. a hut, O. Fr. chahute and cahuette. Perhaps a com- 
pound oi ca-hutte, diimm. cahuette for cahutette. Or cahuette 
is the original form and cahute a contraction. Cf. Norm, cave 
a ship (Due. s. cayurri). Cajute is from the Du. kajuit. 

Caille — quaglia, 

Cailler — quagliare. 

Caillou Fr., Pic. caliau, 0. Fr. caillo chaillo, Pr. calhau, Pg. 
calhao flint. Prob. from cailler to coagulate, so = a fused 
mass of silex , cf . G. kiesel = any fused mass , stone or hail, 
kes = glacier-ice, both from kisan to coagulate. Littr6 makes 
caillou from calculavus (calculus) caillo caillou, cf. Andigavus, 
Pictavus, which give Anjou, Poitou, clavus clou do, travum trou 
tro, papaver papou. The Berrichon caille preserves the simple 
form, cf. also W. cellt. 

Cais — casso. 

Caisse — cassa. 

Cajoler — gabbia. 

Calabaza Sp., Pg. cabaca, Cat. carabassa. Sic. caravazza a 
pumpkin, a calabash, Fr. calebasse; ph. from Ar. qerbah 
(qerbat), PI. qerabdt a water-skin, with Rom. suffix. 

Calabre — caable. 

Calabrone sealabrone a hornet; from crabro , L. L. scabro, Pa- 
pias: carabrio genus animalis muscce similis. The Occit. has 

Calafatare It., Sp. calafatear, Pr. calafatar, Fr. calafater cal- 
feutrer, M. G. ocaXacpatstv to caulk a ship ; from the L. cale- 

Calamandrea It., Sp. camedrio, Fr. germandree a plant, ger- 
mander; from chamaedrys (xaiiaCdgyg). 

Calambre Sp., Pg. cambra cramp ; M. H. G. klamphern to sufi'er 
cramp, cf. O. H. G. chlampheren. 

Calaminaria sc. pietra It., Sp. Pg. calamina, Fr. E. calamine; 

from cadmia (xad^sta TcaS^La) with adjectival suffix, G. 

Calamita It. Sp. Pg., Pr. Cat. caramida, Fr. catamite a magnet. 


From calamus, the needle being inserted in a stalk or piece of 
cork; so as to float on water. 

Calan — chaland. 

Calafia Sp. sample, quality 5 from qualis. 

Calandra It. Pr., S^. Cat. calandria, P^. calhandra, N. Pr. ca- 
liandro cariandro, Fr. calendre, M. H. G. galander a tufted 
lack. From galerita with perhaps a reference to caliendrum 
(tuft). The Sp. caladre suits the Gk. laQadgiogy L. L. cara- 
drius translated in the Glossaries by the 0. H. G. lerihha (G. 
lerche lark). 

Calandre Fr. a cylinder, E. calander, from cylindruSy prop, ce- 
lendre; calandre is a corruption of colendre, cf. coing from 

Calappio — chiappare. 

Calare It., Sp. Pg. Pr. calar, Fr. caler to let down ; from %alav 
to loose, let go, L. chalare (Vitruvius), Rh. calar to desist. 
Pic. caler to give way, withdraw, drop; Pg. Pr. calar also 
-— to be silent, Sp. callar. N. Pr. cald unites both senses to 
drop and to be silent. Hence It. Sp. Pg. Pr. cala, Fr. cale, 
It. N. Pr. calanca a bay {calare == to drop anchor), Gael, cala 
a bay, cal to drop anchor. Hence, too, Sp. cala a peg, Sp. 
Pg. a notch, calar to penetrate, pierce, Fr. cale = a flat piece 
of wood, a trestle, unless these are from L. cala a piece of 
fire- wood (xdlov) in Lucilius. 

Calavera Sp., Pg. caveira a skull; from calvaria. 

Caldaja It., Sp. caldera, Pr. caudiera, Fr. chaudiere a pot, L. L. 
caldaria; from caldarius; hence It. calderone, Sp. calderon, 
Fr. chaudron , cauldron. 

Caleclie — calesse. 

Calecon — calzo. 

Caleflare It. to mock, jeer; from G. klaffen to yelp, bark. 

Calentar Sp. to heat, from calens, caleo; hence Sp. escalentar, 
Pg. esquentar, acaentar aguentar (0. Sp. calecer, escalecer, Pg. 
aquecer from calescere). Hence ^ip.calentura a fever, ^.calen- 

Calere It., 0. Sp. Pr. caler, O. Fr. chaloir verb impers. with 
dat. of the person, to be of importance , to concern; from L. 
calere, non mi cale = non mihi calet , cf. i^e ovdhv %'dX%ei 
xBQdog. Hence Fr. nonchalant , nonchalance. 

Calesse ealesso It., Sp. calesa, Fr. caleche, E. calash caloch an 
open carriage; from Bohem. kolesa wheel -work (Russ. koleso 

Calha quellia Pg. a canal, from canalicula, cf. funcho from fce- 

Calhao — caillou. 

Calibro It., Sp. Pg. Fr. ^.calibre, Yi.caliver calliper (- compasses), 


"the bore of a cannon. Diez derives it from the Arab, qctlib a 
model, pattern (O. Sp. has also calibd); Mahn from qua libra; 
Wedgwood makes caliver = an arquebuss or small cannon 
the original sense, and this from calahre (y.caable) an engine 
for casting stones, = carabe for cabre from cabra a goat, 
calabre orig. = a battering, ram, G. bock. 

Calina Sp. dense vapour; ph. originally = steam, from caleo, 
cf. bruine. Diez suggests caligo. 

Calma It. Sp. Pg., Fr. calme (m.) absence of wind, calm, Du. 
kalm kalmte; calmare &c. to calm, Fr. chommer for chaumer to 
make holiday. Sp. calma = heat of the day Gk. xav^a, L. L. 
cauma, Al = au (v. goto), though, perhaps, in calma there 
was a reference to calor. The noon-heat was the time of rest. 
N. Pr. chaume = time when the flocks sought the shade, 
Rh. cauma a shady place for cattle. 

Calpestare It. to tread under foot, sb. calpestio; from calqe^ 
pistare, Pr. calpisar, y. pest are. i 

Calterire — scalterire. 

Calueo It. poor, needy, from caducus. 

Calzada Sp. Pg., Pr. caussada, Fr. chausse'e, E. causeway. From 
calceata (calx chalk), prop, a pavement strengthened with 
mortar. Wedgwood from calceata because shod or protected 
with stone, Sp. calzar, Fr. chausser to shoe. 

Calzo calza It., Sp. calza, Pr. caussa, Fr. chausse, whence cal- 
zone &c., Fr, calecon; from calceus. Hence It. discalzo scalzo, 
Sp. descalzo, Pr. descaus, Fr. dechaus, Pic. decaus, Lor. 
deichaux, L. L. discalcius for discalceatus. 

Cama Sp. Pg. a bed, a lair. Isidorus has: in camis i.e. in stratis. 
Ph. from la^aC (cf. acamar to stretch on the ground) so = 

Cama Sp. (only in plur.) bridle-bits ; from camus, K7]^6g a halter, 

O. H. G. chamo. 
Camaglio It., Pr. capmalh, O. Fr. camail the collar of a coat-of- 

mail, serving also to cover an head, Fr. c«/w«?7 a mantle ; from 

cap and malha mail. Hence Sp. camal a halter, gramalla a 

coat -of -mail. 
Camaieu, camee — cameo. 

Camangiare It. pulse, vegetables; for capo-mangiare Menage. 
Camarlingo It., Sp. camarlengo , Pr. camarlenc, Fr. chambrelain, 

chamberlain ; from 0. H. G. chamarlinc, G. kdmmerling. 
Camba — gamba. 
Cambellotto ciambellotto It., ^^.camelote chamelote,, 

E. camlet chamlet a stuff of camxVs hair. It had a wavy or 

watered surface, hence Fr. se cameloter to grow wrinkled. 

Ph. from Ka^rjXcotr] camel's skin. 
Cambiare cangiare It., Sp. Pg. cambiar, Pr. cambiar camjar, Fr. 


changer y E. change; L. L. camhiare from camhire in Apnleius 
(Tcd^Ttrsiv ad^^Eiv). Wedgwood ^ with less probability, 
considers it to be the nasalised form of E. chap chop (G. kau- 
fen), cf. Chaucer's champmen for chapmen. 

Cambrer Fr., N. Pr. camhrd to bend, curve: from earner are to 

Cambron Sp., Pg. camhrao (only in pi.) buck -thorn; from 
camurus ? 

Camedrio — calamandrea, 

Camerata It. (m.), Sp. camarada (m., Pg. m. f.), Fr. camerade 
(m. f.), E. comrade; formerly t=: a company occupying the 
same chamber (camera) ^ thence = one of such company, a 
tent- fellow. Cf. Piedm. mascrada (1) a company of maskers, 
(2) one of them. 

Camicia eamiscia It., Sp. Pg. Pr. camisa, Fr. E. chemise, Wal. 
cemase, Alban. cemise, whence It. camiciola, 8p. cainisola, Fr. 
E. camisole; It. incamiciala , Sp. encamisada , Fr. E. camisade 
a night - attack , the shirt being worn over the armour. 
Hieronymus has: solent mililantes habere lineas quas camisias 
vocant. Various derivations are given: (l) 0. H. G. hamidi 
hemidi indusium, (2) cama a bed, Isidor: camisias quod in his 
dormimus in camis, but neither of these account for the ter- 
mination isia. That is is part of the root we see from It. cd- 
mice, 0. Fr. chainse. So it will be better to refer the word 
either to the Gael, caimis a shirt, W. camse, or to the Ar. 
qamlc an under -garment, which, however, is not foimd in 
other Sem. dialects, and is prob. from the Rom. 

Caminata camminata It. a room (prop, with a fire-place in it), 
Fr. cheminee, E. chimney. L. L. caminata = a room with a 
caminus. The E. chimney now = the gorge or vent of a furnace, 
once-= the fire itself, cf. Sir John Cheke, Matt. 13, 50: the 
chimney of fire. 

Cammeo It. (Cellini in 16'^ cent.), Fr. camee (m.) and cama'ieu, 
Sp. camafeo, Pg. camafeo, camafeu, camafeio, E. cameo, G. 
gamaheu, L. L. camaheu, camahelus , camahuius. Mahn's der. 
is the most probable: from gemma, gama, cama, cammaeus 
and iroTo. cammaeus attus, camahutus. But the hardening of the 
g is without analogy. V. seq. 

Cammino It., Sp. c amino , Pg. caminho, Pr. camin, Fr. chemin, 
L. L. caminus a way, from the Celtic, W. cam a step, caman 
a way. Others derive this and the previous word from the 
Slavonic kamen a stone, though neither are likely to have 
come from such a source. 

Camoseio — camuso. 

Camozza It., Sp. camuza gamuza, Pg. camuca camurca. It. ca- 
moseio, Fr. E. chamois, M. H. G. gam-z, G. gemse. Perhaps 


the original word is seen in the Sp. Pg. gamo gama a deer (E. 
gamut f). This may be from Ij. dama, ci.golfin = dolfin del/in, 
gragea = dragea, gazapo = dasapo (?). But a </ is not thus 
hardered in Rom. It may be connected with Celtic cam 
crooked (-horned). 

Campagna It., Sp. campaha, Fr. campagne (O. Fr. Champagne) y 
E. champain; from Campania, first used as an appellative by 
Gregory of Tours. E. campaign = time an army serves in 
open field. 

Campana It. Sp. Cat. Pr._, Pg. campainha a bell; the Fr. has 
cloche, but the Limous. has campano, Berr. campaine a bell. 
From Campania where bells were first used in churches, v. 
Ducange. Isid. has: campana (statera uniiis lands) e regione 
Italice nomen accepit, thus also = a steel-yard (Wal. cumpene), 
which meaning, however, it soon lost. 

Campeggio It., Sp. campeche, Fr. campeche log- wood; from 
Campeche in South America. 

Campione It., Sp. campeon, Pr. campion, Fr. E. champion; from 
L. L. campio, which is from campus as tabellio from tabella. 
From campus also come It. campeggiare, Sp. campear (campea- 
dor), O.Fr. champeler to be in the field, to encamp. The A.S. 
has camp a fight, Du. kamp , Du. kempen to fight &c. These 
may be from the L., though the Scand. kapp would seem an 
older form than ca?np. Ic. kajip = fight. So in vulgar E. to 
cap = to excel. W. camp = a feat, game, campio to strive, 
Sp. campar to excel. 

Camuffare — muff are. 

Camuso camoseio It., Fr. camus, O. E. camous flat -nosed, Pr. 
gamus camus awkward, camusat= camus. The root is W. cam 
(cf. cam-ard = camus), and the 2"'' part is prob. muso snout. 
Others derive it from camurus nothwithstanding the difference 
of accent. With It. camoseio cf. Fr. adj. camoissie bruised, 
black and blue, cf. Rou. cflfMOW^s^' pock -marked. 

Canaglia It., Sp. canalla, Fr. canaille, 0. Fr. chienaille rabble; 
from canis, cf. Sp. perreria. 

Canape It., Wal. cenepe, Sp. canamo, Pr. canehe cambre, Fr. 
chanvre hamp ; from cannabis cannabus. Hence It. canavaccio, 
Sp. canamazo, Pr. canabas, Fr. canevas, E. canvas. 

Canape — canope. 

Canapsa Fr. a knapsack ; from G. knappsack {knappen to cat, 

Canard — cane. 

Canasto canasta Sp. N. Pr. a canister; from canistrum, It. ca- 

Canavaccio — canape, 

Caneellare — chance. 


Candado Sp. (ynlg.calnado), O.^^.cahado, cadenado a padlock; 

from catenatum; 0. Sp. candar to lock. Cf. It. catenaccio, Fr. 

Cane O. Fr. a ship , Fr. canot a small boat (the E. canoe is from 

Sp. canoa an Indian word) ; Fr. cane a duck, canard a drake. 

^ot from canna but from Du. kaan, G. A-«/m a boat. 
Candire It., Fr. se candir, to candy, become candied , cf. It. z?/c- 

c/i^ro candito, Sp. azucar cande, Fr. ^wcre candi, E. sugar- 
candy. The Ar. is ^«;?6? or qandah and is from the ^\i.khanda 

a piece, a piece of cristallized sugar (khand to break), v. 

Mahn, p. 47. 
Canevas — canape, 
Canezou Fr. a light muslin jacket, worn by women. Orig. = 

hot weather, a corruption of quinze aout, v. V. Hugo, Les 

Miserables 1, p. 356. 
Canfora It. Sp., Fr. camphre, E. camphor; from Ar. al-kdfur 

with inserted nasal, Sp. alcanfor; without the nasal It. ca- 

fura, M. H. Gr. gaffer. The word is of Indian origin, Sansk. 

Cangiare — camhiare. 

Ganglion Sp., Tg.cangirao a liquid measure, ajar; fr om. congius. 
Cangrena It. Sp., Fr. cangrene, Sp. gangrena, Fr. gangrene, E. 

gangrene; from gangrcena {ydyyQaiva)^ spelt with a c from a 

false reference to cancer. 
Canho Pg. left, canhoto left-handed, sbst. a crooked piece of 

wood; from cam crooked (v. gamba). 
Canif Fr. a penknife; from O. N. knifr, A. S. cnif , E. knife, 

G. kneif. Dim. ganivet , 0. Fr. cnivet, Pr. canivet, whence 

O. Sp. cahivete, Pg. canivete, 
Canivete • — canif. 
Cannamele It., Sp. cahamiel, L. L. canamella sugar-cane, prop. 

= honey- cane. 
Cannella It., Sp. Pg. Pr. canela, Fr. cannelle, whence T>u.kaneel 

cinnamon; from canna. 
Cannibale It., Sp. canihal, Fr. cannihale, E. cannibal; prop, an 

inhabitant of the Antilles, a Carib or Canibal; the Sp. caribe 

is used in the same sense. 
Cannone It., Sp. canon, Fr. canon, a large pipe (canna), also = 

Canope It., Wal. canapeu, Sp. Fr. canape (O. Pg. ganape) a 

couch; E. canopy; from conopeum (xavcoTtelov) a mosquito- 
net, then = a bed or couch protected by such a net, cf. 

bureau = (l) coarse cloth, (2) a desk covered with it. 
Canova It. a store room, cellar; Isid. Gloss, canava camera post 

Cansare scansare It. to turn aside. From O. Lat. campsare 


(Ennius) ; cf. campsare Leucaten with cansar la morte &c. Pris- 
cian derives it from Tid^itteiv. 

Cansar canso — cass. 

Cantiere It.; Pg. canteirOy Fr. chantier a stand, trestle, E. gaun- 
tree. Sip.cantet a rope for binding casks ; from canterius a yoke- 
beam, Bavar. gander. 

Cantimplora — chantepleure. 

Canto It. Sp. Pg., O. Fr. cant a corner, angle, Sp. Pg. also = 
stone. It. = side, region (Fr. champ , orig. chant). The word 
is widely spread. Gr. 7iav%'6g = corner of the eye, or rim of 
a wheel (L. canthus). The W. cant = circumference rim, 
border. O.Fris. kaed, ^.kantr, T>Sin.kant, Q.kante = corner, 
rim ; E. ca7it canted in carpentry used to express the cutting 
off the angle of a square. Hence It. cantone, Sp. Pg. Fr. E. 
canton, Wald. canton a partition; Sp. cantillo a small stone, 
Pr. cantel, Fr. chanteau, E. cantle a corner - piece , a piece (of 
bread &c.); It. Sp. cantina, Fr. cantine, E. canteen a wine- 
cellar (prop. = a corner). It. hiscanto = a dark hole, Piedm. 
hescant -^ oblique, awry. Vid. Dief. Orig. Europ. p. 278. 

Canaherla Sp. a plant, fennel; from canna s^ndi ferula, Ceit.canga- 
fera. The Sp. cahaheja is from cannafericula. 

Canamo — canape. 

Capanna It., Sp. cabana, Pg. Pr. Piedm. &c.cahana, Fr. cabane, 
E. cabin. Not from capere nor from cappa a mantle, since 
anna is not a R.term., but imviiW.caban (dim. of cab); hence 
E. cabin, Fr. cabinet, It. gabinetto, Sp. gabinete. 

Capazo — cappa. 

Capdel — capitello. 

Capere It., Sp. Pg. Pr. caber to contain and (intrans.) to have 
room, cf. verbum meum non capit in vobis S.Joan. {%c3Q£t)'^ sub. 

Capezzale — cavezza. 

Capitano It., 0. It. catanno, Sp. capitan, E. captain from capi- 
tanus (caput); L.L. capitaneus gives Tr.capitani, ¥r. capitaine, 
0. Fr. chevetaine chatainCj E. chieftain. 

Capitare It. to end (intrans.); from caput, v. chef. Scapitare, 
Pr. descaptar to lose in traffic, summam imminuere. 

Capitello It. dim. of capo, Sp. caudillo, 0. Sp. capdiello, Pr. 
capdel the captain of a troop ; from capitellum dim. of capitu- 
lum. ^"^.acaudillar, ^v.capdelar to head a troop, O.Fr. cadeler. 

Capitolo It., Sp. capitulo cabildo, Pg. cabido, Pr. capitol^ Fr. 
chapitre, E. chapter in the sense of an ecclesiastical (or se- 
cular) assembly; from capitulum a heading, chapter (principal 
section of a book): either because the chapters of statutes 
were read in the assembly, or because they were a governing 



body, cf. capiiol in S. France = a town - council , ccqntoul an 
individual member of such a council. 

Capoeeliia It. the knob of a stick, capocchio dull, stupid; from 
capUulum corrupted into capxitidxim. 

Caporale It., Sp. Fr. caporal, Rouchi coporal corporal, E. cor- 
poral; from capo, caporalh , prob. formed on the analogy of 
corporalis, with which it was afterwards confounded. 

Capot — cappa. 

Cappa It.; Sp. Pg. Pr. capa, Fr. chape, E. cape, A very old 
word, prob. used in the spoken Latin. Isidore has: capa, 
quia quasi totum capiat Jiomiiwm. From capere as O. H. G. 
gifang a garment, from fdhan G. fangen to hold. For the 
double^, cf. cappone from capo. Hence It. cappello, Fr. cha- 
peau a hat, 0. Fr. chapel, chapelet, E. chaplet a garland. 
Boccaccio has : capello ghirlanda secondo il volgar francese; It. 
cappella, E. chapel &c., are so called from the covering or 
canopy over the altar, the name being extended to the recess 
in which the altar was placed. Ducange derives the name from 
the chapel where St. Martin's cloak was kept. Hence cappotfo, 
cappuccio, capperone &c., Fr. chaperon; Sp. capazo, Sp. Pg. 
capacho a frail or basket. 

Cappero It., Fr. cdpre , E. caper; from capparis, Ar. alcahar 
whence Sp. Pg. alcaparra, Arag. caparra, 

Cappio It. loop, knot, Sp. Pg. cable, Fr. cable (O. Fr. chable 
cheable), ^. cable. From h.h.capidum {funis a capiendo Isid.), 
M. Gr. TtaTclCoVj Du. kabel. The Sp. caho is a contraction. For 
another der. v. s. caable. 

Capre — cappero. 

Capre Fr. a pirate j pirate-ship. From Du. kaper which is from 
kapen to rob (Lat. capere?). 

Capriccio It., whence Sp. capricho, Fr. E. caprice; from capra, 
cf. ticchio, verve y and Com. nucia = kid, nucc = caprice. 
Thus Diez. WedgAv., however, makes capriccio ^= arriccia- 
capo = a shivering fit, a fantastical humour (making the hair 
to stand on end). It. 7iccio = a hedgehog, L. ericius, con- 
nected with bricciare, gricciare, Fr. he'risser, Gr. cpQtaasLV. 

Captener — ?nantenere. 

Car fqiiarj Pr. Fr. O. Sp. O. Pg. particle = na?n; from quare^ 
Boeth.: morz a me quar no ves Death, ivhy comest thou not to 
me? Dante's quare (Inf. 27, 72) is a Latinism, v. ca. 

Cara Sp. Pg. Pr., O. Fr. chiere, Fr. cherc, whence It. Rh. cera, 
O. Eng. chear cheer. Faire bonne chere = to make good cheer 
to. The word meant (l) countenance (cf. this word) (2) favour 
(3) favourable entertainment (4) banquet. Corippus (6^'' cen- 
tury) has : postquam venere verendam Ccesaris ante car am (face). 
Perhaps from the Gk. xccqcc, TcaQT], Hence Sp. carear acarar. 


O. Fr. acarier to confront; Fr. acaridtre stubborn, whimsical. 
Wal. o-cdre affront from a-carare? Fr. contrecarrer to thwart 
is from carrer u= qnadrare to arrange, cf. contrecarre = an- 

Caraba Sp. a vessel ; from carahuSj ^^parva scapha", zccQu^og, 
Celtic carhh = plank , ship , carhad a chariot , whence carpen- 
tum, carpenter. Hence Sp. carabela , It. caravella, ¥r. cara- 
velldy Yi. caravel. The A.v.qdrih, Anglo-Indian ^r^Z^ is perhaps, 
the same word. 

Carabina It. Sp. Pg., Fr. carabine, E. carbine, Fr. carabin a 
carabineer, O. Fr. calabrin. It. calabrino; from Pr. calabre (v. 
caable), cf. E. caliver, a machine for casting stones. Cf. mus- 
quet, It. moschetia originally = a missile discharged from a 
machine, Qi.catapnlta used to translate gun, v^^.V^.espingarda 
= the ancient springald. 

Caraeca It., Sp. Pg. carraca^ Fr. caraque, E. carack a large 
ship, galleon, Du. kraecke. Not from Ar. ^harraqah fire ship, 
the "^h not = c, so cable (cappio) not from ''hahl. 

Caraeca — carraca, 

CarafiFa It., Sp. garrafa, Fr. caraffe. Sic. carrabba a pitcher; 
from Ar. qirdf ?i measure, qarafa to draw water. 

CaragoUo It., Sp. Pg. Fr. caracol a snail, winding -staircase, 
turn of a horse (E. caracol, It. caracollo). From Gael, car a 
twist, carach winding, A. S. cerran to turn. 

Caramillo — chalumeau. 

Caraque — carraca. 

Caratello It. a small barrel; for carratello from carrata a car- 

Carato It., Sp. Pg. quilate, O. Pg. quirate, Fr. E. carat; from 
Ar. qtrd^t a carob-bean, from Gk. xeqcctlov, Ven. carato. The 
bean was used for a weight. Isid. cerates oboli pars ?nedia, 
siliquam habens imam et se??iis. 

Carauz — trincare. 

Caravella, earavelle — caraba. 

Carcame — carcasso. 

Carcan Fr. Pr. a collar, pillory. From O. H. G. querca, O. N, 
qverk the throat. O. Fr. has charchant cherchant, Du. karkant, 

Carcasso It., Sp. carcax, Pg. carcas, Fr. carquois, N. Gr. ^dg- 
%a6i a quiver; It. Pg. carcassa, Sp. carcasa, Fr. carcasse, E. 
carcass a skeleton. Wedg. derives from W. carcli restraint 
(whence career)^ so=:a box or chest, v. carcava. But -asso is 
not a Rom. suffix, so Diez refers it to caro and capsus (v. 
casso). It. carcame being formed on the analogy of arcame 
from area. 

Carcava Sp. Pg. an enclosure, pit, ditch, vb. carcavar. Diez 
gets it from concava (1) cor cava (v. corcovar) (2) carcava. But 



may it not be connected with carcasso, the latter part being 
cavus, and the former the car or care of career? 

Carciofo — articioceo. 

Carcomer Sp. to gnaw, ear coma a wood-louse; according to 
Covarruvias , from earo and comedere ! 

Cardo It. Sp. Pg. a thistle , teasel for dressing cloth ; from car- 
duus; hence Sp. Pr. eardon, Fr. char don, It. eardare, Fr. 
carder &c. ; It. seardo a card, Fr. echarde a splinter, Sp. escar- 
dar to weed out thistles, Norm, echarder to scale. Rouchi 
eeardy Wall, hard a notch, vb. eearder, harder are from O. 
H. Gr. seartij O. N. skard, 0. H. G. skertan, 0. N. skarda to 

Careme — quaresma. 

Carestia It. Sp. Pg. Pr., L. L. earistia deamess, scarcity; from 
earns. Cf. Basque garestia = earns. The termination is not 
easily accounted for. Fin. karista, which Wedg. connects 
with earns and E. care, means to moan, to grumble (for 

Carieare carcare It., Sp. Pr. car gar, Pg. earregar, Fr. charger, 
E. charge; It. carico, Sp. cargo, Pr. care, It. earica, Sp. Pr. 
carga, Fr. charge, E. cargo (from the Sp.) charge. St. Jerome 
has earrieare from carrus. It. carieare also = to overload, 
whence caricatnra , earicainre an overcharged representation. 

Carmesino eremisi cremisino It., Sp. earmesi, Pg. carmesim, Fr. 
cramoisi, E. crimson; from Ar. qermez (= Sansk. krimis, L. 
vermis, W. pryf , Goth, vaurms, E. worni)^ the cochineal in- 
sect, adj.^^r;wf/z/. Pott refers the word to the Sansk. AT//W2-y« 
worm -born. Hence too It. carminio, Sp. Fr. carmin, E. r«r- 

Carmin carminio — carmesino. 

Carnasciale ■ — carnevale. 

Carnaval — carnevale. 

Came Fr. corner. Diez derives this from cardo cardinis a hinge 
(cf. Fr. charniere a joint), but it is better to connect the word 
with eran, E. cranny , corner. 

Camel eameler — eran. 

Carnero Sp., Pg. carneiro a sheep, wether; from L. erena so = 
the notched or castrated animal (cf. Fr. crenel =■ camel), cf. 
montone, moltone, mouton (mntton) from L. mutilus, and G. 
hammel = mutilated. 

Carnevale carnovale It., whence Sp. Fr. E. caimaval (E. also 
carnival) the festive period before the Lenten fast; not from 
came vale fare well flesh ! but from carnelevale a corrupt form 
of the L. L. carnelevamen solace of the flesh. Other forms are 
L. L. carnelevarinm , Sic. carnilivariy Pied, ear -lave. It. car- 
naseiale is from carne-lasciare. Other expressions for the same 


thing are : carnicapium, carniprivium, Sp. carnestolendas, N. Pr. 
carmentran = careme entrant, 

Carnieol — carnero. 

Carogna It., Fr. charogne, Kouchi car one, E. carrion; from 
carOf carnis, by dissimilation for carnogna. 

Carole querole O. Fr., whence It. carola, E. carol a circular 
dance, vb. caroler &c. Then = song (cf. halade from halare, 
and Gr. ^oXitrj). The Bret, has /corolla to dance, W. coroli, 
Gael, coiriolt , Pro v. corola, corolar, Diez derives it from 
chorulus (a for o as in calandre, canape), and objects to co- 
rolla which does not suit the sense and would have given in 
Fr. caroule. Wackernagel gives a verb coraidare (from cho- 
rauld), whence sb'st. cor aula, carole. 

Carosello — carriera. 

Caroube carouge — carroho, 

Carozza < — carriera. 

Carpa Sp., Fr. carpe, Wal. crap, Pr. escarpa, It. carpione, E. 
carp, G. karpfen; from L. L. carpa (Cassiodorus). 

Carpentiere It. a cart-wright, carpenter (Sp. carpintero), Pr. 
carpentier, Fr. charpentier; from carpentarius in L. a cart- 
wright (carpentum), in L. L. = a worker in wood. Fr. ^/j^r- 
j9^wife=: carpenter's work. The word is of Celtic origin, Gael., 
carhh a plank, carhad a chariot. 

Carpone adv. "on all fours ^\ Properly = "on the hands", 
from carpo (L. carpus) the wrist, whence carpiccio a blow, 
N. Pr. carpa to strike. 

Carrasca Sp. Cat., Sp. Pg. carrasco an evergreen oak; from L. 
cerrus, cf. lagarto for lazarto, r eg alar for rejalar, 

Carre, carreau, carrer, earriere — quadro. 

Carrefour Fr., Pr. carrefore a place where four roads meet 5 from 

Carriera It., Fr. earriere, Sp. carrer a, Pg. carriera a highway, 
^ixQQi, career. Yrom. carrus. The O.Fr.c^^m'^r^ is better than 
earriere, which also means a stone pit (quadro). From carrus 
also come It. carrozza, Sp. carroza, Fr. carrosse (carriage); 
Fr. carrousel a tilt-yard. It. carosello. 

Carrignon — cahier. 

CarrUlon Fr. a chime ; properly of four bells , from a form qua- 

Carrizo Sp., Pg. carrico sedge; from carex, It. carice. 

Carrobio It. =^ L. quadrivium , cf . gdbbia from cavea. 

Carrosse ■ — carriera. 

Carrouse — trincare. 

Carruba It., Sp. garroba garrofa algarroha, Pg. alfarroba, Fr. 
carouhe carouge^ E. caroh\ It. carroho carruhhio , Sp. garroho 
algarrobo, Pg. alfarrobeira carob-tree; from Ar. kharriib. 


Carvi It. Sp. Fr., ^.Vv.charui, Yi,caraivay; jirom caretim (xcHqov) 
whence also Ar. al-karvit/d, which is nearer in form to the 
Rom. words ;, espec. to the Sp. alcaravea, 

Casa It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Wal. case, L- L. casa for the L. domm, 
^SLvd. domu. Hence Rh. casar to dwell, li, casare, Sp. Pg. Pr. 
casar to many, prop. = to house. 

Casacca It., Sp. Pg. casaca, Fr. casaque, E. cassock; from casa 
a hut (cf. casipola, and G. E. hose). For the suffix cf. It. 

Casamatta It., Sp. Pg. casamata, Fr. E. casemate, L. L. ca- 
samatta. According to Mahn, from casa-matta a weak, poor 
hut hastily constructed, cf. carro matto, penne matte pen- 
feathers, jjeli matti down. According to Diez, from xd6^a^ 
10.6 ^ata. Wedgwood derives it from casa-mata (Sp. mata 
slaughter) so = slaughter-house, G. mordkeller, the casemate 
being properly a loop-holed gallery in a bastion, whence the 
garrison could annoy an enemy in possession of the ditch. 
May it not be connected with mattone a brick (q. v.)? 

Casare, casar — casa. 

Cascajo cascara casco — cascar. 

Cascar Sp. to break, Pg. to bruise, Sard, cascai to maltreat := 
quassicare from quassare. Hence casco = potsherd, skull (cf. 
testacy cask, casca, cascara husk, peel, shell, cascajo broken 
potsherds, gravel. Casco Sp., Fr. casque a head -piece; but 
V. Wedgwood, s. case. 

Cascare cascata — casco. 

Cascio cacio It., Sp. queso , Pg. queixo cheese; from caseus, cf. 
Sp. quepo from capio. 

Casco It. old, decaying ; from caseus old (Ennius, and Ausonius). 
Hence, perhaps , It. cascare to fall , unless this be from casare 
(Plautus), casicare, or connected with cascar (q. v.) so = to 
fall with a crash. From cascare comes It. cascata, Fr. E. 

Casco — cascar. 

Caserma It., W. cesarme, O. G. casarm, Sp. Pg. cascrna, Fr. 
caserne a barrack ; from casa d'arme (Mahn) or from casa like 
caverna from cava (Diez). Perhaps it will be best to take the 
former derivation, allowing that the form of the word was 
modified by its resemblance to caverna. 

Casimiro Sp., Pg. casimira, Fr. casimir, E. kerseymere; from 

Casipola casupola It. a little hut, hence Fr. E. chasuble, Sp. 
casulla, L. L. casula; casipola is prob. formed on the analogy 
of manipuhis. For the connection of meanings, cf. casacca, 
and cappa capanna. 

Casnard O. Fr. a flatterer, fawner. Quintilian has: casnar 


assectator e Gallia ductum est, Casnard is prob. for canard or 
cagnard (N. Pr. = loiterer), Pic. cagne acagnardi lazy. Berr. 
cagnaud = casnard. The origin is prob. the root cagti L. 

Casque — cascar. 

Cass Pr. O. Fr. broken , Pr. casser, Fr. casser to break ; from 
qiiassus qiiassare. It. accasciare to fail in strength, is from a 
form quassiare. With an inserted n we have Sp. canso weary, 
cansar to weary. 

Cassa It., Sp. caxa, Pg. caixa, Pr. caissa, Fr. caisse, E. c^/5^, 
a chest, Fr. chdsse a setting; from ^«/?5« (Diez), or from the 
sound of a blow quash! cass! whence cassus hollow, and caisse, 
cask, casco&c.yin the sense of a hollow receptacle (Wedgwood). 
Hence It. cassetta, cassettone, castone, vb. Pg. encaixar, Fr. 
enchdsser, It. incassare, to enchase, chase; also Cat. encastar, 
Sp. engastar. It. incastrare, Pr. encastrar, and Pr. encastonar, 
Pg. encastoar, Sp. engastonar, cf. L. L. incastraiura. 

Cassero — alcazar. 

Casserola casserole — cazza. 

Casso It. Sp. Pg., Vr.cass, O.Fr. quas empty, void; from cassus. 
Hence cassare, casser, h.cassare for cassum reddere inSidonhis 
and Cassiodorus. 

Casso It. the breast, chest, L. L. cassum cassus; from capsus a 
receptacle, cf. L. L. area. Hence, also, Pr. cais the jaw, as 
eis from ipse. Wedgwood gives a different account (v. cassa). 
Related to cais are Pg. queixo, Cat. quex, where Pg. queixada, 
Sp. quixada, and perhaps Sp. quixera. 

Casta Sp. Pg., E. caste; from castus pure? 

Castaldo castaldione, Ven. gastaldo a steward, cf. Fr. Gastaud 
as a proper name; from L. L. gastaldius gastaldio which is 
from Goth, ga-staldan to acquire, possess. 

Casulla — casipola. 

Catacomba It., Sp. Pr. catacumba, Fr. cataconibe, E. catacomb, 
a subterranean burial-place. According to Diez, from Sp. 
catar to view and comha for tomba a tomb (cf. Mil. catatomba, 
O. Sp. catatumba). The Roman catacombs contained the 
remains of the martyrs, and were visited for purposes of 
devotion. In support of this der. cf. catafalco, calaletto. 
Others propose xatatv^^Lov , or xccrcc and xv^^og a cavity, 
or the Sabine cumba, cf. Festus: cumbam Sabini vocant cam 
quam militares lecticam. 

Catafalco It., Sp. cadafalso cadahalso cadalso, Pr. cadafalc, O. 
Cat. cadafal, Val. carafal, O. Fr. escadafaut , Fr. echafaut, 
M. Du. scafaut, G. schaffot, E. scaffold. The orig. form is 
cata-falco, Sp. cadafalso is from Pr. nom. cadafalcs, thee 
becomes t in Fr. as in Estr abort for Estraborc (Strasbourg). 


Catafalco is from Sp. catar to view and falco = It. palco or 
halco (q. v.); cf. catacomha, cataletto. Fr. catafalque and Sp. 
cadafalco are from the Italian. 

Cataletto It. a bed of state, prop. = show - bed, from catar and 
letto, V. catacomha and catafalco. The same word is found in 
Sp. cadalecho a rush-bed, N. Pr. cadaliech, Fr. chdlit a tenter- 
bed , O. Fr. calit. . 

Catar 0. Sp. to see, view, Sp. Pg. to search, examine, taste, 
cata inquiry (also = mine, cf. ^letaXXov), recatar to taste 
again , to keep carefully , to hide , recato prudence , acatar to 
inspect , respect , &c. Menage gives a Fr. dim. catiller to spy 
out. Rh. Parm. Ven. catar, Lomb. cata = to find, seize. Its 
sense of to "view" is found in It. cata-comba, cata- falco, 
cata -letto, Sp. cata-lecho, catarihera, cata-viento. Wal. ceuta 
= to view, seek, keep. Isidorus has: cattm (a cat) quod 
cattat i. e. videt. It is from the L. captare (sc. oculis) to lie in 

Catarana Sp. a sheldrake. Prop, a diver, from catarractes? 

Catasta It. a wooden -pile; from L. catasta a scaffold. 

Catastro It. Sp., Fr. cadastre a register of taxes, a tax; from 
capitastrum a poll-tax, cf. Sp. cahezon from cabeza, 

Catir — quatto. 

Catrame It., Pg. alcatrao, Sp. alquiiran, Fr. guitran goudron, 
L. L. catarannus tar. From Ar. al-qatrdn. 

Cattivo It., Sp. cativo, Pr. caitiu, Fr. chetif 2i wretch, E. caitiff; 
from captivus, which is also found in its proper sense. It. cat- 
tivo, Sp. cautivo, Fr. captif, E. captive, 

Cau eaucala — choe. 

Cauehemar Fr. a ghost, night -mare; from vb. caucher (obs.), 
Pic. cauquer. Burg, coquai = It. calcare, E. cauk, and G. 7nar 
in nachtmar, E. nightmare. Occ. has chaouclie-vielio pressing- 
old woman, witch, also cf. pesant peant peen, greou, ploumb all 
== something weighty, an incubus, Sp. pesadilla, O. Sp. 
mampesada. Rouchi has coquenoir. Wall, marke, v. Grand- 

Caudal Sp. Pg., Pr. cabdal, O. Fr. chaudel superior, rich, sbst. 
power , wealth , capital , abundance ; from capitalis. Sp. cau- 
daloso = very rich. 

Caudillo — capitello. 

Causer — cosa. 

Cautivo — cattivo. 

Cava It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. cave a cellar, E. cave; from cava. 
Hence Pg. cabaz, Fr. cabas a large basket, whence, ph. Sp. 
capazo, but v. cappa. 

Cavallo It., Sp. cab alio, Pr. caval, Fr. cheval (Fr. chevale a mare, 
chevallerie, chivalry &c.), WaL cal, Alb. cale calle a horse; 


from cab alius (xapdXXrjg). Hence cavalcare, Sp. cdbalgar, Fr. 
chevaucher (Fr. E. cavalcade) to ride (cf. uTtTtsvsLv from iTtTtog)^ 
L. L. cahallicare cavallum = It. cavalcare un cavallo. Equus 
remains only in Sp. f. yegua, Pg. egoa, Vr.egua, O.Fr. aigue, 
Wal. eape, Sard. ebba. From caballus we have also L. L. ca- 
ballarius, It. cavalliere &c., and cavalleria, cavallerie, cavalry; 
It. cavallettaj Sp. caballeta a field -cricket (cf. G. heupferd = 
grass -hopper), Sp. caballete = a wooden horse, easel &c. 

Cavare It. to take out; prop, to dig out, L. cavare. 

Cavelle covelle It. (Boccaccio) = qualche cosa; perhaps ix.quod 
vellety so = qualsi voglia? 

Cavesson — cavezza. 

Cavezza It. a halter, O.Yx.chevece a collar, Sp.Pg. c«&^z« head, 
Pr. cabeissa; also Sp. Pg. cabezo, Pr. cabes^^ top of a thing; 
hence It. cavezzone, Fr. cavesson cavecon, E. caveson a nose- 
halter, whence G. kapp-zaum spelt as if from happen to cap 
and zaum a bridle, Sp. cabezon = shirt -collar. From L. L. 
capitium, so = (1) head (2) hood (3) collar. It. scavezzare to 
sever = scapezzare , Sp. descabezar, prop. = to behead. 

Caviale It,, Sp. cabial, Pg. Fr. caviar, M. G. TtavLaQi, caviare 
the salted roe of the sturgeon. 

Cavicchia caviglia, caviechio caviglio It., Pg. Pr. cavilha, Fr. 
cheville a peg. From clavicula clavicla for euphony cavicla. 
The Sp. has clavija. 

Cavolo It., Sp. col, Pg. couve, Pr. caul, Fr. c^ow cabbage; from 
caulis whence also Bret, kaol, W. cawl, G. A"0^/, E. cole. 

Caxa — cassa. 

Cayado Sp., Pg. cajado, Cat. gayato shepherd's crook; from 

Cayo Sp. (usu. plur.), O. Fr. cage a sandbank, shoal, Pg. caes, 
Fr. quai, Du. kaai, kaje, E. ^w«?/. Isidor. has: kaij cancelli. 
It is the W. cae hedge, enclosure, Bret, kae 2X^0 = a dam, 
ph. also the origin of the 0. H. G. cahot munimentum. 

Cayo Sp. a daw; cf. 0. H. G. kalia a craw, Du. kauw; so called 
from the noise it makes , cf. E. caw. 

Cazar — cacciare. 

Cazza It., Cat. cassa, O. Fr. Pic. casse. Eh. cas, Sp. cazo a 
saucepan, a ladle; from 0. H. G. chezi (kezi), 0. N. kati, 
whence G. kessel, E. kettle. Hence It. cazzuola, Sp. cazuela, 
Fr. casserole (cf. mouch-er-olle , mus-er-olle &c.) a frying-pan, 
whence It. casserola, Pic. Champ, castrole, G. castrol. 

Ce — cid. 

Ceans — ens. 

Cebada Sp., Tg.cevada barley, Cat., Tr.civada oats; from cibare, 
Sp. cebar to feed ; fatten. Sp. cibera corn is from cibaria (pi.). 

Cebellino — zibellino. 

122 CECE — CENNO. 

Ceee It., Sp. cMcliaro, Vv,cezer, Fr. chiche ( = L. cicer; 

It. cicerchia &c. from cicercuta. 
Ceeero It., 0. It. cecino, L.L. cecitms, cico; fromL.c/c6V'; which 

(in It. cece) = the knob or tubercle on the swan's bill, cf. 

Cicero. From cecimis rather than from cygnus, comes Sp. Pg. 

O. Fr. cisne, O. Pg. cirne. 
Cedazo — staccio. 
Cederno — cedro. 
Cedilla cedille — zediglia. 
Cedola It., Sp. Pg. Pr. cedilla , Fr. cednle schedule; from L. 

schedidcij as cisma from schistna. From another pronunciation 

arose the Sp. esquela. 
Cedro It., Sp. Pg. cidrUy Pg. also cidrcio, Fr. E. citron (fruit); 

It. cedro, Sp. cidi'O, Fr. citronnier (tree); from citrus, citreum. 

It. has cederno on analogy of quernus. The usu. word is the 

foreign limone, q. v. The variable quantity of the L. ac- 
counts for the double form in e and /; hence It. cedronella^ 

Sp. cidronela, Fr. citronelle balm, L. citrago; also It. citriuolo, 

Fr. citrouille pumpkin. 
CefFo It. a snout, muzzle, ceffare, Parm. cifar to snap, seize; 

Com. zaf = ceffo, zafa. Sic. acciaffari = ceffare, Piedm. 

ciaflu = ceffvto, Sic. ciaffa = claw. It. za/fo = bailiff. Prob. 

from a G. pronunciation of the root tap (v. tape), whence also 

It. ciampa = Sic. ciaffa. 
Ceindre Fr. to gird; from cingere, as peindre from pingere. 
Cejar Sp. {^xo^.cexar as inO. Sp.) to recede; from cessare \f\viQ)i 

in It. = to escape. 
Celadon Fr. sea-green (also lover, gallant); from the name of 

a shepherd (clad in green) in D'Urfe's Astrsea (1610). 
Celata It., Sp. celada , Fr. salade a helmet, O. Eng. salet, W. 

saled, from ccelata (cassis cantata Cicero). 
Celda Sp., O. Sp. ceila cell; from L. cella, whence also Sp. ciiia 

a granary; cillero, Pg. cilleiro from cellarins. 
Celeri — sedano. 
Celui — qiielio. 
Cembel — zimbello. 
Ceneerro Sp. a bell; Basque cincerria cinzarria, a name derived 

from the sound. 
Cenefa zanefa Sp., Pg. sane fa a frame, fringe, border; from 

Ar. canefah the hem of a garment. 
Cenelle Fr. the holly-berry ; from coccinella (coccina for coccum) 

scarlet berry. 
Cenno It., Rh. cin a nod, Sp. ceho a frown; It. accennare, O. Sp. 

acenar, O.Fr. acener to nod, make signs. In the old Glossaries 

we find cinnus lortio oris and cynnavit innuit. It is prob. 

shortened from cicinnnus (mKLvvog), so that cinnare cennare 


would denote prop, some peculiarity in the "chevelure", cf. 
Fr. harlocher to agitate , from haarlocke, v. locher. 

Cenogil Sp. a garter ; from It. ginocchiello prop. = kneeband. 

Cenoura — zanahoria. 

Centeno Sp., Fg,centew senteio rye; from centenus as it was sup- 
pose to produce a hundredfold. 

Centinare It., Fr. cintrer to vault or arch; sbst. centintty Fr. 
cintre , E. centre centering the wooden frame for building an 
arch ; from cinciurare (cinctura) ; It. n for r as in cecino from 
cicer. The Cat. is cindria, the Sp. cimbria cimbra, nib from 
cimhorio a dome. 

Centinela — sentinella. 

Cenzaya Sp. a nurse; from Basque seinzaya, from seina a child 
and zaya watch. 

Cepillo Sp., Pg. cepilho a plane (tool), brush; from Sp. cepo a 
block, L. cippus. 

Ceramella cennamella a shawm; a corruption of Fr. chalemel? 
V. chcdumeau. 

Cercare It., Wal. cerca, Pr. cercar sercar, Fr. chercher (by assi- 
milation for cercher, O. Fr. cerchier, Pic. cerquier, cf. Ciciglia 
for Siciglid), E. search. The orig. meaning is to ^'search 
through^', Dante, Inf. 1, 84: che ni han fatto cercar il tuo 
volume J 0. Fr. cerchier les montagnes &c. Sp. Pg. cercar = to 
enclose, but O. Pg. also to search through. Cercare is the 
Propertian circare: fontis eg ens erro circoque sonantia lymphis 
(4, 9, 35); Isid. circat circumvenitf L. L. circator a watchman, 
cf. Alb. khercoig to seek, from TaQXOvv^ W. kyrchu, Bret. 
kerchat from the same root as cercare. Hence Pr. ensercar to 
distinguish, Pg. enxergar; L. L. cercitare, Wal. cerceta. 

Cerceau Fr. a ring, circle, O. Fr. recercele encircled; from cir- 
culus circellus. 

Cerceta zarzeta Sp. Pg., Pr. sercela, Fr. cercelle sarcelle a widgeon, 
teal; from querquedula, It. also cercedula, cercevolo. The It. 
garganello (E. gargane) is a corruption. 

Cercine It. a ring, Fr. cerne (= cerc'ne) a circle, Sp. cercen 

(adv. = thoroughly), Pg. cerce; Fr. cerner to encircle, Sp. 

cercenar to pare round; from circinus a circle, circinare to 

Cercueil Fr. a coffin. Sarcophagulus would have given sarfail; 

it is , therefore , better to derive from the O. H. Gr. sark (G. 

sarg) a coffin, with suffix el = 0. Fr. sarqu-el sarqu-eu 

care ■• ti. 
Cerda ■ — cerdo. 
Cerdo Sp. Pg. a hog; according to Larramendi, from the Basque 

cherria a hog, but it may be derived from sordidus [suerdo 


serdo v. f rente). Sp. cerda (f.) = a hog's bristle, or horse's 

hair, ph. from cerdo so = (l) the hog's hide (2) the bristles. 
Cereza — ciriegia. 
Cerfoglio It., Sp. cerafolio, Fr. cerfeuil a plant, chervil; from 

caerefolium {y^aiQi^)vXXov). 
Cerise — ciriegia, 

Cernada Sp. lie; = cinerata, Cat. cendrada, from cinis, 
Cerne eerner — cercine. 
Cerneechio It., Sp. cerne ja, Pg. cernelha a fetlock. From dis- 

cerniculum {acus quce capillos disseparat Nonius), so = prop. 

parted hair. 
Cerquinho Pg. in carvalho cerquinho a holm-oak; a corruption 

of quercinho = It. quercino. 
Cerrar — serrare. 
Cerre ■ — cerro, 
Cerretano — ciarlare, 
Cerrion Sp. an icicle; from L. stiria , st = c (cf. mozo from 

Cerro It. (l) a Turkey -oak, from cerrus, Fr. cerre; (2) a bob, 

toupet, from cirrus. , 

Cerro Sp. Pg., Pr. ser a hill, a backbone; from Basque cerra 

(which, however, may be from the Spanish word), or from 

L. cirrus = a top -knot, so = top. 
Cers Pr, Cat., Sp. cierzo a north -east -wind; from L. cercius 

circius a word used in Gallia Narbonensis, v. Pott. Etym. 

Forschung. 2, 499. Hence, perhaps Sp. cecina dried beef, 

cecial dried fish (for cercina ceciat). 

Cervello It., Pr. cervel, Fr. cerveau brain, Pr. Rh. cervella (fem. 
= It. pi. cervella), Fr. cervelle; from cerebellum , L. L. cer- 
bellus. From cerebrum come Sp. Pg. celebro cerebro, Wal. crieri 
(pi.),- from creebrum. 

Cesoje It. (pi.) scissors ; from caesus as rasojo from rasus. 

Cespo It. a bush, shrub; ^r om. cespes tur^ y brush -wood; hence 
cespuglio; cesto is from cespitem. In Placidus we find caespiies 
frutices. Hence It. cespicare, Wal. ceaspeta. 

Cespuglio — cespo. 

Cesso It. retreat, privy; from secessus. 

Cesto — cespo, 

Cet — questo, 

Cetrero Sp. a falconer, = accipitrarius , cf. accertello. 

Cetto It.. 0. Sp. 0. Pg. cedo (encedo) adv. from cito, 

Cha — te, 

Chabasea Sp. a twig, rod; from clava a graft, whence also Sp. 
chaborra a young maiden. 

Chablis — caable. 


Chabot Fr. a fish , the miller's thumb , Pg. cahoz ; from capvt 
because of its thick head, cf. L. capito, Gk. x8(paXog, 

Chabraque Fr. a horse-cloth, housing; the G. is schabracke; 
both words come from the Persian tschdbrdk, 

Chaehara Sp. chatter; an onomatopoeion; Sic. ciacciara, It. chi- 

Chacona Sp. the name of a Spanish dance ; from Basque chocuna 
neat, pretty. 

Chaeun — ciascuno. 

Chagrin Fr. grief, chagrin. From the Fr. chagrin, shagreen the 
shark -skin, which, being used as a rasp, came to typify the 
gnawing of grief, cf. It. lima. Shagreen in It. was zigrino, 
Ven. Romagn. sagrin, Du. segrein, M. H. G. zager. Gen. 
sagrind = to gnaw, sagrindse to fret, consume with anger. 

Chainse — camicia. 

Chair e Fr. a pulpit, Pr. cadeira, O. Fr. chayere chair seat; from 
cathedra, whence 0. Sp. Cat. Basque cadira, Piedm. Com. 
cadrega seat. 

Chaise Fr. a chair, seat. This is not found in the oldest dic- 
tionaries, so prob. a Parisian mispronunciation, cf. beside. 
Palsgrave's French Grammar (1530) mentions cheze SiS a faulty 
Parisian pronunciation of chaere. 

Chaland Fr. a flat-bottomed boat, a transport, 0. Fr. chalandre, 
O. Cat. xelandrin, L. L. chelandium chelinda zalandria, M. Gr. 
Xsldvdiov. These boats were chiefly used by the Byzantines, 
and prob. derived their name from xsXvdQog a turtle. Fr. 
chaland, Sp. calan a trafficker are from chaland a boat, cf. bar- 
guigner from barca. Others derive chaland from calo (Papias : 
calones negotiatores) and make the sense of boat a secondary 
one. But the form will hardly suit this etymology. 

Chalit — cataletto. 

Chalonge chalenge 0. Fr., calonja Pr. a disowning, disputing 
a claim, chalongier, calonjar, E. challenge, to call in question, 
claim; to challenge one to fight is to call on one to decide a 
disputed matter by combat; from calumnia a false charge, 

Chaloupe Fr., hence Sp. chalupa, It. scialuppa, E. shallop; cor- 
rupted from the Du. sloep (from sloepen to glide, slope, as Du. 
schuit from schieten to shoot), E. sloop. 

Chalumeau Fr. for chalemeau, O. Fr. chalemel, Pr. caramel, Sp. 
caramillo flute, E. shawm; from calamus, L. L. calameL 

Chamade Fr. E. a trumpet-signal calling to a parley; from Pg. 
chamada a shout (chamar = L. L. clamare). 

Chamar — chiamare. 

Chamarasea Sp. a bundle of twigs, for fire- word; from Basque 
chamar -asca ^^very smalP', Larramendi. 


Chamarra chamarrer — zamarro, 

Chamberga Sp. a long, wide coat; so called from Marshal 

Schomberg (v. Seckendorf). 
Chamois - — camozza, 
Chamorro Sp. Pg. shorn, chamorra a shorn or bald head; from 

clavus (for calviis) and Sp. morra crown of the head. 
Champ — canto. 
Champignon Fr. a mushroom ; from campus, agaricus ca??ipesiris 

(Linnaeus), It. camjngnuolo. 
Champion — carnpione. 
Champis O. Fr. still used in Berry and South - East of France 

for a bastard, enfant trouve (dans les champs); from L. L. 

campilis (O. Fr. also champil). Wall, cliampl = mener paiti'e, 

conies from a form campicare, which would he in¥r. champier. 
Chamuscar Sp. Pg. to singe, O. Sp. xafnuscar; from flarmna, 

Pg. chafna. 

Chanca chanclo ehanco — zanca. 

Chance Fr., O. Fr. chcance (E. chance) from chcoir L. cadere. 
M. H. G. schanze, It. cadenza &c. Hence clianceler to totter, 
Pr. cliancelar, whence It. cancellare, 

Chanceler ■ — chance. 

Chaneir Fr. to get moudly ; from canescere, Sp. canecer. Norm. 
chanir from canere. 

Chancre — granchio. 

Chanela chinela Sp. an overshoe, slipper := It. pianclla from 
pi amis. 

Change changer — cambiarc. 

Chanteau — canto. 

Chantepleure Fr. a watering-pot; from Fr. chanter and plenrer ; 
hence It. Sp. cantimplora. 

Chantier — cantiere. 

Chanvre — canape. 

Chanza — ciancia. 

Chaorcin Pr. a usurer, L. L. caoi^simis catnrcinvs cawarsinus, 
G. kaivartsch gaivertsch kauwerz. From Cadurcintts , Pr. caoi^- 
cin chaorcin a native of Cahors, which Dante makes the abode 
of usury : e perb lo minor giron suggella del segno suo e Sodoma 
e Caorsa Inf. 11, 49. 

Chapa Sp. a plate of metal or leather, E. chape a plate of metal 
at the point of a scabbard, the white tip of a fox's tail. Hence 
chapar to plate, Pg. chapear; chapeleta de una bomba Sp. = 
Fr. clapet, the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump. From root 
klap clap the representation of the sound made by two flat 
surfaces striking together. Hence Sp. chapin a shoe with 
cork sole, E. chopine a clog, this last, perhaps, connected 


with Du. kloppen to knock, from the clumping sound of 

Chaparra ehaparro Sp. a kind of oak; from Basque achaparra 
a claw, its branches resembling claws. 

Chape chapeau ehapelle chaperon ■ — cappa. 

Chapitre — capitolo. 

Chapler chapeler chaploier 0. Fr., Pr. chaplar to cut down, 
sbst. Pr. chaple, whence 0. Fr. chaple'i's, Pr. chapladis; from 
capulus a sword, sword-hilt, L. L. capulare to cut off. Or is 
it connected with chapuiser? 

Chapuiser 0. Fr., Pr. capusar to cut off, cut in pieces ; chapuis 
= a carpenter. L.L. capus capo = a castrated cock, whence 
Sp. capar to geld. Chapuiser is formed on the analogy of its 
synonyme menuiser; cf. 0. Fr. chantuser from chanter. 

Chapuzar zapuzar zampuzar Sp. to dive, duck, cf. Cat. cabus- 
sar, Pr. cacabustar; perhaps from capo cabo, so = to plunge 
in over head, ci. chapuiser; zampuzar prob. took its form from 
zampar (v. tape), the Pg. chafundar from fundus. 

Chaque Fr. , Pr. cac each. Rather from chac-un (quisque 
unusj than immediately from quisque, cf. ciascuno and cadauno. 
Pr. quecs is for quescs (quisque), Com. ciasche. There is no 
need to have recourse to the Ir. each, Gael, ceach, where the 
c=.p, cf. 0. W. poup, Corn, peb, Bret. pep. 

Charade Fr. E. ; perhaps from Neap, charada (-o) r=. It. ciarlata 
chatter, whence "play on words ^\ 

Charco Sp. Pg. a standing -pool, puddle, slough; from Basque 
charcoa bad , disgusting. 

Chardon — cardo. 

Charge — caricare. 

Charivari Fr. cat's music, clatter, L. L. charivariwn, chalvari- 
cum, O. Fr. caribari, chalivali. Pic. queri-boinj , Dauph. cha- 
navari, N. Pr. taribari. Orig. used of the discordant music 
used on the occasion of a man's second marriage , Sp. cencer- 
rada from cencerro a bell. Cat. esquellotada. The termination 
is common, e. g. ourvari, /?OMre;an hunting cries. Pic. Norm. 
Champ. Gen. boulevariy Pied, zanzivari, Norm, varivara, Rh. 
virivari (G. wirrwarr clatter). The former part of the word 
is made to rhyme with the latter (cf. hurly-burly), and may be 
the L. calix (cf. chalivali and Wall, pailtege from paill = Fr. 
pottle). Dante's caribo Purg. 31; 132 is, probably, from chari- 

Charlatan — ciarlare, 

Charme 0. Fr. an incantation, Fr. a charm. It. carme carmo, 
Fr. charmer to charm, 0. Fr. charmeresse = enchantress ; from 
carmen, L. L. carminare to enchant. From carmen also comes 
O. E. charm a hum, murmuring noise of birds &c. A charm 


of goldfinches = a flock. In O. Fr. charraie charroie = 

witchcraft; charroieresse a witch, vb. encharrauder , Norm. 

enquerauder for charmeraie &c. 
Charme Fr. the horn -beam, Berr. charne , Rouchi r^/rwe; from 

carpmus (carpinus), L. L. carpenus, It. carpinOy Wal. car pin j 

Sp. carpe, 
Charniere — cran, 
Charogne — carogna. 
Charpa — sciarpa. 
Charpente • — carpeniiere. 
Charpie Fr. lint, li, carpia; participle of the O. Fr. verb charpir 

(carpere) found in escharpir descharpir. This latter = O. E. 

verb to stickle ^ to separate combatants (with sticks). 
Charraie charroie — charme (l). 

Charro Sp. Pg. a churl ; from the Basque charro = bad (?). 
Charrua ■ — aratro. 

Chartre charte Fr. a deed, record, E. chart; from charta. 
Chartre O. Fr. (f.) prison; from career (m.), Sp. carcel (f.). It. 

carcere (m. f.). 
Chasco Sp. the lash of a whip; probably from the sound, G. 

klatschen to clash, lash, cf. E. lash, 
Chasse — cassa. 
Chasser — cacciare. 
Chasuble — casipola. 
Chat — gal to. 

Chat - huant chauana — choe. 

Chatier Fr., E. chastise; from castigare, It. gastigare, 
Chato — piatto. 
Chatouiller Fr. to tickle ; from catullire (neut.), whence catulliare 

(act.) cf. camhire, cambiare. 
Chaudiere ehaudron — caldaja. 
Chauffer Fr., Pr. calfar to heat, whence echaiiffer, escalfar; from 

Chaume Fr. (m.) stubble, whence chawniere a straw-hut; from 

calamus J whence also L. L. calma: vineas deplantassent aut 

calmas rupissent, G. halm, E. haulm. 
Chaumiere — chaume. 
Chaupir caupir Pr. to take or seize a thing; from Goth. kaupdn, 

0. H. G. chaufan, G. kaufen to buy, orig. to take in exchange, 

exchange. For the connection between taking and buying cf. 

L. emere, Fr. acheter, 
Chausse — calza, 
Chaussee — calzada. 
Chauve- souris Fr. a bat, prop. = bald mouse, from the wings 

being destitute of feathers. Grandgagnage suggests that it is 

a corruption of c/?ow6?-50wm=50Mm-/i2Y>ow mouse owl, the Wall. 


being chawesori, chansori, cliehausori; so the Pic. casseuris and 

cateseuris may be = cave-seuris, cavette-seuris, v. choe. Lorr. 

is ho - volant =^ flying -toad, Pr. soritz - pennada = G. fleder- 

Chavirer Fr. to capsize; from caput virare; It. capo-volgere^ 

Chaza Sp. chace in ball -playing, point where the ball stops; 

chazar to stop the ball; from Fr. chasse, chasser. 

Che It., Sp. Pg. Pr. Fr. que pronoun and conjunction; from 
quidf whence also Wal. ce, ce\ ca. Fr. quoi from que y as moi 
mei from ml. It. chi, Fr. qui from quis; Sard, chini, Sp. quien^ 
Pg. queniy from quern, v. quien. 

Chef Fr. head, Sp. xefe, E. chief; from caput. Hence chevir = 
O. Fr. venir a chief; chief Pr. cap, It. cfljpo = ^^ beginning '^ 
and also ^^end", de chief en chief; rechief, rechap = vqgoth- 
mencement. From chevir comes chevance profit , and It. civire 
to provide, m'«/iz« profit. (7/?et;^/(Fr.)=a pillow (for the /?e«^). 

Chegar — llegar. 

Cheirar — flair ar. 

Chelme (sehelme) 0. Fr. a disturber, makebate ; from G. schelm 
rogue, knave. 

Chemer — scemo, 

Cheminee — caminata. 

Chemise — camicia. 

Chenapan Fr. highwayman, G. schnapphahn. 

Chene Fr. (f.), O. Fr. chesne, Prov. Fr. quesne, Pr. casser (m.) 
for casne as Roser for Rosne from Rhodanus, Gasc. casso (m.), 
Bern, cassoura, L. L. casnus. Prob. from quercus, quercinus 
quercnus quecnus quesnus, O. IV. quesne chesne; for qu=^ ch 
cf. chascun from quisque. 

Cheneau Fr. a gutter ; from canalis. 

Chenet Fr. an andiron, fire-dog ; from canis, being usually made 
with feet like dog's paws. Langued. cha-fuec. 

Chenille Fr. a caterpillar, Pr. canilha. From canicula a little 
dog , from a supposed likeness in the head or eyes ; cf . Mil. 
can cagnon a silk - worm ; in Lomb. it is called gatta gattola 
(cat), in Sp. felpilla (if not, as is more prob., from felpa^ = 
felis pilosa hairy cat = Norm, chatte pelouse , whence E. (cor- 
rupted) caterpillar. The Pg. is lagarta (prop, lizard). 

Chente It. pronoun, from che ente (ens entis) ^^what a thing" 
formed on the analogy of niente. 

Chereher — cercare. 

Chere — cara. 

Chervis — chirivia. 

Chetif — cattivo. 



Cheto It.; Sp. Pg. quedo, 0. Fr. coit coi recoi, E. coy; from 
quietus; hence vb. It. chetare, Sp. Pg. quedar (also intrans.), 
Fr. coiser (whence E. cosy = coise), like hausser from alius. 
Hence also Fr. quiite, O. Fr. cuite, Pr. quiti, Sp. ^m^Yo^ E. 
quit, G. quitt =^ absoiutus (L. L. quietus); Sp. Pg. quitai^ to 
absolve make void; take away, Fr. quitter to release, let go, 
E. ^w//, It. quittare chitare to cede one's rights; sbst. quitanzaj 
quittance &c. For cheto It. has chiotto prob. from Fr. roxY, 
Neap, cuoto. 

Cheval ehevaucher — cavallo. 

Chevet — chef. 

Chevetre Fr. a halter; from capistrum. It. capestro. 

CheviUe — cavicchia. 

Chevir — chef. 

Chevrette — crevette. 

Chevron Fr., Pr. cdbrion cnhiron a beam, Sp. cahrio a rafter, 
cabria axle-tree, cabrial beam; from capreolus (caper) ^ cf. 
Wal. cafer = a rafter, Gr. bock = a block or piece of wood 
on which anything rests. A chevron in heraldry is the repre- 
sentation of two rafters. 

Chez Fr. = L. apud for en chez = O. Sp. encas =? in casd, Cf. 
O. N. prep, hid from hi, Dan. hos from hus. 

Chi — Che. 

Chiamare It., Wal. chiema, Sp. llamar, Pg. chamar, to call, Pr. 
clam'ar, O.Fr. claimer to call out, E. claim; from clamareh. L. 
fsi quis alterum vulpem clamaverit) = nominare. 

Chiappare It. to catch; from O. H. G. klappen to clap, clap to, 
klappe a trap; Com. ciapa (cia = cla, ciama = clamare). 
Hence, too. It. calappio ffalappio a tvR^. Clap klapi)en is, of 
course, an onomatopoeion. 

Chiarina, elarinetto, clarone It., Sp. clarin, clarinete, Fr. cla- 
rinelte clairon, O. Fr. Pr. E. clarion, E. clarionet; from clarus. 

Chiasso It. from the Pr. clas a crying, bawling, O. Fr. glas 
(chlaz) the sound of bells, Fr. glas a knell for the dead, Ir. 
glas wailing, Wal. glas sound, E. clash. These may be 
referred to the Sansk. Mas sonare (cf. hldd and glad), and are, 
doubtless, derived from the sound. Diez, however, makes 
chiasso &c. = Lat. classicum a trumpet - signal , L. L. a sound 
of bells , cf. conclassare conclamare Isid. Gloss. 

Chiavica It. sewer, conduit ; coriiipted from cloaca^ L. L. clavaca, 

Chiazza It. scab, chiazzare; from G. kletz dirty, bekletzen to soil. 

Chibo — ziba. 

Chicane chiclie ehicot — cica. 

Chieehera — xicara. 

Chiehe — cece. 


Chieliaro — cece, 

Chieharro — cigala. 

Chico — cica. 

Chiedere It. to demand, = poet, cherere from qucerere, Sp. 

querer &c., r = ^ as in fiedere from ferire &c. Conquidere 

from conquirere. 
Chien Fr. dog. Canis would give chain, as pants pain. The / 

must be euphonic (chiain, chien) as in lieu for leu &c., or must 

be from the fem. chienne from cania (cf. It. cagnd) as Guienne 

from Aquitania. 
Chieppa cheppia It. a fish ; from clupea v. Menage. 
ChiflFe Fr. poor stuff;, chiffon rag. Pic. chifer, Fr. chiffonner, 

Champ, chifouiller to tear, rumple, Piedm. cifogne. Grand- 

gagnage makes chiffonner = Wall, cafougni, chiffon = Wal. 

cafu, Champ, caftit rubbish, from Du. kaf chaff. But cf. E. 

chife a fragment, chibble (to break in pieces) shiver, Du. scheve, 

E. shives. 
Chiflo — cinfolo. 
Chifre — cifra. 
Chiglia It. (chiela), Sp. quilla, Fr. quille, E. keel; from O. H.G. 

kiol, O. N. kiolr. Fr. quille also = G. kegel, O. H. G. ^e^?/. 
Chignon Fr. the nape of the neck, O. Fr. chaaignon chaignon 

for chaignon = ring or link of a chain and nape ; from cha'ine 

(O. Fr.), L. catena. Nicot has: chainon du col vertebra of the 

neck, Langued. cadena daou col. 
Chillar Sp. to scream, cry &c.; from sifflare like sollar from 

sufflare. Cf. cigolare. 
Chimera It., Sp. quimera, Fr. chimere, chimera whim; from 

Chimica cliiinie — alchimia. 
Chinehe Sp. Pg. a bug; from cimex, It. cimice. 
Chinea — haca. 
Chinquer ■ — escanciar. 
Chioceare It. to beat; O. H. G. klochdn, whence also cloche, 

clock, G. glocke. 
Chioeciare crocciarelt., Sip.cloquear, ^.Vr.clouchd, Fr.glousser, 

Wal. clocei to cluck, G. glucksen; an onomatop. as also L. 

glocire, cf. A. S. cloccan, E. cluck. It. chioccia, Sp. clucea, Pg. 

choka, Wal. cloce, G. glucke a brooding hen; hence It. chioccio, 

Sp. clueco llueco hoarse. 
Chiocciola It. a snail ; for cloce-iola, dim. of a form cloccia from 

Chiodo cMovo It. a nail = chiavo from clavus, Sp. clavo, Fr. 

clou &c. From chiavo came first chio-o = Pr. clau, O. Fr. do, 

the hiatus being filled up with d or v^ cf. padiglione from 

pa'iglione papiglione, Rovigo from RoHgo Rhodigium. The E. 



form is clove so called from its resemblance to a nail; It. cliiodo 
di girofano , Fr. clou de girofle, Sp. clavo di especias. 

Chioma It. the hair of the head; from coma, i = 1 inserted; v. 
Kom. Gr. 1, 269; cf. fiavo = favo &c. 

CtLiotto — cheto. 

Chiourme — ciurma. 

Chiovo — chiodo, 

Chiquet — cica. 

Chirivia Sp., Pg. cherivia, Fr. chervis chiroui (m.), E. skirret, a 
parsnep; L. siser. 

Chirlar — zirlare. 

Chisme Sp., Cat. xisme slander ; malicious tale; a corruption of 
schisma (though sch does not regularly = Sp. cli), or from the 
Gk. 6L6ii6g a hissing? 

Chitarra It.; Sp. Pg. Pr. guitatTa, Fr. guitar e, E. guitar; from 
Gk. xLd'ccQa. From L. cithara come It. cetera cetra, Pr. cidra 
citola, 0. Fr. citole &c. 

Chito — zitto. 

Chiudere It.; Sp. cluir (in compos.); Pr. claure, Fr. clore to close; 
from cludere and claudere. Hence Pr. esclaure, Fr. eclore (ex 
and claudo); Pr. esclure, Fr. exclure (excluder e). 

Chiurlare — urlare. 

Choc — ciocco. 

Clioclio Sp. Pg. of weak intellect ; doting ; prob. from suctus for 
exsuctus, cf. sciocco. 

Choeolat — cioccolata. 

Choe O. Fr.; Pic. cave, Pr. cau cliau r= L. hubo. Hence Fr. 
chouette, Pic. cavette a screech-owl; whence It. ciovetta civetta, 
Ven. zovetta, Wal. ciovice; Pic. also cavan, Anj. chouan, Berr. 
chavant, Pr. chauana, Bret, kaouan, L. L. cavanus, cauatina. 
The Fr. chat-huant (hooting -cat) is prob. a corruption of 
chouan. From the same root comes Pr. caucala, Fr. choucas 
a grey croW; also Sp. chova (= Fr. choe) a jay; Sp. clioya 
a jackdaw. The root is found in the M. H. G. chouh an 
owl; cf. E. chough J Du. kauio a croW; cf. E. caw. 

Choisir Fr.; Pr. causir chausir, whence It. ciausire, O. Sp. cosido 
(adj.); O. Pg. cousimento = Pr. causimen, Pr. escausir, 0. Cat. 
scosir to choose ; Fr. choix, Pr. causit, E. choice; from Goth. 
kiusan, 0. G. kiosan kiesen, A. S. ceosan, E. choose, or from 
Goth, kausjan to prove, try, which suits the form causir 

Chommer — calma. 

Chopine Fr. a liquid measure ; Rouchi chopc^ from G. schoppen* 

Chopper — zoppo. 

Cheque choquer — ciocco. 

Chorlo Sp. iron-stone; from G. schorl. 


Chorro Sp., Vg.chorro andjorro a gush of water; £rom susurrtis ? 

Chose — cosa, 

Chotar choto — ciocciare, 

Chou — cavolo, 

Chouan choucas chouette — choe. 

Choupo — pioppo. 

Chouvir — chiudere. 

Chova choya — choe. 

Choza Sp. Pg. a hut. Perhaps , from plutea for pluleum L. L. a 
shelter; it is not the same word as Sp. llosaj Pg. chousa an 
enclosed place, L. clausa. 

Chubarba — jusbarha, 

Chubasco — pioggia. 

Chucho Sp. a long- eared owl, so called from its cry, or from 
its being supposed to suck the blood of children, Pg. chuchar 
to suck, Piedm. ciuce, 

Chuchoter chut — zitto. 

Chufa — ciufolo. 

Chulo Sp. Pg. a jester; cf. It. zurlare to jest. 

Chumazo Pg. a pillow ; from plwna , It. piumaccio and pimaccio. 

Chupar — sopa. 

Chus O. Sp. adv. of comparison , froiaplus, 0. Pg. chus, chos, 

Chusma — ciurma. 

Chuva — pioggia. 

Chuzo Sp. Pg. head of a spear, spear. Perhaps from pilum piluzo 
pluzo chuzo. 

Ci — qui. 

Cia — te. 

Ciabatta It., Sp. zapata, Fr. savate an old shoe, Sp. Pg. zapato 
a shoe. From Arab, thahhdt , and perhaps the same word as 
Fr. sahot a wooden shoe. It. ciahattajo ciahaitiere, Sp. zapa- 
tero, Fr. savetier a cobbler. But, according to Mahn, from 
the Basque zapata a shoe, zapatu to tread, root zap, Gr. sap- 
pen to tread heavily. 

Ciacco It. a pig. Perhaps from Gk. Ov^a^ Ov^axos whence 
siacco ciacco, cf. camicia for camisia. 

Ciampa — tape (2). 

Ciancia It. raillery, jest, trifle, ciancare to jest, mock, Rh. cion- 
cia tattling, Sp. Pg. cMw2:« joke, facetiousness ; formed from 
the sound, cf. Sp. chdchara, E. chatter, N. Gr. Tt,dtt,ala, E. 

Ciarlare It., Sp. Pg. charlar , Val. charrar , Norm, charer to 
chatter, prattle. It. ciarlatano, Fr. E. charlatan a tattler, 
mountebank. Like ciancia, a word derived from the sound of 
chattering or chirping. Cf. Sp. chirlar to chirp, prattle. It. 
zirlare, Basque chirchila = charlatan. From Norm, charer is 


prob. formed charade. The It. cerretano = ciarlatano is said 
to be derived from the name of a town Cerreto. 

Ciarpa — sciarpa, 

Ciascuno It., Pr. 0. Sp. cascun, Fr. chacun, from quisque uniis, 
cf. chaque; It. ciascheduno from quisque et unus, or quisque ad 
unum, like O. Sp. quiscadauno, v. cadauno, 

Ciausire — choisir. 

Cibera — cibada. 

Ciborio It. Pg., Fr. ciboire, the vessel for containing the con- 
secrated elements, Pr. cihori, O. Fr. ciboire, Sp. Pg. cimborio 
the cupola or dome over the altar, L. L. ciborium, M. Gr. 
XLJicjQiov'^ from kl^coqiov a seed-vessel of a plant, a "vessel". 

Ciea It. a trifle, adj. cigoio single, Sp. chico, Cat. xic, chic small, 
Fr. chiche parsimonious (cf. Gr. 6^LXQLvr]g parsimony). Fr. 
chiquet a morsel, chicot a sprig, stump, Sp. chicotc end of a 
rope, chichota (Sp.) a trifle, Fr. chichoter to wrangle about 
trifles, Sp. cicatear to be parsimonious. From L. ciccum (cic- 
cum non interduim = non darei ciea), c = ch as in Sp. chicharo, 
Fr. chiche from cicer. Hence also Fr. chicane (l) a crumb (2) 
hair-splitting, wrangling, E. chicane. 

Cieigna It. blind -worm; for ciciglia from caecilia, with change 
of suffix to distinguish it from Ciciglia = Sicilia. 

Cieisbeo It., from Fr. chiche (little) and beau. 

Ciclaton Sp., Pr. sisclaton, 0. Fr. siglaton, Sp. also ciclada, a 

woman's dress ; from cyclas cycladis. 
Cidra cidro cidronela — cedro. 
Cidre — sidro. 
Ciera — cara. 
Cierge Fr., Pr. ciri wax -taper; from cereus. 

Cierna Sp. the flower or best of anything, Pg. cerne the heart of 
wood , cf. It. cerna choice , and refuse ; from cernere to sift, 
Sp. cerner to sift, to blossom. 

Cierzo — cers. 

Cifra cifera It. cipher (secret writing), Sp. Pg. cifra a numeral 
figure, Fr. chiffre, E. cipher in both senses. Grig, a figure 
denoting a blank or nought, cifra figura nihilij Wal. cifre, 
From Ar. cifr empty, nought, cafira vacuum esse. Accord- 
ing to Malin, it is the same word as Sp. Pg. It. E. zero, Fr. 

Cigala It. Pr. Cat., Fr. cigale, ^^.cigarra a grass -hopper; from 
cicada. The Sp. chicharra imitates the chirping noise it 

Cigarra — cigala. 

Cigolare It., scivolare to creak; from sibilare (Ferrari). Cf. Ven. 


cigare to creak, It. cingottare to chirp. These may be all 

Cigolo — cica. 

Cigiiena Sp., Pg. cegonha a crane for pumping water &c. ; from 

CiUa — celda. 

Cima It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. cime top. From cyma a tender sprout, 
Wal. chime, 0. Sp. cima a twig, orig. = the top of a plant, 
cf. It. vetta. Hence It. cimiero, Sp. cimera, Fr. cimier a crest, 
Wal. tzimiriu a token, coat-of-arms, M. H. G. zimier zimierde. 

Cimbel — zimbello. 

Cimbra — centinare. 

Cimbrar Sp. to brandish a rod (prop, to bend), cimbreho pliant ; 
according to Larramendi, from Bascjue cimela pliant; but cf. 

Cimento It. proof, experiment, risk, cimentare to put to the 
proof &c., cimentoso nazardous, cimento also = cement, Sp. 
cimiento = foundation, cimiento real cement, prop, a composi- 
tion of vinegar, salt, and brick- dust used in the refining of 
gold , cimento cement , cimentar to found , refine gold , Fr. ci- 
ment, cimenter, E. cement, L. L. cimentum fundamentum; cae- 
mentare sedificare, caementarins qui muros struit. The Sp. and 
Fr. words are easily traced to the L. caementum. The It. ci- 
mento = proof, presents more difficulty. Diez follows Ferrari 
in deriving it from specimen specimentum (cf. cantamen canta- 
mentum &c., for the rejection of the first syllable, baco for 
bombaco, ciulla iov fanciulla &c.). The meaning, however, of 
^'experiment" may without much difficulty be deduced from 
that of "a composition for refining gold", v. Mahn. 

Cimeterio It., Sp. cimenterio, Fr. cimetiere, 0. E. centric, E. 
cemetery; from coemeterium (xoi^TjTTJQLOv). For cemetery we 
have It. carnajo, Sp. carnero, Pr. carnier, Fr. charnier, E. 
charnel-house, O. H. Gr. charnare; from carnarium. 

Cimeterre eimitarra — scimitarra. 

Cinabro It., Sp. Pg. cinabrio, Fr. cinabre, Pr. cynobre, E. cin- 
nabar; from L. cinnabaris; Wal. chinovar from xivvapdcQig. 

Cincel Sp., Pg. sizel, Fr. ciseau, chisel, Fr. ciseaux scissors; 
ciseler &c. to chisel. From secellns dim. of secula a sickle , or 
from sicilicula (sicilis) in Plautus , whence sicilicellus, scilcellus. 
This latter is supported by the wavering between c and s, and 
also by the Sp. ti for /, cf. zonzo from insnlsus. 

Cincilio — cencio. 

Cinghia It., Wal. chinge, Pg. cilha, Pr. singla, Fr. sangle a belt, 
chingiare &G. to gird; from cingida; It. cinto cinta, Sp. cinto 
cinta cincha, Pr. cinta from cinctus (sbst.). From cingere It. 
cigna, Pr. cenha, 0. Fr. segne. 


Cinghiale It., Pr. senglar, Fr. sanglier a wild boar, L. L. singii- 
laris epur. So called from its solitary habits , cf. Gk. ftoviog, 
Sard, sulone, and cf. Gk. otavog (bird of prey) from olog. 
Cinghiale for sitighiale as concistorio for consistorio, camicia 
for camisia. 

Cingler Fr. to whip, from cingulum. Berr. sillon = whipcord. 

Cingler — singlar, 

Cingottare — cigolare, 

Cintre — centinare. 

Cio It., Pr. aisso so, 0. Fr. ico co (ceo), Fr. ce from ecce hoc; 
Pr. aquo aco from eccu' hoc, 

Cio — zelo, 

Cioeciare It. to suck, G. zutschen; It. ciotola a drinking- cup, 
Sw. zotteli, G. zaiite; Sp. chotar to suck, choto a sucking-kid. 
Com. dot a child, ciotin a lamb, Rh. ischutt; Champ. txUer to 
suck the fingers. All onomatopoeia. 

Ciocco It. a block, O. Fr. choquc chouquet a root, Fr. choc, Sp. 
choque a thrust, shock, chocar choqiier to thrust, G. schock 
schocken, E. shock; cf. also It. ciocca a tuft with G. schock a 
heap. Cf. /o/?/?o. 

Cioccolata It., Sp. chocolate, Fr. chocolat, E. chocolate, Vn^m 
Mexican chocollatl. 

Ciofo It. wretch , base , mean fellow ; from G. schuft. 

Cioncare It. to break, mutilate, Rh. ciuncar, Wal. citing nuitil- 
atod, Hung, tsonka; from truncare, or from It. ciocco? 

Cioppa — giubba, 

Ciotola — cioeciare, 

Ciottare — azote. 

Ciriegia ciliegialt., Sp. cereza, Pg. cercja, Pr. serisia, Fr. cerise, 
Wal. cercise, E. cherry; from adj. ceraseus, like many others 
names of trees ffaggio, prugna, quercia), It. ciriegia Rsprimiero 
from prima r ins. 

Ciro It. a pig; from x^^Q^s"^ 

Ciruela Sp. a plum; from cereola, cf. prunum cereum (Virgil). 

Cirzir — znrcir, 

Cisale — cisoje. 

Ciseau ciseler — cincel. 

Cisemus O. Fr. con-upted from the O. H. G. zisi-miis, A. S. 
sise-mm, L. L. cisimus, G. ziselmans a shrew-mouse. 

Cisma It. Sp., Pr. scisma, O. Fr. cisme, schism; from schisma, 

Cisne — cecero. 

Citano — zutano. 

Citriuolo It. a cucumber, Fr. citroiiille a gourd; irom citrenm, 

V. cidro. 
Citron citronnelle citrouille — cedro. 


Citta It., Wal. cetate, Sp. ciudad, Pr. ciutat, Fr. cite, Pr. nom. 
ciu, 0. Fr. cit, E. ciiy; from civitas. 

Ciudad — citta, 

CiufiFo It. a top, top -knot; from G. scJiopf, or from zopf, Lomb. 
zuff, V. zuffa. 

Ciufolo zTifolo It., Sp. chufa, Pr. chiifla; O. Fr. chtifle, Sp. Pr. 
^^^yZflf whistle , taunt, jest; Yh. zufolare Slc. A word formed 
from the sound , influenced by the L. sihilare and sufflare v. 
siffler. Some make zufolo the same as the Etrurian subulo a 
flute - player. 

Ciurmalt., Sp.Pg. chusma, Pg. also churma chulma, Yv.chioiirme 
the crew of rowers in a gallery. From neXsv^^a the signal 
for the rowers, whence it came to designate the rowers them- 
selves, cf. G. commando. From TceXsva^a came cleusma chusma, 
as from clamare chamar, Sic. chiurma for clurma clusma, It. 
ciurma for chiurma as jmorcia from morchia. Of the same 
origin is It. ciurmare to charm with mystical words and signs. 

Civada — cebada. 

Civaja It. vegetables ; from cibaria. 

Civanza — chef. 

Give Fr., civette, E. chive; from c^j9« an onion. 

Civeo — • civiere. 

Civetta — choe. 

Civire — chef. 

Cizza — tetta. 

Clabaud — glapir. 

Claie Fr., 0. Fr. cloie, Pr. cleda hurdle -work, basket-work, 
L. L. clida, clia, dim. cletella. It is a Celtic word, Fr. cliath, 
W. clwyd. L. L. cretellw =: clitellm a pack-saddle (prop, of 

Clairon clarinette — chiarina. 

Clamp Fr. Wall, a clamp, Norm, acclamper to clamp; from 
O. N. klampij M. H. G. klampfe, G. klammevj E. clamp. 

Clap Pr. a heap, mass, clapiera, O. Fr. clapier, aclapar to heap 

lip ; = W. clap clamp a heap , lump. 
Clapier — clapir. 
Clapir Fr. (se clapir) to run to burrow (of rabbits) ; clapier a 

burrow, prop, a heap of stones, E. clapper, from clap in Lang. 

= a stone, = W. clap, Iclamp a lump. Diez refers clapir to 

L. clepere to steal. 
Claque Fr. a crack, sound of a blow &c., claquer to clack, clap, 

clatter; an onomatop., Du. Mack, vb. klakken.' 

Clarinetto — chiarina. 

Clatir — ghiattire. 

Clavicembalo gravicembalo It., Sp. clavecimhano, Fr. clavecin a 


harpsichord; from clavis a key, stop (Fr. clavier a row of 
keys), and cymbalum, 

Cleda — claie, 

Cligner Fr. to wink, Pic. O. Fr. diner dinner , sbst. din, Fr. 
din d'ceil; from dinar e to nod. For digner for diner cf. 
O. Fr. crigne for crine, Fr. harpigner from harpin. O. Fr. 
dingier is from a form dinicare. 

Clinehe Fr., Norm, danche, Champ. Wall.c/?>Ae, O.Fr. denque, 
Pic. diquet a latch ; from G. klinke, Du. A7mA-, a word derived 
from the sound ("unhfted was \\ie d inking latch''), or = a 
fastener, and connected with ding, dench, dinch, Dii. klinken 
to fasten. 

Clinquant Fr. tinsel , dincaille pots and pans , corrupted quin- 
caille frippery, vb. se requinqxier to bedizen oneself; from Du. 
klinken, G. klingen, E. dink, Fr. qmncailler ^= a tinman. 

Clique Pic. a slap, vb. cliquer, Fr. diquet diquclte, E. dicket a 
clapper &c., vb. diqueter. An onomatop. G. klick, E. dick. 
The Fr. E. clique perhaps = a noisy conclave. 

Clisse eclisse Fr., 0. Fr. dice esclice a splint; from O. H. G. 
kliozan to split (i from io as in quillc from kiol). 

Cloche Fr. = campana in the south, a bell, Pr. cloca clodia, 
Piedm. Com. cioca, O. Fr. vb. dochcr, Pr. docar; from L. L. 
clocca cloca = A. S. clucge, N. klucke, O. H. G. docca, glocca, 
G. glocke, E. clocks Ir. c/o^/, W. ^/oc^. Clock is a variation of 
clack and is imitative of the sound made by a blow. 

Clocher — clop. 

Clop O. Fr. Pr. lame, halting (W. kloff), sbst. 0. Fr. clopin, 
dopinel, E. doping, vb. eloper, dopiner, Fr. edope. L. L. 
cloppus == ;ta3A6g. More likely from the G. klopfcn kloppen to 
knock (cf. club-footed), than, as Diez, from xokoiTiovg. An- 
other word for eloper is clocher. Pic. cloquer, Pr. dopchar, 
from L. L. doppicare, cf. It. zoppicare. 

Clore — chiudere. 

Clou — diiodo. 

Coalla — quaglia. 

Cobalto It., Sp. Pg. E. cobalt, Fr. cobolt; from G. Xro^rt/^ (from 
Boh. /:o?^^ metal, or = kobold mountain -goblin). 

Cobarde — codardo. 

Cobe — cupido. 

Cobrar Sp. Pg. Pr. O. Fr. coubrer to recover, O. H. Q^.koboron; 
from recuperare , the simple form, preserved, like so many 
lost Latin words, in the Rom. cuperarCy would be from capere, 
formed perhaps, on the analogy of super are, to which it is akin 
in meaning. The Lat. verb recuperare'\'^ preserved in the Rom. 
but with a different meaning : It. ricovrare to escape, Sp. reco- 
brarse, Pr. recobrar, O. Fr. recouvrer to recover (from sick- 


ness); cf. L. L. rex cegrotavit quo recuperante filius cegrotare 
caepit. Cf. ressortir (v. sortir) and Gk. avccao^ClaCd'm. 

Coeagne — cuccagna. 

Co9ar Pg. to scratch, tickle; perhaps from coquere to burn, 
coctus, coctiare. Hence, too, Sp. coscar, cosquillas? 

Coearde — coq, 

Cocca It., Pr. coca (in encocar), Fr. coche, E. cock the notch of 
a cross-bow; It. coccare to cock, to lay the bowstring in the 
notch , scoccare to discharge an arrow , Fr. encocher &c. Of 
uncertain derivation. Wedg. derives the verb cock, coccare 
from the sound of a quick sudden motion imitated by the syl- 
lable cock , which word is also used to express sharp projec- 
tions {cog of a wheel) or indentations (notch). 

Cocca It., Sp. coca, O. Fr. coque, Fr. coche, E. cock = cock- 
hoat, cf. coxswain. From concha as cocchiglia from conchylium. 
We have also O. H. G. koccho, Dan. kog, W. cwch, Bret. 
koked. From concha also come 0. Sp. coca, Sard, conca head 
(cf. testa, Grk. 'ii6y%v\)^ Sp. cogote, Pr. cogot the occiput, also 
Fr. coque egg-shell, cocon cocoon; from concheiis come It. 
coccio potsherd, coccia head, Sp. cuezo cueza basket. 

Cocchio It., Sp. Fr. coche (m.), E. coach. According to some, 
from Hung, kotczy (Wal. code, Alb. cotzi); others make it 
etymologically the same word as couch, from Du. koetse = 
couch or coach (litter), which from koetsen = coucher to lie. 
Diez, however, makes cocchio a masc. dim. oi cocca a boat, 
and from cocchio Fr. coche, Sp. coche, Gr. kutsche, cf. from 
It. nicchia, Fr. niche, Sp. nicho. 

Coccia coccio — cocca. 

Cocciniglia It., Sp. cochinilla, Fr. cochenille^ E. cochineal; from 
^^.cochinilla a wood-louse (dim. of cochina a sow); the Spani- 
ards gave this name to the Mexican insect, which resembles 
a wood-louse. The It. spells the word as if from coccinus, 

Cocear — coz. 

Cochar — coitar. 

Coche Fr. a sow, whence cochon and Sp. cochino, cochastro, 
cochamhre. Perhaps the same word as coche a nick or notch 
(cocca), cf. Sp. earner from crena, Piedm. crina sow, from 

Coche — cocca. 

Coche — cocchio. 

Cochenille cochinilla — cocciniglia. 

Cochevis Fr. a tufted lark = Pg. cotovia, Sp. totovia; from the 
Bret, kodioch, v. Mahn Unters. p. 26. 

Cochiglia It., Fr. coquille a mussel; from conchylium , as Sp. co- 
quina from concha. 


Coehino — coche. 

Cocon — cocca (2). 

Cocu — cucco. 

Coda It.; Pr. coa, Fr. queue, Sp. Pg. cola (cf. esquela for esqueda 
= scheda &c., O. Sp. co(i) a tail 5 from cauda. Hence It. codi- 
one codrione a bird's tail, O. Sp. codilla the nimp, codasta the 
stern of a ship; vb. It. scodare, Fr. ecoiier to dock the tail. 

Codardo It., Pr. co«r^, O. Fr. coart coard couard (whence E. 
coward), Sp. Pg. cobarde, O. Sp. cohardo (from coardo as 
juvicio from juicio), Fr. couard. From cauda a tail , so = one 
who holds back, cf. O. Fr. couarder to retire. Or there is \.\ 
reference to a terrified animal with his tail between his legs. 
In heraldry a lion so depicted is called a lion couart. Mahn, 
Unters. p. 76, says that couart was a name used by the old 
fabulists for a hare, cod-ard-o = badly -tailed, short -tailed, 
V. Rom. Gr. 2, 311. 

Codaste — coda. 

Codea, codena — coienna. 

Codeso Sp. from cytisus, corrupted cutesus, 

Codieia — cupido. 

Codillo codo — cuhito. 

Codol Pr. Cat., Parm. Crem. codol, N. Pr. codou a sort of stone; 
from cos cotis. 

Codrione — coda. 

Coello — coniglio. 

Cofano cofaro It., Sp. Pr. cofre, Fr. coffre, E. coffer, also Sp. 
cuehano a large basket, Sp.Pr.^o/?;?, Fr. coffin a small basket, 
E. coffin; from cophinus. Bret, kof = thc^ belly, A. S. co/a 
cave. Sp. cofa, cofe, It. coffa = the scuttle of a mast. The 
same root appears in cavus. 

Cofe eofifre — cofano. 

Cofla — cuffia. 

Coger — cogliere. " 

Cogliere It., Sp. coger, Pg. colher, Pr. Fr. cuiellir (E. coil), Wal. 
culedge to collect; from coUigere. Hence Sp. escoger to select; 
O. Pg. sbst. escol the best of anything, Pr. escolh species. 

Coglione It. dial, cojon, ^\i.cojon, Pr. Ywcoillon testiculus; from 
coleus, Pr. O. Fr. coil, Wal. coiu. Coglione also = coward, 
wretch , Sp. collon, Fr. coy on. 

Cognato It., Sp. cuhado, Pr. ciinhat, Wal. cumnat (fem. cognafa 
&c.) brother-in-law; from cognatus. The Fr. has beau-frere. 

Cogno It. a wine -measure; irora congius. 

Cogollo Sp. the heart of a cabbage &c. ; perhaps a corruption of 
cologlo from cauliculus. 

Cogoma It. a pot; from cucuma, whence also Fr, coquemar. 

Cogote — cocca. 


Cogotz COgul — CllCCO. 

Cogujada Sp.; Cat. cogiiUada a crested lark. It. cappelluta; from 
cogulla a hood, L. cucullus. Hence also cogujon the corner of 
a pillow or bolster. 

CotLue Fr. noise, bustle; perhaps from con and huer to cry? The 
Berrichon has calmer from huer. 

Coi — cheto. 

CoifiPe — cuffia. 

Coillon — coglione. 

Coin Fr. corner, wedge; from cuneus, It. conio &c. Hence cogne'e 
an axe; quignon for cuignon a lunch, whence Sp. quihon, Pg. 
quinhao a share. 

Going — cotogna. 

Cointe — conto. 

Coitar eoehar O. Sp. Pg. Pr., O. Fr. cotter to push, throng, 
press, hasten; sbst. O. Sp. Pr. coita; adj. coitoso hasty. From 
a freq. form coctare (coquere), Cf. 0. Sp. cochado = oocido, 
0. Pg. coito == coctus. 

Coitare O. It., Sp. Pg. Pr. cuidar, O. Fr. cuidier, Fr. cuider to 
care; from cogitare. O. It. cotOj O. Sp. cuida, Sp. Pg. cuidado 
care. Hence It. tracotanza, Fr. outrecuidance presumption, = 

Coite — coUrice. 

Cojon — coglione. 

Col — cavolo. 

Cola It., Sp. aculldf Pg. acold^ Wal. colea adverb of place; from 
eccv! iliac. 

Cola — coda. 

Coleare eorcare eoricare It., Wal. culca, Pr. colgar, Fr. coucher 
to couch, Sp. Pg. colgar to suspend. Cat. to cover with earth, 
lay a shoot (It. eoricare); from collocare, L. L. culcare. 

Coleha — coltrice. 

Colchete — croc. 

Colgar — coleare. 

Colla It., Sp. cola, Fr. colle glue; from Tiolka. 

Collare It. to torture, colla a rope for torturing; prob. from M. 
H. G. quellen, kollen to fetter, punish (G. qudleii); from the 
punishment of mast-heading, collare came to mean "to hoist 

CoUazo Sp. a foster-brother; from collacteus for collactaneus. 

Collon — coglione. 

Collottola It. the nape; from collum. 

Colmena Sp., Vg.colmea a bee-hive. Not, as Diez gives, follow- 
ing the Spanish etymologers, from the Arsih. kuwdra min nahl 
a hive of bees, but, probably, from the Basque koloenwenan 
a bee -hive (koloen a straw -fabric and gwenan bees), spelt 


colmena as if = colmena a well -stocked place (colmar)j v. 
Mahn, Unters. p. 54. 

Colmillo Sp., Pg. colmilho a tusk, fang; from columella, so = 
dens columellaris; Sp. columelares = incisors. Isid. has : denies 
caninos vulgus colomellos vocant. 

Colmo It. Sp.; Fr. comUe heap, summit, vb. colmare &c., to heap 
up. From cumulus and culmen, the latter being found also in 
'^'^.cumhre, Vg.ciime summit, the former in Pg. fo/woro combro, 
L. L. combrus a mound , Pr. comol = It. colmo full ; from cu- 
mulus also come Pr. Yr.encombre, li.ingombro an incumbrance, 
encombrar , encombrer combrer, ingombrare, E. cumber in- 
cumber; Fr. decombres rubbish. It. sgoinbrare to remove. G. 
kummer, E. comber grief, trouble are from the Rom. 

Coiodra Sp. milkpail, wine -vessel. Of micertain origin. Prob- 
ably, a compound with uter, Diez. Perhaps the col- is the 
same as in colostrum. From coiodra comes Sp. colodrillo the 
occiput, cf. testa, 

Colpo It., 0. Sp. colpe, Sp. Pg. golpe, Pr. colp, Fr. coup a blow; 
It. colpire to strike, O. Sp. colpar, Fr. couper to knock off, 
cut off. From colaphus, which in L. L. appears as colapus 

Coltrice It. (for colcitre), O. Sp. colcedra, Pr. cousser cosser a 
mattress; from culcitra; It. coltra coltre (f.), 0. Fr. cotre, Fr. 
coultre from culctra; Sp. Pg. colcha from cnlcta for ctdcita, 
whence also Fr. coidte (E. quilt), coite couette, O. Fr. coute 
keute quieute (for colte &c.), Vv.cota (for colta as mot for »io/^). 
From ctdcita punct a came Fr. coulte - pointe , courte-pointe, by 
corruption, contre - pointe , whence E. counterpane, Culcita is 
from the Celtic, W. cxjlch a circle, cylched bed-clothes. From 
ctdcita would be formed a dim. culcitlnum culctinum, whence 
It. cuscino, Sp. coxin, Fr. coussiyi, E. cushion, G. kiissen. 

Colui — quello, 

Comadreja Sp. a weasel, properly = a little godmother, cf. bele 
and Grimm's Reinhart, p. 224. 

Combagio It. a joining, combagiare to join = combaciare (bacio) 
to kiss, to jom, perhaps with some reference to L. compages^ 

Comble — colmo, 

Combleza — bercer. 

Combo Sp., Pr. comb bent, crooked; Sp. comba a bending, Pr. 
comba, O. Fr. combe a deep valley (cf. Alta- comba y Comba- 
longa, Como), Piedm. conba, Com. gomba; Sp. combar to bend, 
Gen. ingumbdse. From W. cwm, E. combe a valley. There 
is no necessity to have recourse, with Diez, to the L. con- 

Combrer — colmo, 

Combro — colmo. 


Come It., Sp. Pg. O.It. como, Sic. comu, O.Sp. O.Pg. Pr. O.Fr. 
com cum, Wal. cum, Fr. comme, Pr. coma; from L. quomodo. 
Hence Pr. cotnent, Fr. comment, Sard, comenti; also Pr. co552, 
COW552 from quomodo sic. The Pr.has also t?o for co7n as L. ^wo 
for quomodo. 

Comer Sp. Pg. to eat; from comedere. 

Cominciare It., Sp. Pr. comenzar, Pg. comecar, Fr. commencer, 
E. commence; from cum and initiare (Mil. inza); O.Sp. compen- 
zar compezar. Sard, incumbenzai from in-cum-initiare ; Sp. ^m- 
pezar from in -initiare, Wal. has incepe from incipere, Rh. 

Comment ■ — (^o/^if*. 
Comoro — colmo. 

Compagno It., Sp. compaho, Pr. 0. Fr. compaing, Gr. companion; 
compagnia &c. company; compagnare accompagnare &c. From 
the L. L. companium, from cw^ and ^flr/?25 on the analogy of 
the O.H. ( gileip from ^^ = cm;;? and m«2ro meat, /6'?/? 
bread. ThusDiez, who rejects the derivation from co;w-/?«^^;iW5 
(pagus), there being, he alleges, no instance of a similar change 
of accent in derivatives from words in -anus. But the change 
of accent may have arisen from the growing usage oi pagano 
in another sense, the commoner word naturally taking the 
shorter form. The g is found in the oldest L. L. ubi habuisti 
mansionem hdc node compagn, cf . O. Fr. compaing. Moreover, 
the meaning of compagnia = confederation, points rather to 
pagus than to panis. The derivation from pagus would be 
further supported by the word semipaganus in Persius , if, as 
has been suggested, the meaning be not "half a clown ^^, but 
"a poor half-brother of the guild '^ (Prof. Coningtonj. 

Compasso It. Pg., Sp. Fr. Vr.cofnpas, ^.compass; compassare &c. 
to compass. I'rom cum and passus a step, Pr. O. Fr. compas 
= equal step, compasser to keep equal step, so in Sp. compas 
=:time in music. Others der. from the W.cwmp circle, czvm- 
pas compass. 

Complot Fr. a plot, comploter to plot. From complicitum com- 
plidtum = complicatio. Complot for comploit, as f rotter for 

Compote Fr. preserved fruit; for compote j It. composta = com- 

Comprare — par are. 

Compter — contare. 

Comte — conte. 

Concerto It., Sp. concierto, Fr. E. concert agreement; vb. con- 
certare to agree. From L. concertare, or, better, from con- 
sertare; It. conserto = agreement, consertare to concert, agree. 


Conserto afterwards borrowed the c of concenio, with which it 
was confounded from the similarity both in sense and sound. 

Coneiare It. acconciare (Sp. aconchar) to attire ; trim, adj. and 
subst. concio acconcio J Wal. concin. A participial -verb from 
comtus comtiare, cf. cacciare (captus), succiare (suctus). 

Concierge Fr., Pic. conchierge a jailor. 

Condore It., Sp. Fr. E. condor; a South American word. 

Confortare It., Sp. conliortavj Pr. conortar (cf. preon from pro- 
fundus), Fr. conforter, E, comfort to strengthen; "an angel 
from Heaven comforting him (Jvi6%v(x)vy^ -^ from L. L, con- 

Conge Fr.; Vv.comjat leave; from commeatus; Fr. congedier from 
It. congedOj which from the 0. Fr. conget, 

Congedier, eongedo — conge. 

Congegnare It. to join; from concinnare, influenced by It. ^d'^i/o^ 
Pr. genh art. 

Congoxa — angoscia, 

Conheeer Sp. = L. cognoscere. 

Conhortar — confortare, 

Coniglio It., Sp. conejo, Pg. coelho, Pr. O. Fr. conilj E. coney; 
from cuniculus; Fr. (with change of suffix) conninj connine; 
Fr. vb. conniller to have recourse to subterfuges. 

Connetable — contestahile. 

Conoechia It., Fr. quenomile a distaff; Li.h.conucula for colucula 
from colus, O. H. G. kuncla, G. kunkel, 

Conquidere — chiedere. 

Consoude Fr., Sp. consuelda a plant; from consolida. 

Contadino contado — conte. 

Contare It., Sp. contar, Pr. comtar to county Fr. compter, also to 
,tell, narrate, Fr. conter; from computare, cf. the two senses of 
O. H. G. zeljan and E. tell. It. computo, conto &c. = L. com- 
putus (Firm. Maternus). 

Conte It., Sp. Pg. conde, Pr. corns ^ 0. Fr. quens, Pr. and O.Fr. 
accus. comte, Fr. comte, E. count; from comes = a companion 
of the prince; hence contado &c., county, contadino a country- 

Contestabile eonnestabile It., Sp. condestdble, Fr. connetable, E. 
constable; orig. = Master of the Horse, from comes stabuli, 
then = commander of the army or of a fortress (constable of 
the Tower &c.), then restricted to mean a petty officer of the 

Contigia — conto. 

Contir O. Sp. to happen, cuntir acuntir, contescer, Sp. Pg. aeon- 
tecer; from contingere. 

Conto It.^ O. Fr. cointe acquainted, O.Fr. Pr. cointe coinde neat, 
pretty, Ya. quaint; from co^mVw5 known, intimate, agreeable j 


cf. M. H. G. maere known and agreeable. Hence Pr. coindar 
acoindar, YY.accointer, ^.acquaint = lu.adcognitare, Vwacoin- 
dansa, O. Fr. accointance , E. acquaintance. In L. L. we find 
cogniter cognite benigne humane. From comtus comes It. con- 
tigia ornament^ v. conciare. 

Contrada It. Pr., Yx.contreCj Ya. country; properly = that which 
lies over against one, from contra with suffix -ata^ cf. G. 
gegend from gegen. Pr. has also encontrada from encontrar. 

Contreindre — etreindre, 

Contrebande — hando, 

Contrecarrer — cara, 

Controle — rotolo. 

Convier — convitare. 

Convine Fr. behaviour, It. convegno, Sp. convenio convention, E. 

j, covin a deceitful agreement; from convenire; for the loss of 

i i'the n in E. cf. covenant, O. E. covent (for convent). 

Convitare It., Sp. Pg. Vr. convidar, Fr. convier to invite; convito, 
Sp. convite, Pr. convit, O. Fr. convi invitation, feast. From 
invitare, the con being taken from convivium. 

Convoiter — cupido. 

Convojare — voyer. 

Convoyer — voyer. 

Copeaii Fr. a chip or splint; from coupe a slice (couper); or is 
copeau the same word as O.Fx.cospel coispel (cuspis?) a thorn? 

Copete copo • — coppa. 

Coppa It.^ Sp. Pg. Pr. copa, Fr. coupe, Wal. cofe, E. cup; from 
cuppa a form of cupa, L. L. cuppa = cup. Hence also Sp. Pg.^ 
Pr. cuha, Fr. cuve, O. H. G. kupa, E. coop. Hence Pr. cuhel 
a tub; Sp. cubilete, Pr. Fr. gohelet, L. L. gubellus a cup; also 
It. E. cupola, Fr. coupole, coupe. The same root is found in 
O.Yr.cope, Pic. coupet couplet a hill, W. cop copa, E. cop, Du. 
kop, G. kopf and kuppe head, top; Fr. coupeauio^j Sp. Pg. 
copa copo bunch, copete top, tuft_, v. toppo. 

Copparosa It., Sp. Pg. caparrosa, Fr. couperose, E. copperas; 
from cupri rosa = %dky,avd'ov. 

Coppia It., Fr. E. couple; from copula; hence also O. It. cohhola, 
Pr. cohla, Fr. E. couplet. The It. scoppiare to uncouple is to 
be distinguished from scoppiare from schioppo (q. v.). 

Coq Fr. = A. S. cocc, E. cock, Wal. cocos, Eh. cot; so called 
from its cry, cf. vb. coqueriquer, coqueliner, Du. kokelen. From 
coq come coquet, E. cocket swaggering (from the strutting 
pride of a cock); cocarde, E. cockade. Wall, cockad prop. = 
the comb of a cock; 0. Fr. cocart coquart vain. For coq the 
Pr. and O. Fr. have the Eom. gal, jal. Norm. Berr. jau, jollet 
Ijor.JauJalle, Champ, gati. 

Coque — cocca. 



Coquelicot Fr., E. cockle wild poppy. From coccum xoxxog the 
kermes-insect, coque de kermes. By a false association coque- 
licot has taken the same form as the word for the cry of a 
cock = coquelicot, coquericoty the red comb of the fowl being 
the point of connexion. Cf. Occ. cacaracd = crow of a cock 
and poppy, Pic. cocriacot = cock and poppy. 

Coquemar — cogoma. 

Coquet — coq. 

Coquille — cochiglia. 

Coquin Fr. a beggar, rogue; according to some, a dim. of ro- 
quuSf prop. = kitchen -boy, scullion. Others make it from 
O. N. kok throat, koka to swallow. The best way is make it 
a dim. of O. Fr. cocs, queux a cook, for L. coquinus would 
give cuisin. 

Coquina - — cochiglia. 

Cor — or a (2). 

Coraggio It., Sp. corage, Fr. E. courage; from cor the heart, 
coraticum, cf. omaggio &c. from hominaticum (homo). 

Corazza It., Sp. coraza, Pr. coirassa, Fr. cuirasse, E. cuirass; 
from coriacea (corium), cf. L. lorica from lorum. 

Corbaeho Sp., Fr. cravache a scourge, prop, the Nubian lash of 
rhinoceros hide, G. karbatsche; borrowed from the Turk. 
kyrbdch, Russ. korhatsch. 

Corbata — cravata. 

Corbeille Fr. a basket; from corhicula (Palladius). 

Corbeta Sp., Vg.corveta, Fr. Ft. corvette; from corblta a merchant- 
vessel, with a Romanised ending. 

Coreare — colcare. 

Gorchete — croc. 

Coreho Sp. cork-tree, corcha a cork - receptacle ; corc/^e sandal ; 
from cortex, as pancho from pantex. 

Corcovar Sp. Pg. to bend, corcova a hmnp; from con-curvare, 
cf. Sp. cofxusir for concusir. Pg. corcos = corcovado hump- 

Cordero Sp., Pg. cordeiro lamb ; from agnus chordus (Varro and 

Cordoglio It., ^T^.cordojo, Vr.cordolh, Rh. corfl^o// grief ; from 
cordolium (Plautus and Apuleius). Dolium = Fr. deuil, It. 

Cordonnier — cordovano. 

Cordovano It., Sp. cordoban, Pr. cordoan, Fr. cordouan, E. cor- 
dovan, cordwain = Cordovan leather, Ar. kortoba?ii. An older 
form was cordovesus, cordebisus, from L. cordubensis, Sp. cor- 
dobes. Hence cordovaniere , O. Fr. cordoannier, Fr. cordonnier 
a shoemaker, E. cordivainer. 


Coreggia It., Sp. Pg. correa, Vv.correja, Yr.courroie, Wal. cwrm 
a strap; from corrigia. Hence It. scoreggia, E. scourge. 

Corgere It. in accorgersi (Rli. ancor seller) to perceive, and scor- 
gere (1) to perceive '(2) to escort. Accorgere =^ ad-corrigere 
expressed orig. the correction of an error. Scorgere =. excor- 
rigere got its sense of escorting, leading from that of ruling 
and guiding. From it is derived scortare, scorta, Fr. escorler 
escorte, E. escort, Sp. escoltar escolta. 

Corine — corruccio. 

Corisear Pg. to lighten, corisco lightning, Sic. surruscu, from 

Corlieu O. Fr. Pr. runner; from corre to run, lieu light. Hence 
Fr. courlieu, courlis, E. curlew. 

Corma Sp. fetter; from ^oq^o^ a block? 

Cormano — hermano. 

Corme Fr. Pg. a fruit, O. E. corme; from cornum? 

Cormoran Fr., E. cormorant; from corb ■==■ corvus a crow, and 
Bret, mor-vran (mor sea, bran crow), thus a pleonasm like 
loupgarou. The Pr. is corp-mart. 

Cornamusa It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Yr.cornemuse a bag-pipe; from cornu 
Musw. Pr. coma, O.Yv.corne = a horn (musical instrument), 
Pr. musa, O. Fr. muse = pipe. 

Cornard Fr. cuckold, = It. becco cornuto or becco, Sp. cabron. 
A derisive expression, a cornut or bestia cornuda (Pr.) being 
taken as synonymous with a fool. Cf. Pr. soffren. It. bozzo 
(prop. = a rough stone), Fr. soi all used in the same sense as 

Cornia corniolo It., Sp. cornizola, Pg. cornisolo, Fr. cornouille, 
Wal. coarne, cornel plum; It. cornio corniolo, Sp. cornejo cor- 
nizo, Pg. corniso, Fr. cornouiller, cornel -tree] from cornum, 
cornus, or from corneus corneolus (cf. s. ciriegio), corniculum 
(cornejo) cornuculum (cornouille). 

Cornice It., Sp. cornisa, Fr. corniche, Wall, coroniss, Gr. carnies, 
E. cornice; from coronis (TcoQcovig) a cornice, in Rom. con- 
founded with comix, cf. xoQcSvri = curve, crown, and crow. 

Corniola It., Sp. comerina, Pg. Pr. cornelina, Fr. comaline, E. 
cornelian; from cornu, because in colour it resembles the horny 
nail of the finger, whence also its Gk. name ovv^^ v. nac- 

Corral — corro. 

Corredo — redo. 

Corro Sp. a ring; from currere; correr toros to exhibit a bull- 
fight; hence Sp. corral a court, yard &c. 

Corroyer — redo. 

Corruccio It., Vr.corrotz, Fr.coi^rrowo: anger; ior colleruccio &c., 



from cholera gall. Hence It. corucciare crucciare, Pr. cor- 

rossar, Fr. courroucer. O. Fr. corine as if cholerina. 
Corsare eorsale It., Sp. corsario cosario, Pr. corsari, Fr. corsaire, 

E. corsair; from cursus, whence Sp. cor^a corso a course or 

cruise at sea. 
Corset Fr. E. bodice ; from Fr. cors = corpus^ cf . cors-age. The 

It. has corpetto, and also, from the Fr., corsetto. 
Corte It. Sp. Pg., Pr. cort , Fr. cour, Wal. cwr^e, E. court; from 

L. c^ors choriis a cattle- yard. From cor/^ &c. in the sense of 

a prince's court, come It. cortese, Sp. cortes, Fr. courtois, E. 

courteous (= cortensis); Sp. cortesano, Fr. courtisan, It. cor- 

tigiano, L. L. cortisanus; It. corteggiare , Sp. cortejar, Pr. ^or- 

/^^■«r cortezar, Fr courtiser to court; It. corteggio, Fr. cortege. 
Corteccia It., Sp. corteza, Pg. cortica rind, bark, from corticea 

(cortex); It. scorticare, Pr. escorgar, N. Pr. escourtegd, Fr. 

ecorclier, Sp. Pg. escorchar to peel, flay, L. L. escorticare. 
Cortege — cor/^. 
Corteza — corteccia. 
Cortina It. Sp. Pr., Fr. c our tine , Wal. c or tine , E. curtain, from 

<?/?or5 as aulmum from «M/flf. L. L. cortina = a little court, a 

hanging, a covering (L. cortina). 
Cortir — curtir. 
Corvee Fr. soccage, L.L. corvada. From corrogata like enterver 

from interrogare, Rouchi courowee, Lang, courroe. The orig. 

meaning was ^^ summons^', cf. O. Fr. roi'er ^= rogare) to 

Corveta — corheta. 

Corvetta It., Sp. corveta, Fr. courhette, E. curvet; from curvus. 
Corvette — corheta. 

Corzo eorza Sp. Pg. a roe; from Jd()| Jo^;«og a form of ^o^| 
do();cdg, or from caprea caurea corea corja (cf. granea granjd) 
corza, cf. ar cilia. 

Cosa It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. chose; from causa, in L. L. = a thing; 
the orig. L. form is preserved in the orig. sense, It. Sp. causa, 
Vg.cousa, Fr. cause, Wal, cause, the Pr. causa having both 
meanings. The same connexion of meanings is found in the 
G. sache, and the N. Gk. Ttgdy^a. From causari come It. cu- 
sare to assert, Pr. chaubar, O.Fr. choser to dispute, Fr. causer 
to talk is from O. H. G. choson , G. kosen. 

Coscar — cocar, 


Coscia It., Pg. coxa, Pr. cueissa, Fr. cuisse, Wal. coapse the 
thigh; from coxa the hip. Sp. coxo lame, Isid. claudus coxus. 
Hence Sp. quixote, Val. cuixot armour for the thigh, Fr. 

Coseojo Sp., Cat. coscoly the berry of the scarlet -oak, L. cuscu- 


Hum (Pliny). The tree is called coscoja, Cat. coscolya, Basq. 
coscoUa cusculla. An old Spanish word. 

Cosecha Sp. harvest; from consecare consectus. O. Sp. cogecha 
■•= Pg. colheita, L. collect a. 

Cosensa — cuire. 

Coser — cucire. 

Cosi It. = O. Sp. and, O. Fr. ainsinc (Burg, ansin, Pic. ensin), 
Fr. ainsij Sp. asi, Pg. assim, Pr. aissi, Wal. asa. From ceque 
sic, qu = cu, whence cusi cost, Sic. accussi. As the Sp. aun 
from adhuc , nin from nee, sin from 52C, so an for «c or ^c, 
whence ansi, asi. The Pr. has acsi for «/55/, Eomagn. acse, 
Brescian icsi, Lomb. inset for eosu 

Coso Sp. a corso, place for a bull -fight; for corso from cursus, 
It. corso. Hence Sp. co5^r war-horse = It. corsiere, ^.courser, 
Sp. acosar to pursue. 

Gospel — eopean. 

Cosse ecosse Fr. (f.) a pod, husk or shell, ecosser to shell &c. 
From Gr. schote pod (Du. schosse) = W. cod cwd a bag, Bret. 
kod, E. cod. Cosse would be from ecosse. 

Cesser — cozzare. 

Cossi — come. 

Cosson Fr. a weevil; from cossus, Bret, kos, 

Costa It. Pg. Pr., Sp. cuesia, Fr. cote fE. coast), rib, side, coast; 
fromcos^^ a rib; nence It. costato, op. costado, Fr. co^e' side; 
It. costerella a little hill , Fr. coteau for coteau a declivity, side 
of a hill; It. accostare, Sp. acostar, Fr. accoster to approach 
(cf. C05^« =juxta), Sp. acostar to incline, lay down, E. accost, 

Costa, eosti, costinci adverbs; from cccm' ?5^«c, eccw' istic, eccv! 

Costra Sp. crust; from crusta. 
Cestui — questo. 
Costuma It. Pr., Sp. costume, Fr. coutume (all fem.V It. Pg. 

costume, Sp. costumbre, Pr. Cat. costum, Fr. costume (all masc, 

Cat. also fem.), E. custom (and in der. sense costume); from 

consuetudin costudn, through the medium oi 2i ioYm.consuetumen, 

ume being a Kom. termination for expressing qualities, cf. It. 

asprume, Pg. ciume, Vv. frescum, and cf. from mansuetudin Sp. 

mansedumbre, Pg. mansedume, also Pg. mansidao, Pr. mansueza. 
• The masc. costume is the earlier form, the fem. being formed 

from a neut. plur. costumina, 0. Pr. cosdumna. 
Cota eotar cotejar — quota, 
Cota — coltrice, 
Cotale It., Wal. cutare a pronoun, from ceque-talisl Hence also 

Sp. atal = Pr. aital, O.Fr. «m/e/ itel, Norm, entel, 0. It. aitale, 

V. s. cosi. 


Cotanto It. from ceque tantus? O. Sp. atanto, Pr. aitant, O. Fr. 

itantf V. cotale. 
Cotar — cote. 
Cote Pg. in a cote de cote adv. = daily; from quotidie, whence 

also cotio every-day, common , Sp. dia de cutio a work-day. 
Cote coter coterie — quota. 
Cote cote coteau — costa. 
Cotenna codenna It., Pr. codena, Fr. couenne skin, Sp. codena 

thick cloth. Couenne is prob. for couaine, O. Fr. codaine 

(whence codena), from cutaneus. Pg. ^o<?^« rind may be from 

cutica, whence It. co^/crt (Parm. codga, Ven. coega, Gen. 

quigd), and cuticagna. 
Cotesto cotestui It. from e<7co^2 ^5^0, L. eccxi tihi iste. 
Cotillon — cotta. 
Coto Sp. an enclosure, boundary, Pg. couto asylum, sanctuary. 

From L. cautum an order, mandate (so in O. Sp.), whence = 

limit &c., L. L. infra cautos, infra cautum, lapis cauti. 
Cotogna It., Pr. codoing, Fr. coing, E. quince, Wa\. gutuie; from 

cydonia, xvdcSvLOv^ L. L. cotonium cottanuniy so called from 

Cydon in Crete. 
Cotone It., Fr. coton, Sp. algodon, E. cotton; from Ar. qo^ton, al- 

qoHon. Sp. algodon and alcoton also = wadding, whence Pr. 

alcoto, O. Fr. auqueton, Fr. hoqueton. 
Cotovello — cubito. 
Cotovia Pg. lark , whence Sp. totovia tufted lark , It. tottovilla, 

Fr. cochevis; from Bret, kodioch. V. Mahn, Unters. p. 25. 
Cotta It., Sp. Pg. Pr. cota, 0. Fr. cote, Fr. cotte, E. coat, cotte 

de maille a coat of mail, Pr. cot (m.); L. L. cotta cottus; hence 

F'r. cotillon cotteron &c. Cottus cotta = a coarse woollen mat, 

a monk's tunic, from Gr. kotze a shaggy covering, overcoat, 

E. cot = a matted lock, a fleece of wool. Others derive cotta 

&c. from E. cote, cot a hut, a covering. 
Couard — codardo. 
Couchant — ponente. 
Coucher — colcare. 
Coucou — cueco. 
Coude — cubito. 
Coudel — capitello. 
Coudre — cucire. 
Coudre Fr. hazel; from corylus, colrus, coldrus, Com. coler, It, 

Couenne — cotenna. 
Couette — coltrice. 
Couire 0. Fr. cuevre cuivre , E. quiver; from 0. H. G. kohhar, 

A. S. cocer, G. kocher. 
Colder Fr, to trickle, flow; from colare. Hence adj. coidis, Pr. 


coladis, as if colatichis, sbst. coulisse a sliding - door , E. cullis 

a groove or channel, O. Fr. coleice = E. portcullis. 
Coulis coiilisse — couler. 
Coup ■ — colpo. 
Coupe eoupeau — coppa. 
Couper — colpo. 
Couple — coppia. 
Cour — corte. 
Courage ■ — coraggio. 
Courbette — corvetta. 
Courge — cucuzza. 
Courroie — coreggia. 
Courroux — corruccio. 
Courtier — cura. 
Courtine ■ — cortina. 
Courtisan courtoie — corte. 
Cous — cucco. 
Cousin • — cugino. 

Cousin Fr. a gnat; dim. of culex, as if culicinus. 
Coussin — coltrice. 
Couter Fr. E. cost, sbst. coiit cost; from constare, to stand one 

in, It. costare &c. Hence 0. Fr. coste a drug, M. H. G. koste 

victuals, cf. Gr. speise prop. = expense; O. Fr. Wall, costenge 

-■= expense. 
Coutre Fr. a plough - share ; from culler, It. coltro ; Com. coltra 

contra a plough. 
Coutume — costuma. 
Couve — cavolo. 
Couver — covare. 
Covare It., Pr. coar, Fr. couver to brood; from cubare (= incu- 

hare). It. covo cova a den, lair, Sp. cueva a cave, from cubare 

in its proper sense. 
Covone It. a sheaf, Lomb. cov, Piedm. clieuv, as much as can be 

held in the hollow of the hand, from cavus, cf. chiovo from 

Coxa — coscia. 
Coxin — coltrice. 
Coyon — coglione. 
Cozzare It., Fr. cosser to butt; sbst. cozzo. A participial verb, 

from coctus = coictus (co-icere), cf. dirizzare, cacciare &c., 

Rom. Gr. 2, 323. It. cozzare con uno = co-icere cum aliquo. 
Cozzone It., Pr. O.Cat. cusso, O.Fr. cosson, Wal.goson a factor, 

dealer, espec. in horses, a groom. Yvom. cocio (Plautus and 

Gellius), coctio (Festus). Hence It. scozzone. 
Crae Fr., vb. craquer; an onomatop., cf. O.H.G.Ar«c, G. krach, 

'Ei.crack, Gael.cmc. Fv.craquelin, Du. krakeling, IE,, crackling. 


Craeher — racher. _ 

Craie Fr. chalk; from creta, Sp. greda &c. -^ 

Craindre Fr. to fear, 0. Fr. cremhre , cremir, cremmoir, pret. 
creins cremi cremu^ part, craint cremi cremu. Prob. from tre- 
mere (cr = tr), cf. empreindre from imprimere, geindre from 
gemere, raembre (cf. crembre) from redimere. 

Cramoisi — carmesino. 

Crampe crampon — grampa. 

Cran Fr. a slit , a notch , Rouchi crener to notch ; hence Fr. cre- 
neau, O.Fr. Y'c. camel an embrasure of a battlement, a crenelle 
(whence crenellated) , Fr. carneler to notch, sbst. charniere a 
joint. From L. crena (Pliny), Rh. crenna, Lomb. crena, Pied. 
cran, cf. carnero, Cf. also Du. karnj vb. karnen, Bavar. sbst, 
krinneny v. Fr. came a corner. 

Crane — grancMo. 

Cranequin — crone. 

Crapaud Fr., Pr. crapaut grapaxit, Cat. gripau, Lim. gropal (for 
grapat) a toad. From E. creep grope, A. S. creopan, Du. krui- 
pen, O.H. G.A'n/o/z. Or from ^r«/)^=scales on the skin, so = 
the blotched animal, cf. Pr. graissant from graissa = Fr. 
graisse, crasse. 

Craquer — crac. 

Crau Pr. the name of a stony district near Aries , whence adj . 
crauc stony, Norm, crau sl peculiar sort of stone. The word 
is Celtic: W.craig, Bret crag, GsieX.creag crag, IE,, crag. Crau 
==■ crag, as fau = fag, esclau = sclag. 

Cravaehe — corhacho. 

Cravanter — crehantar. 

Cravatta It., Sp. corhata, Fr. cravate, E. cravat; introduced into 
France in the first half of the 17^'^ century. It was so called 
from being worn by the Cravats (Fr. Cravates), or Croatian 
soldiers. The It. is croatta, Rouchi croate croyatte. 

Creanter O. Fr. to assure, creant bail; from credentare a form 
from credens'^ other forms are craanter cranter, graanter gran- 
ter, whence E. grant. 

Crebantar Pr., O.Fr. cravanter, Sp. Pg. qiiehrantar to break; 
from crepare (crepans). 

Creche — greppia. 

Crema It. Sp. Pr., Fr. creme, E. cream, L. L. crema n. (Venant. 
Fort.) ; from L. cremor. AVedg. mentions the cognate words 
kraumr kraum in Icelandic (= It. cremor e, crema), A. S. ream, 
E. rime, grime, Gr. ralim. The accent in Fr. prop, belongs to 
cresme, chrism, iqCg^u, It. cresima. 

Cremaillon cremaHlere Fr., whence ^^.gi^amallera a pot-hanger. 
Burg, cramail, Wall, cramd. Champ, cramille, L. L. crama- 
culus, cramacuta. From G. h^am an iron hook, v. grampa. 


Crembre, cremir — craindre, 

Cremisi — carmesino. 

Crena querena Pg. a keel; from carina ^ It. Sp. carena, Fr. ca- 

rene; hence carenare , carener, E. careen. 
Creneha erenehe Sp.^ Pg. crencha, Cat. clenxa a parting in the 

hair; from criniculus, or, better, from crenicula (crena a slit). 
Creneau — cran. 
Crepare It., Pr. crebar, Fr. crever, Sp. Pg. quebrar to break; 

from crepare. 
Crepe Fr., E. crape (O.Fr. crespe culled, frizzled); from crispus. 
Crepore It. animosity, rancour; prop, of anger suppressed and 

eager to break out (crepare). 
Crescionelt., Yr.cressony Csit. crexen; formed as ii {rora cresciare 

fa celeritate crescendi), but really derived from another source, 

A. S. caersCj Du. kersse, Sw. crasse, E. cars, cress, G. kresse. 
Cresson — crescione. 
Creuset creusequin — crisuelo. 
Creux Fr. hollow, sbst. creux, Pr. cros a hole, vb. creuser^ Com. 

croeuss. From corrosus. 
Graver — crepare. 
Crevette Fr. a small crab; from carahus, or G. krdbhe, E. crab, 

whence also Rouchi crape. Chevrette a shrimp is from cJievre, 

cf. G. bockle. 
Criado Sp. Pg. a servant (It. creato); from criar to breed, bring 

up, from creare, so == prop, one brought up in the house 

Crier — gridare. 
Criquet Fr., N. Pr. cricot, E. cricket, Pic. crequeillon; krekkel a 

cricket, W.cricell. An onomatop., cf. Yr.criquer, Du.krieken, 

E. creak, Gk. xqlkelv, jcql^slv. 
Criquet Fr. a small horse; from G. kracke; E. cricket prop. = 

a trestle , then = a wicket. 
Cris Pg. an eclipse; from eclipsis. 
Crisuelo Sp. a lamp, crisuela a lamp -pan; from Basque criselua 

cruselua. Hence also crisol a crucible. Diez. But the Basque 

is more probably from the Sp., which is the same as the Fr. 

creuseul , croisel a lamp, connected with G. krus, E. cruse, Fr. 

cruche (q. v.), Du. kruyse, whence also Fr. creuset croiset a 

crucible or cruet, Fr. creusequin, E. cruskin, Ir. criusgin; L. L. 

crucibolum = Fr. creusseul, croissol. V. Wedgwood, s. crock. 
Croc Fr. Pr. Rh. a hook, whence crochet crochu accrocher; O. N. 

krokr, Dan. krog, E. crook, Du. krooke, W. crog; hence L. L. 

incrocare, Fr. encrouer, Y. encroach. From crochet comes Sp. 

corchetCyVg. colchete. 
Croccliiare It. to clatter ,'"from crotalum (jCQOtdXov), cchi = tl as 

in vecchio. Sp. crotorar to cry like a crane is the same word. 


Croceia grueeia It., E. crutch. It. cruccia a spade, O. Sp. croza, 
Pr. crossa, Fr.crosse, 'E. cross, crozier. From crux, \Csjq pancia 
pansa pause from paniex, or perhaps better from adj. crucea, 
whence also O. H. G. krukja. 

Crochet — croc. 

Crogiare It. to roast. Connected with O. H. G. chroste, roast, 
cf. agio asio, 

Croi — crojo, 

Croissir eroistre — cruxir. 

Crojo 0. It. stiff, rude, coarse, Pr. croi. From crud-i-us a by- 
form of crudus, as hajo from hadius. For other instances of 
similarly lengthened adjectives, cf. ^. fujo. The long vowel 
is shortened by its position crudjus, and passes into o. 

CroUare It., Pr. crollar crotlar to shake, Fr. cr outer to fall to 
ruin, O. Fr. croler crodler crosier. The orig. form is crotlar 
which is from co-rotulare, as rotlar from rotulare. So Fr. 
crouler agrees with router, and we see the original sense in 
the phrase crouler un Mtimetit. 

Crone Fr. (m.) a crane (instrument); from Du. krdn, E. crane 
= G. kranich a crane (bird), cf. Fr. grue, Gk. ysQavog. 
Hence O. Fr. cranequin (for crossbows). Wall, crenekin a 

Croseiare It., Sp. cruxir, Pr. O.Fr. croissir, Wal. croht to gnash. 
The Goth, has kriustan to gnash, e. g. Mark 9, 18: kriustith 
tunthuns = Sp. cruxe los dientes, Pr. cruis las dens = tgi^si 
tovg odovtag. The Rom. forms would not come directly from 
this, but from a form kraustjan (cf. kiusan kaitsjan Fr. choisir), 
stj = It. sci as in angustia = angoscia. We find also in the 
2"^^ conj. Cat. croxer, Rh. scruscer (O. Fr. eroistre), 

Cro,torar — crocchiare. 

Crotte Fr., Pr. crota mud, dung of sheep, goats &c. Prob. from 
the L. G. Swed. klot, G. kloss, E. clod, clot, 

Crouler — crollare. 

Croupe croupir — groppo. 

Cruecia — croceia. 

Cruceiare — corruccio. 

Cruehe Fr., 0. Fr. cruye, Gasc. cruga, Pr. crugo, Fr. cruchon, 
E. cruse (v. s. crisuelo); from W. crivc a pail, cf. O. H. G. 
cruoc crog , O. Fris. krocha, A. S. crocca, E. crock (whence 
crockery), G. krug, Rh. criiog liruog. 

Cruna It. eye of a needle. From corona, as cruceiare from cor- 
rucciare; for u from o, cf. giuso, tutto. 

Crusca It. bran. O. H. G. cruse = furfur, Sw. kriisch, Swab. 
grusche, Fr. gruis, Piedm. grus. N. Pr. vb. crusca = to crush. 

Cruxir — croseiare. 

Cuajar — quagliare. 


Cubebe It., Sp. Pg. Pr. cuheha, Fr. cuhehe, E. cubeh the name of 
an Indian plant which yields a sort of pepper; Ar. kdbdbat, 

Cubito It.; Sp. codo, O. Sp. cdbdo, Pg. covado coto, Fr. coide 
code, Fr. coude, Wal. cot elbow; from cubitus. It. has also 
gomito gombito, Rh. cumbet. Hence Pg. cotovello = coto by- 
corruption from covetello? Sp. codillo knee of a horse &c., Sp. 
recodo an angle, cf. ayncav. 

Cucar — cucco. 

Cuceagna It., Sp. cucana, Fr. cocagne, O. E. cokaygne, E. 
cockney (cokenay coknay), Utopia or land of plenty, thence 
applied in E. to one brought up in such a land, pampered. 
The orig. meaning was Land of Cakes, from Cat. coca, Rh. 
caeca, Langued. coco, Pic. couque a cake, from coquere as 
torca from torquere. Wall, cocogne = Easter eggs. For a full 
discussion of the w^ord, v. Notes and Queries, Vol. 4. Wedg. 
makes the orig. sense oi cockney = rocked, dandled, ci.coque- 
liner, E. cockle cocker, 

Cucchiajo It., O. Pg. colhar, Pr. culhier. It. fem. cucchiaja, Sp. 
cucchara, Pg. colher, Fr. cuiller cuillere a spoon; from cochle- 
ar lum cochlearia. The Wal. is lingure = L. lingula. 

Cucoio It., Sic. guzzu (also guzza cuccid). Cat. Pr. gos, Fem. 
gossa, Sp. gozque a cur, Wall, go a dog. Cf. Sic. guzzu. It. 
cucciolo small, Sp. cuco, perhaps from It. cucco nestling, 
fondling. But the word is found in Illyr. kutze, Hung, kuszi 
a little dog. 

Cucco It., Ven. cuco, Romag. cocch &c., Pg. cuco a cuckoo; from 
the Old Latin cucus (Plautus); It. cuculo, Pr. cogul, Fr. cocu 
coucou, E. cuckoo, from cuculus, Sp. cuquillo, cucUllo. In the 
derived sense of the Fr. cocu we have Pr. cogotz (cf. Cat. 
cucut) coutz, O. Fr. cous, E. cuckold. Sp. cucar to scoff is 
from the form cucus, 

Cuchara — cucchiajo. 

Cucina It., Sp. cocina, Fr. cuisine, Wal. cocne, also O. H. G. 
kuchina, A. S. cycene, E. kitchen, 0. Fr. cugami, W. cegin; 
from L. coquina for culina. Vb. cucinare &c., from coquinare 

Cucire It. (prop, cuscire, sc = s), Sp. C05^r cw5/r, Pg. coser, Pr. 
co5^r ^w5/r, Fr. coudre, Wal. coase to sew; from consuerCy L.L. 
cusire. Hence It. costura (for consutura), Fr. couture, whence 
accoutrer, E. accoutre. It. sdrucire sdruscire to unsew, is from 
resuere with privative 5 and euphonic <?, sdrecire, then, on 
analogy of cuscire, sdruscire, 

Cucuzza It. (1) a gourd (2) a head; corrupted from cucurbita. 
It. zucca, whence Pr. 0. Fr. sue, Pr. zuquet head, is prob. 
corrupted from cuzza for cucuzza. The N, Pr, is tuca. From 


cucurhita comes also Fr. gourde, gougourde, N. Pr. cougourdo, 

E. gourd, Fr. courge, in the Jura coudre. 
Cudir Sp. Pg. in acudir to help, recudir to return, assist. From 

recutere to strike back, in reflexive sense, to sprink back, 

comes recudir (cf. sacudir from succutere, precudir from percu- 

tere); acudir was formed on the analogy of recudir. 
Cuebano — cofano. 
Cueillir — cogliere. 
Cuento — contare. 
Cuerdo Sp., Pg. cordo prudent; for cordado from cordaius (En- 

nius , Plautus &c.) ; cf . pago from pagado, manso = mansueius. 
Cuesco Sp., V^.cosco kernel, coscorron coscorrao a bruise, a blow 

on the head, a crust (cf. Fr. grignon from granum). Basq. 

coskha = butting (of a ram). 
Cueva — covare. 
Cueza — cocca (2). 
Cuffia seuffia It., Sp. cofia escofia, Pg. coif a, 0. Pg. escoifa, Fr. 

coiffe (coeffe), Wal. E. coif, Du. coi/ie. From O. H. G. kuppa 

kuppha kuphja = mitra, E. cap (cf. krippa kripjci) came L. L. 

cofea cuphia. Kuppha ■= L. cuppa a cup (v. s. coppa &c.) cf. 

L. galeola in both senses). 
Cugino It., Pr. cosin, Fr. E. cousin, fem. cugina &c.; from con- 

sobrinus, Rh. cusrin cusdrin. The Sp. is sobrino. 
Cuidado cuidar — coitare. 
Cuider — coitare, 
Cuiller — cucchiajo. 
Cuirasse — corazza. 
Cuire Fr. to cook, Pr. cozer, from coquere; cuisson pain from 

coctio; cuistre a pedant, from coquaster, cf. Vx.coguastro, L. L. 

cocistro; Pr. cosenza pain, from coquentia, Fr. cusencon; It. 

cociore, Sp. escozor sharp pain. 
Cuisine — cucina. 
Cuisse — coscia. 
Cuistre — cuire. 

Cuivre Fr. copper, brass; from cuprum, adj. cupreum. 
Culantro Sp., from coriandrum. 
Culbute Fr. a summersault, vb. cidbuter; from cid rump, and 

bute a projection. 
CuUa It. cradle; from cunula, as lulla from lunula; Neap, con- 

nola, Romagn. conla. 
Culvert cuivert 0. Fr., Pr. culvert roguish, impious, infidel. 

From collibertus a term which denoted one whose condition 

was little above that of a slave inasmuch as he could be sold 

and bought. Matt. Paris has : sub nomine culvertatis et perpe- 

tuceZservitutis. The association of ideas is obvious, cf. knave, 

villain &c. 


Cumbre cume — colmo. 

Cundir Sp. Cat. to increase, spread (neut.). From Goth. A-w/?/ 
= yavog, 0. N. kynd, A. S. gecynd, E. kind. 

Cupido It., Pr. cobe; whence It. cupidigia cupidezza, Sp. codicia, 
O. Sp. cdbdicia, Pr. cobiticia cohezeza, Fr. convoitise (for co- 
voitise), (E. covetousness) from a Lat. cupiditia (cupidus); It. 
cubitare, Pr. cobeitar, Fr. convoiter, E. cdvet, Pr. <?o^/r = fall 
to one's share, e. g. jots lu'es cobitz; from cupere alicui to wish 
one well, Rh. cuvir; Pr. encohir, 0. Fr. encovir to covet. 

Cupo It. hollow; from c*mj9« a cask, v. Rom. Gr. 2, 232. Sard- 
has cupudu = cupo. 

Cura Sp. Pg. (m.) a clergyman, prop, one who takes charge, in 
which sense cura was used even in Lat., and in L.L. as masc. 
From cura come It. curat o, Fr. cuf^e, E. curate; also It. curat- 
iiere, Pic. couratier, Fr. courtier a factor, one who has charge 
of business. 

Curtir Sp., Pg. cortir to tan leather. From conterere, coterere 
with r transposed corter cortir j cf. derretir. 

Cusare — cosa. 

Cusc Pr. pure, clean, adv. cuschement; from 0. H. G. kiisc, G. 
keusch pure, chaste. 

Cuseino — coUrice. 

Cusir — cucire. 

Cuspir cospir Pg. to spit ; from conspuere. 

Cusso — cozzone. 

Cutieagna — coienna, 

Cutio — cote. 

Cutir Sp. to strike against, strike, defend. Perhaps from com- 
petere cumpiir cuptir cutir, as from conterere cuterir cutrir. 

Cutretta cutrettola It. a wagtail. From coda retta (recta), so for 
cudretta, = Fr. hochequeue; It. coditremola = Fr. branlequeue, 
G. wedelsterz, E. wagtail, W. tinsigl, Gr. (SsiGOTtvytg , Lat. 
motacilla &c. 

Cuve — coppa. 


Da — a. 

Da Fr. in oui-da, nenni-da. The oldest form is diva, shortened 
ded (one syllable) used to express an urgent summons: diva, 
ne me celerl diva tu nCas lionil v. Rom. Gr. 2, 413. The orig. 
meaning was ^^say on!'^ from imperat. of dire, and va imp. 
of aller. 

Dace — dazio. 

Dadiva Sp. Pg. a present; = dativa L. L. for donativa. 

158 • DADO — DANDIN. 

Dado It. Sp. Pg.; Pr. dat^ Fr. de^ E. die; from dare r=: to tlirow 
(dure ad terram). The Fr. de = dez thimble is from digi- 
tus (?). 

Daga It. Sp. Pg. (also Pg. adagd), Fr. dague, E. <^«^ dagger, 
Du. dagge, G. degen, also in the Celt., Gael, ^^^rt pistol, Bret. 
^«^ dager a dagger (of. s. pistola). Fr. daguet = a spade. 
The root is ^</^ to* thrust ^^ 6??V7;, O. E. dag to pierce. 

Dagorne Fr. a one -horned cow; from dague 2^vA come , cf. M- 
gorne for hicorne, 

Daguet — guatare, 

Daim Fr. a deer, fem. daine, O. Fr. dain (m.), whence It. 
daino, Pied. ^«w, O. Sp. daxjne, Du. </6fy;^; from rfrtw« (It. 

Daino — daim. 

Daintie O. Fr. (m.), also daintier , daintee, E. dainty (sbst. and 
adj.). This is from the Celtic, W. daintaith (daint = densj. 
O. E. deintee value (daintg worthy) is the 0. Fr. deinetet dein- 
tet (= dignitas), which some indentify with the foregoing 

Dais Fr. a canopy, E. daiSj O. Fr. dois, Pr. deis a table, from 
discus, It. desco (E. desk\ G. tisch. Dais was a corruption of 
dois, cf. epais and espois. The name was then transferred to 
the raised step (E. dais) on which the high table was placed, 
or the canopy over it. Wedgw. Others derive from dorsum 
dossium, which, however, could not give the form deis; the 
Sp. dosel, It. dossier e may be from the old form dois, or from 
dor sale dorsarium, E. dorsal, doser, dosel = hangings round 
the walls of a hall or church (at the l)ack of the priests), v. 
Parker, Glossary of Architecture. 

Dala Sp. Pg., Fr. dalle, a pump-^^f/;/ (naut.). The Sp. adala 
points to the Ar. dalla ducere, dalalah ductus. Cf. It. doccio 
from ducere. 

Dalle Sp., Pr. dalh, O. Fr. dail, Dauph. dailli Si sickle; vb. Pr. 
dalhar, 0. Fr. dailler to slash, fight, s'entredalier. Perhaps a 
dimin. from daga, 

Damasco It. Sp., Fr. damas, E. damask; from Damascus where 
it was made; the It. has also damasto. Damascus was also 
noted for its sword-blades, whence It. damascJiino &c., and 
also for its plums, whence Sp. damascena &c., E. damascene, 

Dame — donno. 

Dame Fr. interjection; from domine, cf. dame-dieu = domine deus, 

Damigello — donno. 

Dandin Fr. a simpleton, dandiner to rock, dandle; cf. G. land, 
tandeln, E. dade, dandle, dandy , It. dondolare. Wal. tendale 
= It. dondolo a toy ; v. Wedg. s. dade. 

DANGER — DEC. 159 

Danger Fr., E. danger, Bangcrium or domigetium (domager or 

damager, from damnum, to fine or seize for trespass) was orig. 

a feudal word, and meant the right of inflicting fines for 

breach of territorial rights, fief de danger a fief held under 

strict and severe conditions, sergent dangereux the officer who 

looked after the dangeria, Wedgwood. Se mettre en danger 

de quelqu'im to be in the danger of one came to mean to be 

in his power, liable to a penalty, hence the present meaning. 

Danger also = difficulty, refusal: faire danger de dire to refuse, 

Lim. dondzie refusal. But Littre remarks that the O. Fr. 

dangier = authority, and thus corresponds better to a Lat. 

dominiarium^ cf. dominicelhis , damohel, dansel. 
Dans — ens. 
Danzare It. (for dansare, as anzare for ansare), Sp. Pg. Pr. dan- 

sar, Fr. danser, Wal. dentzui, E. dance, G. tanzen. It. danza &c. ; 

from O. H. G. danson to draw, extend; from dinsan, Goth. 

Danar Sp., Pg. danar to hurt; from damnare to hurt, cf. L. L. 

condemnare , L. Sal.: si quis terram alienam condemnaverit , O. 

Fr. comdemner. 
Dardo It. Sp., Pr. dart, Fr. dard, Wal. darde, Hung, darda; 

from A. S. daradh darodh, E. dart, O. N. darradhr, 0. H. G. 

tart. Others from doQV doQazog. 
Darga — targa. 
Darne Fr., N.Pr. darno a slice; from Bret. W. darn a fragment, 

Sansk. darana (dri to tear). Hence E. darn prop. = to patch. 
Darse, darsena — arsenate. 
Dartre Fr., Provincial Fr. dertre = A. S. teter, E. tetter, G. zit- 

ter. Pictet derives the word through the Celtic (W. tarwden) 

from the Sansk. dardi^u a tetter. 
Datil datte — dattero. 

Dattero It., Sp.Fr. datil, Fr. datte, (fruit); from dactylus, 
Daus — «. 
Davanti — anzi. 

Dazio It., Sp. dacio, Fr. dace (f.) impost, tax; from datio. 
De — dado. 
Debaueher — bauche. 
Debicar — hecco. 
Debit Fr. sale, debiter to sell, prop, to enter as debitum (debt) 

in an account book, to debit. 
Debonnaire — aria. 
Debout — bottare. 
Debris — briser. 
Debut — bozza. 
Dec deeh Pr. (l) command (2) government, province (3) tribute 

(4) fine, fault, deficiency, Fem. deca decha = (4) ; N. Pr. deed 


to break off; 0. Pr. dechar to deceive. From edictum. From 

indicium come Pr. endec injury^ defect^ endechat defective; Sp. 

endecha a dirge for the dead; O. Fr. enditier, to indite = in- 

Decentar — enceniar, 
Dechado Sp. a sample; from dictatum, Pr. dechat, O. Fr. ditie, 

E. ditty; Pr. dechar = diet are, 
Dechat — dechado. 
Deehirer — eschirer. 
Dechouer — echouer. 
Deeiller dessiller Fr. to open the eyes; from ciliwn, It. disci- 

Decombres — colmo, 
Defalquer — falcare, 
Defaut — falta. 
Defl defter — disftdare, 
Defiler — fda. 
Defrayer — frais. 
Degre Fr.; degrat (degra) Pr.; Pg. degrao; for gre = gradus, the 

preposition from degradare being added to distinguish it from 

gre = gratum, 
Deguerpir — guerpir. 
Begun Pr. = nullus, O. Sp. degun; from the O. H. G. dik-ein, 

cf. maint. 
Deh It. interjection, Fr. dey; probably shortened from deo as V 

from io. 
Dehesa Sp.; 0. Sp. defesa, Cat. devesa pasturage; L. L. defensa 

defensum, 0. Fr. defois, 
Deitar — gettare. 
Deja — gia. 
Dejeuner — ■ giunare, 
Delabrer — lambeau, 
Delai Fr., E. delay; from dilatum, It. fern, dilata. Hence vb. 

dilayer, 0. Fr. delayer, It. dilajare to delay. 
Delante — anzi. 
Delayer — dileguare, 
Deleznar — liscio. 
Delie Fr.; O.Fr. also ^/^w^^V delicate ; from delicatus, asj3/?Vfrom 

plicatus, Pr. delguat, Sp. delgado slender. 
Demain — mane. 
Demanois 0. Fr.; Pr. demanes, = statim. From de manu with 

suffix ipsum = "off hand^^; Gk. sk xscQogj M. H. G. zehant. 

For demanois; de?nanes we also find manois manes. 
Demarrer — amarrar, 
Demas — mai. 
Demoiselle — donno. 


Demonio It. Tg., Sp. demonio dimono, Pr. demoni a demon; from 

dcemonion (Tertullian). 
Denaro danaro It., Sp. dinero, Pr. Fr. denier from denarius. 

Hence It. derrata, Sp. dinerada prop. = a sum of money or 

its worth; Fr. denree commodity, food, cf. Bav. pfennwerth. 
Dende — i7idi. 
Dengue Sp. Pg. Cat., Sard, denghi prudery, affectation; from 

denegare, It. diniego. 
Denier denree — denaro. 
Dentello It., Pr. dentelh, Sp. deniellon moulding of a cornice &c., 

It. dentelli (pi.), Fr. denielle point -lace; from dens a tooth. 
Denuedo Sp., Pg. denodo boldness, denodarse to be bold; from 

nodus knot, restriction. 
Denuesto Sp., Pg. doesto insult, Sp. denostar, Pg. doestar, de- 

ostar; from dehonestum, dehonesiare. Pr. desnot = denost? 
Depeeher — pacciare. 

Depens depense Fr., from dispendere dispensus. 
Depetrer — pastoja. 
Depit Fr., Pr. despieg displeasure; from despecius disdain, It. 

dispetto, Sp. despecho, E. despite. Adj. despit. Vb. despire, E. 

despise from despicere. Cf. repit. 
Depouille — spoglio. 
Depuis — poi. 
Derate — rate. 
Dernier — retro. 
Derober — roha. 
Deroute — rotta. 
Derramar Sp. Pg. to pour out, spread; for des-ramar to sever 

branches, divide. It. disramare , Pr. desramar derramar, Wal. 

derema to prune , Fr. deramer desrasmer to tear. Opposed to 

it is the Com. rafna to collect. 
Derrata — denaro. 
Derrear — derrengar. 
Derrengar Sp., Pg. derrear (for derrenar), Pr. desrenar, deregnar, 

O. Fr. ereiner, Fr. ereinter to sprain the hip ; from ren renes, 

the Sp. through disren-icare. It. has only sbst. direnato, but 

the Piedm. derne = Pr. desrenar. 
Derretir Sp., Pg. derreter to melt. From deter ere or disterere. 

Sbst. derretimiento = detrimentum. V. ciirtir. 
Derribar Sp. Pg. to demolish, ruin ; from 7ipa a bank, It. a pre- 
cipice, Sp. ribazo; cf. derrocar. 
Derriere — retro. 
Derrocar — rocca. 
Des 0. Sp., O. Pg., Sp. Pg. des-de, Pr. des deis, Fr. des = Lat. 

ex or usque a, It. da. From de ex, des tors = de ex ilia hord, 

desormais == de ex hord magis; cf. O. Fr. desanz = de exante, 



O. Sp. desent = de exinde, desi == de ex ibi, Sp. despues (v. 
poi) = de ex post; exante and exinde are found in Latin. 

Deseaptar — capitare. 

Deseer Pg. to descend; O. Sp. decir. From desidere. 

Desde — des. 

Deseo — disio. 

Desguinzar — esquinzar, 

Desi — qui. 

Designare — disegnare. 

Desinare disinare It., Pr. disnar, dmiar, dinar, O. Fr. disgner, 
disner, digner, L. L. disnar e, E. dine. Among the etymons 
given are dHitvstv, dignare (the beginning of a grace), decima 
(hora). Diez derives it from decoenare (cf. devorare depascere^^ 
whence Fr. deciner, desner, diner, as from decima, desme, dime, 
from huccina, busna, cf. O. Fr. reciner a hinch, from recoenare, 
cf. also It. pusigno = postcoenium. But Mahn wishes to prove 
that it is merely another and earlier form oi sdigiunare , de- 
jeuner = disjejunare, so that disinare would be the orig. form. 
The s is radical as shown by the Pr. dirnar. For the double 
form of the same word , cf. scvrer and separer, chose and cause, 
hotel and hopital &c. But though "breaking the fast" would 
be a proper designation for the first meal in the day, it would 
not apply equally well to a later meal, nor would the same 
word be used for two distinct meals. 

Desleir — dileguare. 

Deslizar — liscio. 

Desman — ademan. 

Desmayar — smagare, 

DesoUar Sp., O. Sp. desfollar, Pg, esfolar to flay; from follis. 

Desormais — des. 

Despaehar — pacciare. 

Desparpajar — parpagiione. 

Despedir Sp. Pg. to discharge, dismiss, despedirse to go away; 
from de-expedire. Hence also Pg. despir to strip. 

Despejar — specchio. 

Despertar — espertar. 

Despir — despedir. 

Despojo — spoglio. 

Despues — poi. 

Desrener O. Fr., 0. E. darraign, darreine, darreine the battle 
Chauc. = fight it out, let the battle decide, daiTcine by battle 
= settle, but darraign your battle (Shaksp. H. VI) = array. It 
is from derationare , rationes = accounts, whence aresner ar- 
raigner arraign to call to account, darraign &c. to clear the 
account, settle the controversy. 

Dessein, dessin, dessiner — disegnare. 


Dessert — ■ serviette. • 

Desso It., Wal. densu pronoun. According to Pott from idem 
ipsuSj but the loss of the ?n is against all analogy. It is from 
the L. L. id ipse, ille est id ipse, ilia videtur id ipsa = desso, 
dessa only used in the nom. case. 

Dessous — sotto. 

Dessus — suso. 

Destare It. to awake; from de-exciiare , Mil. desseda. Cf. dor are 
from deaurare. 

Destriero It., Pr. O.Fr. O.E. destrier a war-horse, L. L. dextra- 
rius, so called because led by the esquire on the right of his 
own horse, v. Ducange. 

Destrozar — torso. 

Desver derver O. Fr. to be out of one's senses, rave; O. Fr. adj. 
desve derve frantic, sbst. desverie derverie madness. Fr. endever 
to rage, rant^ faire endever to vex; prob. from desipere, with 
change of conjugation. 

Deteler — teler. 

Detraquer — trac. 

Detresse Fr., Pr. detreissa, E. distress. Not from destrictus, Pr. 
destreit, whence It. distrettezza is regularly formed, but from 
a verb destreissar to distress L. L. destrictiare. The L. L. 
distringere (Fr. distraindre, E. distrain) was us^ for constrain- 
ing a person to do something by exaction of a pledge &c. 
Hence distrain for rent. The pledge was termed districtio 
distress. The right of exercising such authority, and the ter- 
ritory over which it was exercised , were called districtus , It. 
disiretto, O. Fr. destroict , E. district. 

Detrier — trigar. 

Detroit — etroit. 

Dette Fr., E. deht; from pi. dehita, Sp. deuda. 

Deuil — cordoglio. 

Devant — anzi. 

Devanar — dipanare. 

Devider — vide. 

Devis — diviso. 

Devouer — voeu. 

Dexar Sp., Pg. deixar to leave, from a form desitare des^tare 
(desinere desitus). Cf. quexar. 

Diamante It. Sp., Pr. diaman, Fr. diamant, E. diamond; from 
adamas adamantis, prob. influenced by diafano transparent. 
Another form is the Pr. adiman, aziman, aiman, O.Fr. aimant, 
Fr. aimant, Sp. Pg. iman a magnet, in which sense L. L. ada- 
mas was used. 

Diana It. the morning - star , prop. Stella diana, from an old adj. 


164 DIANE — DIO. 

diano (dies); whence tlie expression hattere la diana, Fr. hattre 

la diane to beat the reveille (railit.). 
Diane — diana. 
Diante — anzi. 

Diantre Fr. interj., corrupted from diahle, Rh. dianser, 
Dianzi — anzL 
Diapre — diaspro. 
Diaspro It., Sp. diaspero a jasper; from jaspis, cf. It. (pro v.) 

diacere from jacere. O. Fr. dkispre diaspe flowered stuffy Fr. 

diapre variegated; diapered; whence E. diaper. 

Dieha Sp.; Pg. dita luck; from dictum, pi. dicta, cf. fatum from 

fari. So also It. delta. 
Die O.Fr.; Pr. dia = henchmau; feudal dependant? Prob. from 

the O. H. G. deo (for theo, thio -~ Goth, thins, A. S. theov) 

with a term, in a (like hada, crida, uca, sira) to distinguish it 

from derivatives of Deus. 

Dieta It. Sp.; Fr. diete, E. diet; from diaeta {dCaita). 

Dieta It. Sp.; Fr. diete, E. diet = day of assembly; then the 
assembly itself; from dies, cf. dietim L. L. for quotidie. 

Dietro — retro. 

Diga It.; Fr. digue , Sp. dique a dam for stopping water; from 
Du. dyk, A. S. die, E. dike (= ditch), v. Wedg. dike. 

Dilayer — delai. 

Dileggiare It. to deride = Pr. desleyar to decry ; sbst. deslei =r= 

Dileguare It,; Pr. deslegar, Fr. delayer, O. E. delay , to dilute; 
from dis-liquare. The Sp. desleir is prob. a corruption of the 
Pr. deslegar. The O. E. delay often = allay, cf. Surrey : the 
watery showers delay the raging wind ; Holland speaks of the 
delaying of wines. 

Dimanche — domenica. 

Dinde Fr. a turkey- hen, dindon a turkey-cock; from coq d'Tnde 
the Indian (American) bird. Cat. gall dindij indiot. 

Diner — desinare. 

Dinero — denaro. 

Dintel — linde. 

Dio It.; Sp. dios, O. Pg. Sard, deus, Pg. deos (deos), Pr. dieu, 
Fr. dieu (0. Fr. deo). In the South West deus was treated as 
a proper namO; cf. Carlos ; Marcos ; Reynaldos &c. The ano- 
malous pi. dioses is also found. Such anomalies are usual in 
sacred names ; cf. It. gli dei and v. Grimm 1; 1071, Dief. 2; 
416. The Wal. for God is dumne-zeu = It. domeneddio , Pr. 
dame- dieu, O. Fr. dame -dieu, domhre-dieu. From domeneddio 
comes the It. iddio for eddio, cf. iguale for eguale. It. addio 
= Sp. a dios, Fr. adieu, Pr. a dieu siatz, O. Fr. a dieu soyez, 


O. Cat. a deu siau. It. madio, 8p. madios, Fr. maidieu = 
nUaide dieu, O. Fr. si m!ait dieus =^ ita deus me adjuvet. 

Dipanare It., Pr. debanar, Sp. devanar to wind off; from partus 
a bunch of wool for spinning. 

Dirupare It., Pg. dcrruhar, Sp. derrumbar to precipitate from a 
rock (rupes); hence dirupo a precipice, 0. Fr. desrube, des- 
ruhle, also desruhant defile, Pr. deruhen; O. Fr. desruhison; Sp. 
derrubio a fall of earth on the banks of a river, also = an 
overflow of water. 

Discolo It. Sp. Pg. unruly, fro ward ; from dv^xolog. 

Disegnare designare It. (l) to point out, mark out, (2) to draw, 
^^.designar, 0.^^,desemr, Vwdesegnar designar, Fr. designer, 
E. design = (l), Sp. disenar, Fr. dessiner, E. design = (2); 
sbst. It. disegno, Sp. diseho designio, Fr. dessein = E. design 
(in both senses). From L. designare. 

Disette Fr. want; from desecta. 

Disfidare sfldare It., Pr. desfizar, Fr. defter, Sp. Pg. desafiar, 
0. Pg. desftar, E. defy = to retract one's confidence (fides) in 
a person, to renounce, disclaim, cf. Henry IV, 1, 3. "All 
studies here I solemnly defyJ^ 

Disfrazar — farsa. 

Disio It., Sp. deseo, Pg. desejo, Pr. desig a longing; vb. desi- 
are &c. Not from desiderium, but from dissidiiim (cf. Cat. de- 
sitj), so, like Pg. saudade, prop. = separation, then = the 
consequent longing. 

Ditello It. the armpit = ditale a thimble, Eom. didel, O. Fr. 
deel, Fr. deau (prov.) de. For ditello Neap, has tetelleca, from 
tellecare to tickle. 

Diva — da. 

Diviso It., Pr. Fr. devis, E. device plan, contrivance. It. divisa, 
^^.divisadevisa, Yy. devise, Yi. device i distinction, distinguish- 
ing mark, cognisance; It. divisare, Sp. divisar to divide, ar- 
range, dispose (O. Fr. deviser), E. devise. From dividere, Pr. 
devire, whence freq. divisar. Wedgw. makes 2 words (1) = a 
badge &c. from dividere (2) = a plan &c. from viso (visum) 
view , opinion. The expression a point devise , E. point device, 
= in a condition of ideal excellence , such as one can devise 
or imagine. 

Docciare It. to douse , pour water on, sbst. doccia, Fr. douche, 
Sp. ducJta a spout &c., from ductiare (ductus) as succiare from 
suctus. Cf. ductus = O. Fr. duit (conduit). Norm, doui, from 
ductio, Pr. dotz, O. Fr. dois, whence dusil, E. dosii a spigot. 
But Wedgw. derives doccia &c. from G. docke, E. dock a 
bunch, tap, whence the sense of spout, conduit &c. From 
Gael, dos a tuft, E. doss a hassock, dossel a plug; E. dosil 
a tent for a wound prob. from Fr. dusil. 


Dodu — ■ dondon. 

Doga It. Pr. Cat., Wal. doage, Alb. dogCy Fr. doxive, Mil. dove 
the stave of a cask, Du. duyglie, duig , Sw. dauge, G. dauhe 
staff; hence Sp. dovela duela, Pg. aduela , Norm, douvelle dou- 
elle, Lor. doule. The Pr. doga. Norm, doiwe also = a dam, 
a bank: L. L. douvam sive aggerem (Carpentier). It. doga = 
also a stripe, It. dogare to gird (Dante), Sp. dogal a halter, 
from the notion of hemming in, confining, like the staves of 
a barrel. Gregory of Tours has doga in the sense of conduit: 
ne forte dogis occultis lymphm deducerenlur. From doga in 
Lat. = a vessel (Vopiscus) = Gk. 8oir{ a receptacle. From 
this it would come to mean a dam for holding in water, the 
staving of a cask , a stave. Wedgw. derives it from a dif- 
ferent source, viz. the G. docke, E. dock a bunch, a plug, a 
stopple, a tap, whence dock an inclosed basin which keeps 
out the water by grent flood -gaies. From the sense of plug 
comes (1) that of dam (doga, douve &c.), (2) that of conduit 
(doga, doccia, douche &c.). 

Dogana It., Pr. doana, Fr. douane, »Sp. Pg. aduana, custom- 
house, excise, toll. From the Arab, divan ad- divan a state- 
council (for excise), whence diuana doana duana with inserted 
g in It., ph. with a reference to doga a cask -stave. The Sp. 
duan = divan. Or it may be from divan in the sense of an 
account-book, Freyt. 2, 74, cf. Boccaccio Dec. 8; 10: i do- 
ganieri poi scrivono in siU libro del I a dogana &c. 

Doge — duca. 

Dolequin O. Fr. a short dagger; from M. Du. dolckin, dim. of 
dolk, G. dolch. 

DoHiani — mani. 

Dome — duomo. 

Domeniea It., Sp. Pg. doming o, Pr. dimenge dimergne , Fr. di- 
manche sunday; It. from dominica, Sp. from dorninicns, Pr. Fr. 
from dies dominica, whence O. Fr. diemenche = Gk. TcvQiaxyj. 

Dominio It. Sp. Pg. lordship, possession, Fr. domainc (m.), E. 
domain, Fr.domaine domeni, O.Fr. also demaine dcmenie, 
main demesne , O. It. diminio; from dominium, ai from i as in 
daigner from dignari, O. Fr. adj . demaine=o^\i, L. L. demanius. 

Dommage Fr., 0. Fr. Wal. E. damage, Pr. dampnatge; from 

Donaire Sp. Pg. grace, elegance, prop. = natural gift, from 
donarium. Adj . donoso graceful , from don = donum. 

Done — dunque. 

Donde — onde, 

Dondolare It. to rock , E. dandle. From the same root as the 
Yr.dodiner dodeliner, from ^o^o a word used in rocking children 
to sleep. Bodo is a child's word formed by reduplication from 


dormir. Wedgw. connects these words with E. dade = to 
teach a child to walk, dading strings = It. dande^ Fr. dada 
= a child's hobby - horse ; hence daddle doddle diddle toddle, 
wdth nasal dande, dandle, dondeliner dodeliner to rock, dan- 
diner It. dondolare dandle, idle, dandolo a ninny, dandolo dan- 
dola a toy, doll, E. dandy , Sc. dandilly, 

Dondon Fr. f. a plump woman; from E. dump in dump -ling, 
dump-ty (donde). Dondon is connected with bedon (q. v.) don- 
daine = bedondaine. Perhaps dodu may be also referred 
hither, though the loss of the nasal is unusual. 

Dongeon donjon Fr., Pr. donjo, E. donjon, dungeon, a strong 
lofty building in a fort, so called from its commanding the 
rest, dominio domnio dongeo (as songer from somniare) donjon. 
But Diez rejects this derivation, and refers the word to the 
Irish diin a fortified place (v. duna) whence dimion, O. Fr. 
dognon donjon. Zeuss 1, 30 gives as the orig. form dangio 
Fr. daingean. V. Murat. 2, 500. 

Donno donna It., Sp. don dona dueha, Pg. dom dona, Pr. don 
(fem. dons), dombre (in dombre-dieus) domna, O. Fr. masc. 
dame (in da?ne-dieu) dan dant, O. E. dan, O. Fr. Fr. fem. 
dame (whence Pr. Fr. Sp. damd), Wal. domn doamne; from 
dominus domina in inscriptions domnus domna, L. L. donnus 
donna. Hence Sp. doncel doncella, Pr. donsel donsella, O. Fr. 
donciaus (nom.) dancel danzel (oblique cases), damoisiel, da- 
moiseau, damoisele, Fr. demoiselle, hence It. damigello dami- 
gella, Sp. Pr. damisela, as if from a L. dominicillus, Wal. 
domnisor. Vb. Pr. domneiar, O. Fr. donoier to court women, 
whence It. donneare, sbst. domnei donnoi. For the Fr. a = o, 
cf. damesche from domesticus, danter (daunt) from domitare. 
From domen for domin comes the Prov. and Cat. abbreviation 
en, used before proper names, e.g. En Barral (O.It. Imberal), 
from domna Na as Na Maria &c. For the degradation in 
meaning of damoiseau and donzelle in 0. Fr. cf. valet (Berr. 
valet = a help), vassal j varlet. Mesquin, on the contrary, orig. 
= poor wretch , came to be used of young persons even of 
highest rank , the idea of youth being got from that of weak- 
ness, wretchedness. 

Donnola It. a weasel; prop. = little woman, from donna, cf. Sp. 
comadreja, G. jimgferchen, M. Gr. vv^cpvta, Basq. anderei- 
gerra from andrea a woman. Cf. bele. The name was derived 
from the character usu. assigned to the weasel in the fables. 

Dont — onde. 

Dopo — poi. 

Doppiere It. a taper; from duplus, the which being formed of 
double thread , cf . G . zivirn from zivir. 

Dorca dorc Pr. a jug; from orca, v. R. Gr. 1, 264. 


Dorelot O. Fr. a darling , Fr. doreloter dorloter to fondle ; from 
A.S. deorling, E. darling ^ or from W. dorlawd, dawr dear and 
llaivd a boy. 

Dorenavant Fr. = dehinc; from de hora in ah ante. 

Dorna Pr. a pot, N. Pr. dourno; from iirna, cf. dorca from orca. 
Hence Sp. dornajo dornilla a trough. 

Dosel — dais. 

Dossiere — dais, 

Dotta — otta. 

Douaire — doner. 

Douane — dogana. 

Douche — docciare. 

Doudo Pg. a ninny; from the Eng. dolt, dold, A. S. dol, con- 
nected with G. Wlpel. 

Douer Fr. to endow; from dotare; douaire (m.) Pr. doariy E. 
dower dowry; douairiere a widow who has a jointure, E. 

Douille doille 0. Fr. weak; from duciilis, Pr. ductil &c.; Fr. 
dim. douiUet (not from dulcis). 

Douille Fr. a tap, L. L. ductile a channel; cf. Com. indoja a 
husk, from inductile, v. andouille. From ducere also comes 
Fr. dusil a spigot, E. dosel, but v. doga, docciare for another 

Dour O. Fr., Pr. dorn of a hand's breadth. It. dorone; from the 
Celtic, Gael, dorn, W. dwrn, Bret, dorn a hand. Pliny Nat. 
Hist. 35, 14: tegulce apud G alios didoron dictw a longitudine 
duorum palmorum, di = Gael, da or de , W. dau dwi, Bret. 
daou div two. 

Douve — doga. 

Dove — ove. 

Dovela — doga. 

Doyen dean; from decanus. 

Dragee — treggea. 

Drageon Fr. a shoot, sprig; from Goth, draihjan to push, O. H. 

G. treibjan (Fr. ge = bj, cf. Rom. Gr. 1, 166), cf. bouton from 

bouter, pousse from pousser. 

Dragomanno It., Sp. dragoman, Fr. drogman, M. H. G. trage- 
munt , E. dragoman an interpreter, also It. turcimanno , Sp. 
trujaman, Fr. trucheman truchement, O. E. trucJiman; from Ar. 
targomdn, torgomdn an interpreter, from targama to explain, 
Chald. targum a translation. 

Drague Fr. brewer's grains; hom.^. dragg, ^. dreg dregs, which 
Wedgw. connects with E. dra^, G. trciber brewer's grains, Pr. 
draco dregs of the vintage, drasche dreche draff, husks (this 
last, however, Diez derives from O.H.G. drescan, G. dreschen 


to thrash), 0. E. drasl drest, G. trestern, A. S. dresien faeces, 
also A. S. dros fssx, whence E. dross. 

Drague Fr., E. drag (for water). 

Drappo It.; Pr. Cat. Fr. drap cloth, whence drappello, drapeau 
a rag, a banner, L. L. drappus, Fr. draper, drapier, E. drape, 
draper. In Sp. and Pg. it has the tenuis : trapo, trapaijo, tra- 
pero, Iraperia, but also drapero, and gualdrape = trappings of 
a horse, giialdrapazo flap of the sail against the mast, gual- 
drapear to flap. Frisch derives from trappen to tread, so of 
closely- trodden or woven stuff (Sp. /r^j^flf = stamping), but 
ph. better from trap the sound of a flapping piece of cloth. 

Drasche — drague. 

Dredre — trillare. 

Dresser — rizzare. 

Dridriller — trillare. 

Drille Fr. (m.) comrade; from O. H. Gr. drigil lad, servant, fel- 
low, O. N. thrmll, E. thrall, v. Grimm 3, 321. 

Drille Fr. (f.) 

Drizzare — rizzare. 

Droga It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. drogue, E. drug spices, aromatics &c., 
so called from their hot, dry nature, Du. droog dry, dried 

Drogman — dragomanno. 

Droit — ritto. 

Drole Fr. facetious, droll; not found in the Fr. dictionaries of the 
16^^^ century. It is the same word as the E. droll, G. drollig, 
cf. Du. drol, 0. N. drioli, Gael, droll a blunt, awkward man. 

Dromon O. Fr. a large ship of war, 0. N. dromundr, M. H. G. 
tragmunt dragmunt (hwi v. dragomanno); from dromo Sqo^cov 
^^ genus navigii velocissimP^ Fulgent. Plancus. Pr. dromd = a 
platform. Wal. drom a street, course, from dQo^og. 

Drudo druda It. 0. Pg., Pr. O. Fr. drut druda drue a friend, a 
lover; hence 0. Fr. drugun druiun intimate. The word is 
found both in the Celtic and the Teutonic: Gael.^rw/A a harlot, 
O. H. G. drill triit, driid (in comp. Drudbald, Wieldrud) friend, 
lover, fem. triutin (all related to triuwi, G. treu, true). In Rom. 
it is often found in connection with ami "mes amis et mes 
drus^^ &c. There is also an adj. It. drudo beloved, pretty, 
also = gallant, Fr. dru sprightly, wanton, luxuriant, vb. en- 
druir to make thick, dense. Gen. druo thick, fat, drueza 
abundance, Piedm. N. Pr. dru luxuriant, fruitful. The adj. 
is best referred to the Gael, driith wanton, W. drud vigorous. 

Duca It., Wal. duce, Sp. Pg. duque, Pr. Fr. due, E. duke; It. 
ducaiOy Sp. Pg. ducado, Pr. ducat, Fr. duche (in O. Fr. fem. 
whence It. ducea) E. duchy, L. L. ducatus for ductus. Duca is 
not immediately from dux, which would have doce (Yen. doge), 


but from the Byzantine dov^, dovxa, v. Diicange. From duca 
come It. ducato ducatone, Sp. ducado ducaton, Fr. G. ducat y 
first used c. 1140 by Roger II. of Sicily who held the duchy 
of Apuglia (ducato d'Apuglia). 

Ducha — docciare. 

Duela — doga. 

Duello It., Sp. duelo, Fr. E. duel; from duellum. The word in- 
troduced into the Rom. at a late period, and was adopted 
from a mistaken notion of the etymology of the L. word. 
Battaglia was used previously. 

Duendo Sp., Pg. dondo, Pr. domde domestic, tame, vb. Pr. dom- 
tar dondar, O.Fr. donter, Fr. dompter {Ya. daunt); from domitus 
domitarc. Hence, too, Sp. Pg. duende a fairy, ghost, prop. 
house -ghost (Sp. duende de casa). The words are not derived 
from doinus. 

Duire O. Fr. Pr. to lead, instruct, pf. doist, part, dozen, O. Fr. 
Pr. adj. duit clever, sbst. duison neatness; from ducere (doist 
= duxit), cf. Sp. ducir ^=^ duire, ducho = duit and cf. G. Ziehen, 
L. educare. 

Duna It. Sp., from Fr. dune a sand-hill; from Du. duin == A. S. 
dim (f.), E. doivn, don in names of places, which from the 
Celtic, Fr. dim, W. din a hill, a strong place (dinas a city), 
whence dunum in August odu?ium , Zugdunum = Ravenhill &c. 
The root of the Celtic words is in the Ir. dimaim, Gael, duin 
to shut in, surround, thus showing a community of origin 
with the G. zaun, 0. H. G. zim, 0. S. tim tyne enclosure, O. N. 
tim (E. town, 0. E. tune) from G. source, A,S.tgnan to enclose. 
V. Mahn, Diefenbach. 

Dunque adunque It., O. It. do?iqua adonqua, dunche adunche, 
'O. Sp. doncas, Fr. done particle for L. ergo. O. Fr. dune, don- 
ques adunc, Pr. done adonc = L. turn; whence sense of ^'ergo^', 
cf. igitur = inde and postea, Festus, E. then, Sip. pues, luego. 
Adimc is the orig. from for a or ad and time. A tunc and ad 
tunc are found in old documents. 

Duomo It. a cathedral, = the house (domus) ''par excellence'', 
Fr. dome, E. dome ^=z cupola, most ot the churches in Italy 
being built with cupolas. 

Dupe Fr. (f.), E. dupe, vb. duper, dupe. Frisch connects it with 
the Swab, diippel a blockhead; Wedgw. makes it from dupe 
duppe a hoopoe (so called from the tuft on its head), cf. It. 
hubhola a hoopoe, huVbolare to cheat (E. huhhle?). 

Durare It., Sp. durar, Fr. durer, E. dure, G. dauern to hold out; 
from durare to harden, for which indurare was used. 

Durazno Sp. a peach ; from persica duracina, cf . It. duracine firm 
(of fruit). 

Dureta Sp. a bathing- chair. Suet. August. 82; insidens ligneo 


solio, quod ipse hispnnico verbo duretam vocabat, Larramendi 

refers it to the Basq. ura water. 
Durfeii 0. Fr. wretched, pitiable; from dure fatalus (cf. malfeii 

:= Pr. malfadat, Sp. malfadado) with a substitution of the 

suffix utus for atus, 
Dusil — douille. 
Dusque — jusque. 
Duvet Fr. doivn of feathers , O. Fr. dum, Provin. E. dum, Norm. 

dumet, L. L. dumciy from 0. N. diin. Duvet is a corruption of 



Ea Sp., Pg. eia, Sic. ejajeja inter]., Lat. eja, O.Fr, aye, Basq. ea. 

Eau Fr. (f.) water; from aqua, O. Fr. aigue, eve (cf. yve from 
equa), whence evier a vase, O. Fr. aiguiere, E. ewer (aqua- 
rium), from eve, ieve iave eaue eau (so bel Met bial beau). 
Gris. aua. 

Ebahir — baJiir, 

Ebaubi Fr. astounded; from an old Nh. ebaubir abaubir; from 
balbus, O. Fr. baube, prop, to make to stammer. 

Ebauclier — • bauclie. 

Ebbio It., Sp. ycdgo ijezgo, Pg. engo, Pr. evol, Fr. hieble (h asp.), 
Berr. geble, Ven. gevalo dwarf-elder; from ebtdus. Sp. d for / 
as in sendos from singulos. 

Ebbriaco imbriaco ubbriaeo briaeo It., O. Sp. embridco, Pr. 
ebriac, Fr. (Berr.) ebriat imbriat; from L. ebriCicus (Plautus) 
formed like merCicus from merus. Hence Pr. abriga, Fr. ivraie 

Ebe Fr. (f.) ebb; from Du. ebbe , E. ebb. 

Eblouir Fr. to dazzle, Pr. esbalauzir for esblauzir to stun, em- 
blauzir to dazzle. From O. H. G. blodi weak, dull (Sc. blait, 
E. blunt), ^/o^2 bluntness, whence G. blode, blodsichtig weak- 
sighted. The O. H. G. verb was blddauy Pr. blauzir = a Goth. 

Ebranler — brando. 

Ebrouer — bravo. 

Ecaille ecale — scaglia. 

Ecarlate — scarletto. 

Ecarter — scartare. 

Ecco It., Wal. eace, Pr. ec, O. Fr. eke an adv. from eccum, often 
with pronouns; It. eccomi, eccoti, eccolo, eccola, eccoci &c., 
Wal. eaceme, Vv.ecvos, O. Fr. ekevos; Sp. ele, eloy ela (for ec-le 
&c,). Pr. vec ■=■ ve (imper. of vezer, L. vide) and ec , whence 
vecvos, veus; so, too, It. vecco veccolo. From ecce is Pg. m, 


O. Fr. eis es ez whence a verbal plur. estes-vos, cf. eglino. For 
other combinations cf. qua, quello, questo, qui. 

Echafaut — catafalco, 

Echalas Fr. a wine- prop ^ 0. Fr. escaras, Pic. ecarats, Berr. 
charisson, Piedm. scar as. From L. L. carratium (with prefix 
es)j which from Gk. xdgai, (Wal. herdc). 

Echalier Fr. a hedge, paling. From scala, from its resembling 
a series of ladders. 

Echandole Fr. shingle ; from scandula, Lorr. chondre, Wal. scen- 

Eehanson — escanciar. 

Echantillon Fr. a sample, Eouch. ecantillon a rule, ruler (Sp. 
escantillon descantillon) y E. scantling = the dimensions of a 
piece of timber in breadth and thickness. From 0. Fr. cant 
chant corner, piece &c. (v. canto), O. Fr. eschantelet = chant. 

Echapper — scappare. 

Eehar • — gettare. 

Eeharde — cardo. 

Echarpe — sciarpa. 

Echars — scarso. 

Echasse Fr. stills, O. Fr. eschace, Rouch. ecache\ from Du. 
schaats, E. skate. 

Echaugette Fr. a watch-tower, O. Fr. eschar gaite eschirgaite a 
spy, eschar gaitier to watch; irom. O . schaar - ivacht a night- 
patrol , also a watchman. The Fr. echaugette is a corruption 
of escharguete eschalguete. 

Echee — scacco. 

Echemer — sciame. 

Eeheveau Fr. strong thread or yarn. Ph. from scapus = a twist 
or roll of paper, so = a skein or hank of thread (0. Fr. 

Echevin — scahino. 

Echine — schiena. 

Echiquete echiquier — scacco. 

Echome — scalmo. 

Echoppe Fr.-, from O. H. G. schupfa, G. schuppen, E. shop, 
Wal. sopru. 

Echouer Fr. to strand, dechouer to set a float. From cautes? 

Eclair Fr. lightning ; from eel air er, L. exclarare, like fulmen and 

^ fulgur from fidgere. Champ, turner to lighten from lumen. 

Eelater — schiantare. 

Eclisse — clisse. 

Eclore — chiudere. 

Ecluse — esclusa. 

Ecope Fr. a water-can, from Sw. skopa. 

Ecorce ecorcer — scorza. 


Ecoreher — corteccia. 

Eeore Fr. a steep part of the shore; from O.H.Q.scorro a rock, 
A. S. score, E. shore, Dii. schorre schore, cf. Gael. sgdr. 

Eeornifler Fr. to spunge (as a parasite). Norm, to pilfer; = ecoi^- 
ner (cornu) to break off the horns or ends , to pinch off, 

Ecosse — cosse. 

Eeot — scotto. 

Ecoufle Fr. a kite (bird), Norm, a flying -dragon; 0. Fr. escofre 
escoufre from G. schupfer (from schupfen) a missile. So , con- 
versely, projectiles had their names from birds of prey (v. 

Ecourgee — scuriada. 

Ecouter — ascoltare. 

Ecouvillon Fr. a duster or small broom, Sp. escovillon; from 

Ecran Fr. a screen; from O. H. G. scranna, E. screen. 

Ecraser to crush; a Norman word, from O.N. krassa, Sw. krcisa 
bruise, E. crash. An onomatopcBion. 

Eerevisse Fr. a crab, O. Fr. escrevisse also = armour, O. E. 
creveys, crevish, corrupted craw-fish; from O. H. G. krehiz, 
Du. krevisse, krevitse, G. krehs, Kouch. graviche. Wall, grevess, 
with s prefixed (perhaps from scarahceus). So called from the 
grabbing action of the animal, Sp. escarbar to scrabble, escara- 
bajo beetle (scarabceus), escarabisse a crayfish. 

Eorou Fr. (m.) screw; from G. schraiibe, E. screw. 

Ecrouelles Fr. (f. pi.) scrofula; from scrofella (scrofula) a swell- 
ing in the throat. 

Ecu Fr. shield; from scutum, It. scudo &c., whence ecuyer, Pr. 
escudier, It. scudtere, ^.esquire, Yr.e'cusson, 1^. escutcheon (from 
a form scutw as from at^cus arcio arcon). 

Ecueil — scoglio. 

Ecuelle Fr., Pr. escudela, E. scull (scullion, scullery) dish; from 
scutella, It. scodella &c. 

Eoume — schiuma. 

Eeurer — sgurare. 

Ecureuil — scojattolo. 

Eeurie Fr., escuria escura Pr. a stable; from O.H.G.5cwr« skiura, 
L. L. scuria, G. scheuer, whence also Wal. sure. Hung, tsiir. 
Hence E. equerry. W. connects these words wrongly with 
ecuyer (v. ecu). 

Eeusson ecuyer — ecu. 

Edera ellera It., Sp. hiedra, Pg. her a, Pr. edra, Fr. lierre (0. Fr. 
Pic. hierre yerre with the article, oi.lendemain &c., ^eai^.lellira, 
Gen. lellua) ivy; from hedera. 

Effacer — faccia. 

Effarer Fr. to perplex, surprise; not from efferare, but from 


ferus = shy, timid; cf. farouche from ferox, Pr. esferar to 

EflFondrer — fondo. 

Effrayer eflfroi — frayeur. 

Effronte — affrontare. 

Egarer — garer. 

Eglantier — aiglent. 

Egli It., 0. It. ello el, Sp. el, O. Sp. elle elli, Pg. elle, O. Pg". el 
elli, Pr. el elh, Fr. il, Wal. eL Partly from ille, partly from 
illic (== ille Terence). It. Pr. Fr. Wal. lid, from illujus or from 
ilhiic, V. Rom. Gr. % 66; fem. It. Pr. Wal. lei, O. Fr. lei and 
lie, from illae or ?7/«d'c for illi; pi. It. /oro, Pr. Wal. lor, Fr. 
/^wr;, from illorum (Sard, insoru = ipsorimi). In It. pi. eglino, 
ellenOj no is a verbal suffix: egli - no , canta-no. 

Egout Fr. sewer; from eg outer to drip, cf. Pr. goteira, Fr. gout- 
tiere = egout. 

Egrafflgner — greffe. 

Egratigner — grattare, 

Egruger — gruger, 

Eis ele ■ — ecco. 

Eisaurar — sauro. 

Eissernir — scernere. 

Elaguer Fr. to prune, or thin trees. From O. li. G. lah incisio 
arborum, or from Du. laecken to lessen, impair. With lalt is 
connected G. leek, our leak. 

Elan — lancia. 

Elan Fr., E. eland, from G. elen-thier, from O. H. G. elalio, M. 
H. G. elch, E. elk. 

Elee It., Pr. euze, Fr. yeuse holm-oak, from Hqx; It. leccio, from 
4licius, lecceto from ilicetum. Another form of elee is It. elcina, 
Sp. encina, Pg. enzinha azinho, azinheira, Pr. olzina. 

Elclie Sp. Pg. an apostate; from Ar. elg a proselyte. 

Eleetuaire — lattovaro. 

Elingue — slinga. 

Elissire It., Sp. E. elixir, Fr. elixir; from Ar. al and ikslr the 
philosopher's stone, elixir, essence; cf. Chauc. ^^ The Philo- 
sopher's stone, Elexir cleped^', 

Ella — enola. 

Elmo It. Pg. O. Sp., Sp. yelmo, Pr. elm, Fr. heaume (h asp.); 
from O. H. G. helm, O. N. hidbnr, Goth, hilms, E. helm. In 
O. Pg. the word meant ^'a covering'^ generally. Sp. Pg. almete 
for elmete = O. Fr. healmet, E. helmet; hence Fr. ar?tiet head- 

Eloendro — oleandro. 

Elsa elso It. hilt; from 0. H. G. helza hilt. O. Fr. helt {li asp.). 


also heux (nom.); O. N. hiolty A. S. E. hilt (n.\ whence vb. 

Email — smciUo. 

Embair — haire. 

Embalde — haldo, 

Embarazo — harra. 

Embargar Sp. Pg. Cat. to arrest, lay an embargo on, sbst. em- 
bargo, embarc a seizure: from barra (q. v.) a bar, whence It. 

Embarras — barra. 

Embaucar — bava, 

Embauclier — baucJie. 

Embaxada — ambasciata, 

Embelenar — beleho. 

Erablaver — biado. 

Embler O.Fr., Vr.emblar to steal; from involare=^ volatu rapere 
(Petron. &c.), L. L. imbulare, It. involare, Flor. imbolare, Gris. 
ingular angular. Shortened from involare is Fr. voler. 

Embora — ora. 

Emborear — volcar. 

Embraser — bragia. 

Embrone O. Fr. Pr. bent, bowed, pensive, sad, Val. enbronch 
crooked. Pic. embron awkward, vb. embroncher, Burg, rem- 
broncher, O. Sp. broncar to bend. From pronus? embrone = 
impronicatus? But in O. Fr. Pr. the vb. is used of covering, 
esp. the face. Wedgw. derives the E. phrase "brown study '^ 
from Fr. embron, which he refers to broncio anger, grief (q. v.), 
imbronciare = embroncher. 

Embudo — imbuto. 

Embusquer — bosco. 

Embuste — busto. 

Embutir Sp. Pg. Cat. to inlay, impress; from the same G. root 
as boiar (v. boUare), cf. M. H. G. biiz a blow. 

Emeraude — smeraldo. 

Emeri — smeriglio. 

Emerillon — smerlo. 

Emeute — meute, 

Emoi ■ — smagare. 

Emousser — mozzo. 

Empachar — pacciare. 

Empan — spanna. 

Emparar emparer — parare. 

Empeeer O. Sp. Pg. to injure, with dat. or ace; for empedecer 
from impedire, or, better, for emperdecer (per da). 

Empecher — pacciare. 

Empeguntar — pegar. 


Empeine Sp. tetter; ivova impetigo , \i. empetiggine , ^^X.pecin- 
gine. For empeine = groin , cf . pettine. 

Empeltar Pr. Cat. to graft, sbst. Cat. empelt, Pr. empeut, O. Fr. 
empeau a graft 5 from pellis (= Lark), or , better , from dim. 
Pr. peleta (E. pelt, Fr. pelletier), so empeletar = to insert in 
the bark, E. pelzen. 

Empeser empois — pegar. 

Empetrer — pastoja. 

Empezar ■ — cominciare. 

Empiffrer — pipa. 

Emplasto — piastra. 

Emplatre ■ — piastra. 

Emplear — piegare. 

Emplette Fr. a purchase; for 0. Fr. emploite, Norm, empleite, 
from implicitus implid'tiis, implicare in Rom. sense to employ. 
O. Fr. emploiter, Pr. empleitar = implicit are. Cf. exploit. 

Employer — piegare. 

Empreinte — imprenta. 

Emprunter — improntare. 

En — indi. 

En sbst. • — donna. 

Encan — incanto. 

Encausar — incalciare. 

Enceinte — incinta. 

Enceitar — encentar. 

Eneentar Sp., Pg. enceitar encetar to begin, to cut (at a meal). 
From inceptare to begin. Sp. has also decentar. 

Eneher — henchir. 

Encia — gengiva. 

Eneima • — cima. 

Eneina — elce. 

Enclenque Sp. weak, feeble; from cliniciis bedridden, with en 
as in endeble from debilis. 

Enelume — incude. 

Encombre — colmo. 

Eneono Sp., O. Sp. enconia malevolence; enconar to irritate, in- 
flame, enconarse (of a wound) to fester. Ph. from Sp. malen- 
conia ill-will (melancholia) , wrongly supposed to be com- 
pounded with mal. 

Encore — 07^a (2). 

Encre — inchiostro. 

Endeeha — dec. 

Enderezar — rizzare. 

Endever — desver. 

Endica It. the buying up of goods to sell again, also = a store- 
house (Murat.); from ivd-TJuTj. 


EndUgar Sp. to lead away, persuade ; from indelegare to send to, 
direct to , lead. 

Endillar — relinchar, 

Endivialt.Sp. Pg.Pr., Yv.^, endive; from intybus or adj. intyhea, 

Endro — eneldo, 

Endroit — ritto, 

Enebro — ginepro. 

Eneldo Sp., Pg. endro dill; a corruption of anethum? 

Enfoncer — fondo. 

Enfreindre — fimndre, 

Enfrum enfrun 0. Fr., Pr. enfrun greedy, s'enfrunar to be 
greedy, to gorge oneself; horn, frumen the throat, wind -pipe, 
with en = in. 

Engano — inganno, 

Engar — enger, 

Engarrafar — graffio, 

Engastar — cassa. 

Engeance — enger. 

Enger Fr. to pester, fill, surfeit: Nicot a enge la France de Vherhe 
nicotiane. Yvova.enecareio^\ixgVie,en^caref asvindicare, vin'care, 
venger. The Pg. has enyar to throng, press on hostilely, not 
from G. eng. O. Fr. enger also =^ to increase, prevail (of dis- 
eases &c.), la pesie enge fort, hence engeance a brood, not from 
ingignere. Lim. s'endzd to produce, Sard, angiai to hatch. 

Engle — inguine. 

Engloutir — ghiotto. 

Engo — eppio. 

Engodar — goda. 

Engouer — gave. 

Engrant engrande O. Fr. greedy, desirous. Prob. a corrupt 
form from Gr. E. hunger. Sachet makes it from an O. N. part. 
angraidr disturbed. 

Engreir Sp. to make proud; from ingredi used trans; cf. Sp. 
escurrir trans. 

Engres O. Fr. engrais engrois (f. engresse), Pr. engres hot, passi- 
onate, sbst. engreste, vb. s'engresser. Perhaps from agrestis 
wild, as engrot from cegroius. Villemarque derives it from 
Bret, enkrez inkrez unrest, grief. So Diez. The verb engresser 
may, however, come from increscere in It. = to be irksome, 
and the rest be thence derived. 

Engriman9o — grimoire. 
Engrudo — glu. 
Enherdir — yerto. 

Enhiesto Sp. erect, vb. enhestar, enfestar. ¥vom fastigium (O.Pg. 
festo), so enhiesto = in fastigio. 



Enho Pg. a one-year-old fawn ; from hinnuleus for enhlo ? or from 

ennius in hi-ennius, cf. cohrar, 
Enie Pr. unwilling; from iniquus. 

Enjoler — gahhia. 

Enlear Pg. to fetter, hinder , O. Fr. enloier; from the O. Fr. en- 
laier = inligare. 

Enne O. Fr. a particle of interrogation and exclamation : from 
interrogative et and the negative particle , Lor. enne. 

Ennodio O. Sp. a young hart 5 from enodis branchless^ hornless. 

Ennui — noia, 

Enojo — noia. 

Enquar Pr. to begin; from inchoare, one of the few L. words 
confined to the Pr. 

Enqui — qui. 

Enrouer Fr. to be hoarse ; from raucus. 

Ens 0. Fr., Pr. ins; from intus; O. Fr. dens, Fr. dans, dedans, 
Pr. dins, dedins, from de intus, de de intus; O. Fr. saiens laiens, 
Pr. sains, lains (compounded with the Rom. particles sai and 
lai), Fr. ceans, leans. Another O. Fr. form for dens was deinz, 
whence deinzein^ opp. forein (foraneus), E. denizen. 

Ensalmar Sp., Pg. enxalmar to enchant ; from psalmus. 

Ensalzar — alzare. 

Ensanchar — ancho. 

Ensayo — saggio. 

Enseigne — insegna. 

Enseigner — insegnare. 

Ensemble — insemhre. 

Ensement — esso. 

Ensenada Sp., Pg. enseada bay, creek; from sinus, insinuare, 
Sp. ensenar, 

Ensena — insegnare. 

Entanaer Fr. , Pr. entamenar, Piedm. antamna to cut, notch, 
wound. Not from ivts^vsiv, but from L. at-taminare to injure, 
with a change of preposition (R. Gr. 2, 391), cf. convitare for 
invitare, atturare for dbturare &c. 

Ente Fr. a graft, Piedm. Parm. enta, Mod. entin, Fr. vb. enter 
to graft. From £^g)vrov, i^cpvtsvsiv^ whence also O. H. G. 
impiton, M. H. G. impfeten, G. impfen, E. imp. L. L. impotus 
= s^q)VTOv, cf. colapus = colaphus. Others derive from in 
and Du. poot = foot, hence impotus, Bret, em-bouden, but this 
der. will not sait the Fr. form, and the Bret, may come 
through the 0. Fr. emhoter. Pott derives the word from 
Enteado — alnado. 

Enteeo Sp. infirm, sickly; from hecticus, 0. Pg. etego. It. etico. 
For c = Sp. n, cf. anche. 

ENTEJAR — envoi) TER. 179 

Entejar Pg. to loath, entejo loathing; from tcedium. 

Entercier 0. Fr. to recognise, acknowledge, par Civre Ventercad 
= cestimavit earn temulentam Liv. d. Kois p. 3 ; from intertiare 
to put in a third person's hands. This was a legal phrase, 
and used of a person who , detecting his lost property in the 
possession of another, placed it, as by law permitted, in the 
hands of a third, till the right owner -ship should be proved. 
V. Ducange. 

Entero — intero. 

Enterver — rover, 

Entibo Sp. a prop, entibar to prop; from stipes, Basq. estiha. 

Entieher Fr. to infect (with disease &c.) ; from the G. anstecken, 

Entier • — intero. 

Enton O. Sp., Pg. entdo = L. turn, from in turn; Sp. entonces, 
O. Sp. estonze, 0. Pg. entonces, from in tuncce, ex tuncce. 

Entrailles Fr., Pr. intr alias, E. entrails. L. inter aneum, pi. in- 
ter anea, whence It. entragno, Sp. entranas, 0. Fr. entraigne, 
L. L. intrania. The Fr. has taken the collective suffix aillej 
following the analogy of tripaille (trippa). 

Entraver entraves — travar. 

Entrechat Fr. a caper; from It. capriuola entrecciata. 

Entregar Sp. Pg. Cat. give up, deliver, entrego delivered up, 
entrega entrego delivery; from integer for entrego, O. Pg. en- 
tregue = entero, enteiro = integer; prop, to make reparation, 

Entr ernes Sp. interlude; from It. inter-mezzo = L. inter-medium. 

Entresait O. Fr., Norm, antresiais, Pr. atrasait atrasag uncondi- 
tionally, entirely. From prep, en, a, and tresait trasait = 
transactus. In O. It. trasatto: hen e ragione che 7 nostro amore 
si parta in trasatto =^ unconditionally. Cf. It. trasattarsi to 
appropriate, make oneself master of. 

Entroido antruido O. Sp., N. Sp. antruejo, 0. Pg. entr oy do, Pg. 
entrudo the last three days of the carnival; from introitus (sc. 
of Lent). 

Envahir Fr. to seize forcibly, Pr. envazir; from invader e, 

Envelopper — viluppo, 

Envie Fr. envy, desire; from invidia; adv. d I'envi in emulation, 
with the final vowel elided, cf. chez for chese, or for ore. 
A r envie was used up to the 16^'' century. 

Environ — virar. 

Envis and d envis O. Fr. adv. against one's will. Wall, eviss, 
Burg, anvi; from invitus invite, v. Sp. ambidos. 

Envoisier — vezzo. 

Envouter Fr. to curse, imprecate evil on (by means of waxen 
images); Ovid, devovet absentes simulacraque cerea fingit Et 
miserum tenues in Jecur urget acus. From devotare (Apul.) for 



devovere. In L.L. we find invuUare from a mistaken reference 

to vultus, 
Enxada — accia. 
Enxalma — salma, 
Enxambre — sciame, 
Enxarcia — sarte. 

Enxeco 0. Sp.; 0. Pg. enxeco eyxeco difficulty, harm, punish- 
ment 5 from Ar. esh-shaqq difficulty. 
Enxergar — cercare. 
Enxerir Sp., Pg. to graft; from inserere, as enxertar from in- 

Enxuagar Sp. to rinse, clean; from ex-aquare, It. sciacquare. 
Enxugar — suco. 
Enxullo — subbio. 
Enxundia Sp. fat; from axungia cart -grease, Fr. axonge, cf. 

Enxuto — suco. 
Envoy er — voyer. 
Epa It. belly ; from Jiepar, 
Epais — spesso. 
Epancher Fr. to pour out; from expandkare ( expander e. It. 

spandere), cf . pendere pendicare pencher. 
Epanouir Fr. to unfold; a form of the 0. Fr. espanir for espan- 

dir = espandre (expander e), cf. tolir = tolre; v. e'vanouir, 
Epargner — sparagnare, 
Eparpiller • — parpaglione. 
Epaule — spalla. 

Epave Fr. a runaway. From expavidus. 
Epeautre — spelta. 
Epeiche Fr. = pic, O. Fr. espeche, Pic. epeque; from O. H. G. 

spehj Gr. specht a woodpecker. 
Epeler Fr. to spell, O. Fr. espeler to say, mean, Pr. espelar to 

explain; from Goth, spillon, 0. H. G. spelldn, E. spell. 
Eperlan Fr. (Sp. eperlano esperlan) a smelt; from G. spierling, 
Eperon — sperone. 
Epervier — sparaviere. 
Epiee — spezie. 
Epier ■ — spiare. 
Epieu Fr. a spit , O. Fr. espieil, from spicuhim, as essieu from 

Epinard — spinace, 
Epineeler epineer — pizza. 
Epingle — spillo. 
Eplueher — piluccare. 
Epois — spito. 
Epouiller — pidocchio. 


Epouvanter — spaventare. 

Epoux — sposo. 

Epreindre — preindre. 

Equerre — quadro. 

Equi — qui. 

Equiper — schifo. 

Era It. Sp. E.; Fr. ere; from L. cera (ces) counters, items in an 

account; hence L. L. cera cerce (cf. R. Gr. 2, 21) a number 

forming the basis of a calculation , an epoch. 
Era — or a (2). 
Erable — acero. 
Ercer — erguir, 
Ereinter — derrengar. 
Ergo 0. Pg. except; from L. ergo? Diez also suggests prceter- 

quod, cf. algo = aliquod. 
Ergot — argot, 
Ergoter Fr. to dispute about trifles, to caid ; from L. ergo, which 

was much used in disputations. 
Erguir Sp., Pg. erguer to erect; from erigere. Another form in 

ercer, cf. s. ar cilia for c =^ g. 
Erial erio Sp. a uncultivated piece of ground, from era, L. area, 
Erizo — riccio. 
Ermo It., Sp. yermo desert, sbst. a desert; from sQrj^og, L. ere- 

mus (Prud. er^?nus), L. L. ermus hermus, Eng. hermit from aQfj- 

^Ltrjg. Hence N. Pr. hermds a heath. 
Erranment — erre. 
Erre O. Fr. (f.) a way, O. E. eyre (Justices in Eyre) journey, 

errer to travel, also to treat, behave (mes-errer to ill-treat), 

hence chevalier errant, luiighi- errant, juif errant , adv. err an 

erranment. The oldest form is edrar, from L. iter iterare. The 

Prov. errar, however, is the L. errrae, 
Ers — ervo, 
Erto It. steep, partic. of ergere = erigere, sbst. erta an acclivity, 

all'erta, on the alert, prop. = on an eminence, hence adj. Sp. 

alerto, Fr. alerts, E. alert, Rh. erti. 
Ervo and lero (= Vervo) It., Sp. yervo, Pr. Fr. ers tares; from 

ervum, ers conforming to the G. erdse, O. H. G. arwiz. From 

the der. h.ervilia (vetch) come Sp. arveja alverja, Com., erbeja. 

It. rubiqlia ^r transposed, as in rigoglio = orgoglioj, Miherbion 

(for erviglione). 
Ervodo — alhedro. 
Esbahir — hadare. 
Esbalauzir — eblouir, 
Esbanoier — banda. 
Esbozar — bozzo. 
Esbulhar — bolla. 


Esca It. Pr., 0. Fr. eche, Sp. yesca, Wal. easce iindie,v \ from L. 

esca. Isidorus has: esca vulgo dicilur fungus, quod sit fomes 

ignis. Pr. vb. escar to bait, Pg. iscar to bait a hook for fish, 

Sard, escai, It. adescare, Sp. enescare, ^^,esquero=2i leathern 

bag for fire - materials &c. 
Escada Pg. stairs; a corruption of escala from scala, v. Rom. 

Gr. 1, 241 *, or from escalada. 
Eseadre, eseadron — quadro. 
Escai O. Pr. left, = Gr. C%ai6g. 
Escalin — scellino. 

Escalio Sp. a fallow -field; from squalidus, 
Escalmo — scalmo. 
Escalona — scalogno. 
Escamel Sp. Pg. a sword -maker's bench, Pr. escaimel , 0. Fr. 

eschamel; not from scdbellum (It. sgabello, Fr. esccibeau, Cat. 

escamhelt), but from a form scamellum (al. scamillum , scamnel- 

luni) Priscian (from Apuleius). 
Escamondar Sp. to prune; from escc/mi-mondctr to scale, cleanse; 

cf. mani-aiar, perni-quehrar. 
Eseamoter Fr. to remove clandestinely, to juggle, whence Sp. 

escamotar. Perhaps from squama, Sp. escamar to scale fish, 

to clean, remove, cf. G. wegpuizen , and v. forhire; Sp. esca- 

mato = tutored by experience , cunning. 
Escanciar Sp., Pg. escancar, O.Fr. escliancer to pour in wine &c. 

(Rh. schangliiar to present); Fr. echanson, Sp. escanciano , Pg. 

escancao a cup-bearer; from O. H. G. scencan, sbst. scenco, 

orig. scancjan, scancjo, L.L. scancio scantio. From G. schenken 

comes Fr. chinquer to drink, tipple, Prov. Fr. chiquer. The It. 
- has scancia scansia a tray for glasses or books, = L. L. scan- 

cia, Bav. schanz , G. schenke. 
Eseandallo — scandaglio. 
Eseandia — scandella. 
Escantir Pr. to extinguish; from candere to glow, so for escan- 

dir, can glowing = candidus. Or from a G. source: 0. G. 

kenten, 0. N. kinda, E. kindle, 0. N. kindir fire. 
Escapar — scappare. 
Escara It., Sp. Pg. escara, Fr. escarre scurf; from L. eschara 

Esearabajo — scarafaggio, 

Escaramuza — scaramuccia. 

Esearapelarse Sp. Pg. to wrangle; scarpell are to scratch, 

from scarpelio =^ L. scalpellum. 
Esearbar Sp., Pg. escarvar. Cat. esgarrapar to scratch; from Du. 

schrapen, M. H. G. schrapfen. 
Esearbot — scarafaggio. 
Escareela eseareelle — sciarpa. 


Esearcha Sp. Pg. hoar-frost, escarchar to congeal, curl; from 

B. ecachea fine rain. 
Escarda — cardo. 

Escargot Fr. a snail; probably from the same as caracoi, with 
a strengthening prefix. 

Escarir — schiera. 

Escarlate — scarlatto. 

Escarmentar Sp. Pg. to correct severely, warn, sbst. escarmiento 
warning. Three derivations are given, (l) ex-carminare, 
which, however, should give excarmenantar, (2) It. schermo 
= from G. schirmen to defend , but this has given Sp. esgri- 
mir, (3) It. scarnamento a tearing of the skin, chastisement. 

Escarmouche — scaramuccia, 

Escarnio escarnir • — scherno. 

Escarpa escarpe — Scarpa, 

Escarpelo — escopro. 

Escarzar Sp. to castrate bee-hives; from ex-castrare , by transp. 

Escaso — scarzo. 

Escatima Sp. Pg. a diminution, escatimar to curtail, boggle. 
From Basque escatima a quarrel. 

Esehevi escavi O.Fr., Vr.escafit slender, Cat. esco/ida= a bodice. 
From 0. H. G. scafjan to arrange, make, partic. gascafit for 
wola gascafit, cf. Fr. mole iov Men mole, scant for hien scant, 
Lat. compositus for bene compositus, E. cheap for good cheap &c. 

Escliiele — schiera, 

Eschiele — squilla. 

Escliirer O. Fr., Wall, hire, Pr. esquirar to scratch; from O. 
H. G. skerran to scratch, whence also Fr. dechirer, Pic. de- 

Eschiter O. Fr. to soil; from 0. H. G. skizan, A. S. scitan, 
whence Wall, hiter. The G. word must also have influenced 
the formation of the Fr. chier which , if immediately from the 
L., would have given chayer (cf. pacare payer\ 

Escire It., commonly uscire, Wal. est, O. Sp. exir, Pr. 0. Fr. 
eissir issir nssir, E. issue; from exire. Hence It. riiiscire, Fr. 
reussir to succeed, O. Fr. rissir to go out again. The u in 
uscire, ussir is derived from It. uscio (ostium), O.Fr. us a door, 
cf. B. athea = uscio y atheratu = uscire, forasire, d'VQcc^s 

Esclandre Fr. bustle, alarm, slander; from scandalum, O.Fr. 

better eschandre, v. Kom. Gr. I. 269. 
Eselate — schiatta. 
Esclave — schiavo, 
Esclavin — scahino, 
Esclavo — schiavo. 


Esclenque O.Fr. left hand, esclenge, Wall, hieing; from O. H. G. 

slinc, Du. slink = G. link. 
Esclet — schietto. 
Esclier O. Fr. to split; slice *, from 0. H. G. scUzan, G. schleissen 

to split, A. S. sUtan, E. slice. 
Esclistre O. Fr. lightning; ecliste, Rouchi ecliire; from O. N. 

glitra, Eng. glitter, glisten. 
Esclo O. Fr.; Pr. esclau track; from O. G. slag slac, sclag, G. 

schlag (hufschlag = track) a blow; cf. fau from fagus, and 

Sp. hatuda = blow and track. 
Esclusa Sp.; Fr. ecluse a sluicC; L.L. exchisa sclusa; from exclu- 
der e, not from G. sliozan schliessen, E. sluice, which would 

have given Fr. eclusse educe. 
Escodar Sp. Pg. to hew stoneS; prop. = to remove angles, from 

codo an elboW; corner. Hence escoda stone-breaker's hammer. 
Eseolh. — cogliere. 
Escolimoso Sp. hard, obstinate; from scolymus (axoXv^og) a sort 

of thistle. 
Escollo — scoglio. 
Escolta — corgere. 
Escondire 0. Fr. Pr. to excuse; L. L. ex- con- dicer e, like bkIo- 

Escopeta eseopette — schioppo. 

Escoplo Sp., Pg. escopro, estoupro, Val. escapre, O. Fr. eschalpre 
a chisel; from scalprum, Sp. escarpelo, It. scarpello, from scal- 

Escoreer escorzar — scorciare. 

Escorre — scuotere. 

Escorte — corgere. 

Eseorzon — escuerzo. 

Escola Sp. Pg. a sheet (naut.); from Du. school, E. sheet (from 
schiessen, shoot). 

Escota — scotta. 

Escote Sp. a round piece cut out in shaping a garment, vb. esco- 
tar. From G. schoofs, Goth, skaut-s &c. a lap. 

Escote — scotto. 

Escouade — quadro. 

Escousse — scuotere. 

Escozar — cuire. 

Eseramo 0. Sp. a javelin. We find it in L. Wisig. 9; 2, 1 : scutis, 
spatis, sramis, lanceis, sagittis, and with sahs a knife in Gre- 
gory of Tours : cum cultris validis quos vulgus scramasaxos vo- 
cant. Cf. Dief. Goth. wb. % 257. 

Escraper 0. Fr. to scrape; from Du. schrapen, E. scrape. From 
same source comes 0. Fr. escrafe, escreffe a fish-bone, M.H.G. 


schrapfen to scratch, Fl. schraeffen, cf. Langued, escrafd to 
scratch out, blot out. 

Escregne escriegne escrienne 0. Fr. a little house, summer- 
house &c., connected with L. L. screuna (from L. scrinium 
Grimm) a subterranean chamber. 

Escrimer — schermo. 

Escroc — scrocco. 

Escuchar — ascoltarc. 

Eseudrinar Sp., N.Pr. escudrinhd to search, scrutinise; for escru- 
dinar, It. scrutinare from scrutinium, 

Escuerzo escorzon Sp. a toad, It. scorzone a sort of venomous 
snake; prop. = bark;, It. scorzo, from the rough, bark- 
like skin. 

Eseuma — schinma. 

Escupir Sp. Pg., Pr. 0. Fr. escopir esctf/nr, Wal. scuipd to spit. 
A corruption of exspuere. 

Ese — esso. 

Esfolar — desollar, 

Esglay — ghiado. 

Esgrima esgrimir — schermo. 

Esgrumer 0. Fr., Cat. esgrumar, O. Fr. esgrunier esgruner, Pr. 
Cat. esgrunar to crumb, crumble; from Du. kruim, G. krume, 
E. crum. 

Esguazo — quado. 

Esguince — sguancio, 

Esito It. sale of goods ; from exitus. 

Eslider O. Fr., Norm, elinder to slide; from A. S. sliddn, E. 
slide. Norm, lider = A. S. glidan, E. glide. 

Eslingua — slinga. 

Esmaier esmair — smagare. 

Esmalte — smalio. 

Esmar Pr., O. Fr. es7ner, 0. Sp. 0. Pg. asmar, Gallic, osmar to 
estimate; sbst. Pr. O. Fr. esme, Cat. esma , Lang, ime, Lorr. 
aume; from cestimare. Hence Pr. azesmar = ad-cestimarej to 
reckon, aim: a son colp azesmat aimed his blow well, also 
azermar, sermar. From azesmar is O. Fr. acesmer to set in 
order (battle &c.), O. Gen. acesmar, Dante's accismare to set 
to rights , dress (not from cisma), also azzimare, Sp. azemar 
to adorn. Esmar, Pic. amer also gives E. aim, M. H. G. amen, 

Esmeralda — smeraldo. 

Esmerar esmerer — smerare. 

Esmeril — smeriglio. 

Esmeril esmerejon — smerlo. 

Esneque esneche O.Fr. a sharp-prowed ship; from O.'N.sneckia, 


Dan. snekke, O. G. snaga, snecke, probably connected with 

G. schnekke a snail. 
Espaciar — spazzare. 
Espada — spada, 
Espalda — spalla. 
Espalhar — paglia. 
Espalier — spalla. 
Espantar — spaventare. 
Espareir Sp. to scatter, Pg. esparzir, O. Sp. Pg. espargir, from 

spargere, Pr. esparser. Cf. arcilla. 
Esparvel — sparaviere. 
Espasmo — spasimo. 
Espautar Pr. to be in anguish, Wall, cspaivter. Pic. epauter, sbst. 

Pr. espaut; from ex-pavitare. 
Especia — spezie. 
Espejo — specchio. 
Espelh espiegle — specchio. 
Espelta — spelta. 
Esperir O. Fr. Pr. to awaken, s'esperir to awake, Pr. resperir; 

from expergere, re-expergere , with elision of the d, as though 

from experrigere , cf. lire from leg ere. 
Esperlan — eperlan. 
Espertar 0. Sp. Pg. Pr. to awaken; from espergitus. Hence Sp. 

despierto, Pg. desperto, vb. despertar, Wall, dispierte. 
Espeso ■ — spesso. 
Espeto — spito. 
Espiar — spiare. 
Espiche Sp. a sharp - pointed weapon, goad, Pg. espicho, vb. 

-Sp. Pg. espichar to prick; from spiculum spiclum, spiculare, cl 

= ch cf. hacha (facvla), cuchara (cochlearium). 
Espiegle Fr. a wag, O. Fr. Ulespiegle; from G. Eulenspiegel 

(owl- glass) the title of a collection of droll stories, v. Max 

Miiller, Lectures. 
Espiet espie 0. Fr., espieut espiaut Pr. spear; from 0. G. spioz 

Espinaea — spinace. 
Espineta — spinetta. 
Espingarda — springare. 
Espion — spiare. 
Espita — spitamo. 
Esplinque Sp. bird -trap; for esprinque, 0. H. G. springa, E. 

springe. Hence also Lang, esperenc and Com. sparangon. 
Espojo — spoglio. 
Espolin — spola. 
Espolon espuela — sperone, 
Esponton — spuntone. 


Esposo — sposo. 

Espreitar — exploit. 

Esprelle and prele Fr. shave -grass (bot.), It. asperella; from 

Esprequer Fr. to prick; from Du. prikken, E. prick. 
Espringuer — springare. 
Esproher O. Fr. to besprinkle; from spruejen, M.H.G. sprewen, 

G.spriihen. Si^.espurriar is, probably, a corruption of espruyar. 
Esprohon O. Fr., Roiichi eproon, Wall, sprew a starling; from 

O. H. G.spra, Gr. sprehe, Du. spreuwe, O.E. sparwe (sparrow). 
Espurriar — esproher. 

Espurrir Sp. to stretch one's legs ; from exporrigerey It. sporgere. 
Esquadra — quadro. 
Esquecer Pg. to cause to forget, esquecerse to forget; 0. Pg. 

escaecer = excadescere used actively. 
Esquela — cedola. 
Esqueleto — scheletro. 
Esquena — schiena. 
Esquentar — calentar. 
Esquero — esca. 
Esquicio — schizzo. - 
Esquif esquife — schifo. 
Esquila — squilla. 
Esquille Fr. a bone -splint. Dim. from G%C8y\ or ax^dtov whence 

pi. schidice (Vitruv.). Cf. scheggia. 

Esquilo — scojattolo. 

Esquina Sp. Pg. corner, probably from esquena fish -spine, = 
sharp point, cf. It. spigolo (spiculum) = corner. 

Esquinzar Sp., Pr. esquinsar esquissar to tear to pieces (rags &c.) ; 
from ^xCt.Eiv with n inserted? Sp. has also desguinzar. 

Esquisse — schizzo. 

Esquivar esquiver — schivare. 

Essai — saggio (2). 

Essaim ■ — sciame. 

Essart 0. Fr., Pr. eissart, F. assart fresh land, essarter, eissartar 
to clear land; from ex-saritum hoed up, dug up, vb. ex- sari- 
tare, L. L. exartum, exartare. 

Essere It., Pr. Rh. esser, Fr. etre, Sp. Pg. ser to be. The L. esse 
in L. L. took the regular inf. ending and became essere (impf. 
conj. esseret). From this was formed Fr. ^stre etre, as from 
tessere (texere) tistre titre. The Sp. ser, however, orig. seer (in 
two syllables), is from sedere (1) to be situated: Campo Nola 
sedet, Dante: siede la terra sulla marina (2) remain (3) be. Cf. 
Goth, visan (Gr. wesen, E. was) to dwell (Sansk. vas), remain, 
be. The Sp. verb takes from sedere its imper. se (or sey)j 


gerund, partic. sido (or seido), infinitive, pres. conj. {sea or 

setja) impf. sia for exa. 
Essieu Fr. axle; for aissieu from axicutus, like epieu from spicu- 

him, It. assiculo. 
Esso It., O. It. isso, Sp. ese, Pg. esse, Pr. e/^^ ^jt?5^ Wal. insu from 

//?5^;, 0. Sp. ^552 from //?5' /«'^. Often in compounds, e. g. It. 

lungliesso, sovresso, Pr. anceis, demanes, cf. Lat. ;zw/ic ipsum, 

isthuc ipsum (Ter.), Sp. «Aorflf mismo; Pg. <z^w2 m there, cf. G. 

daselbst. For L. wwn^ we have It. adesso, 0. Sp. adksso, Pr. 

0. Fr. «^^5 ^«^ ipsum); 0. It. /55fl^, Ehset. ?/55« from ipsa sc. 

/jor<3t = 0. Sp. esora. Pr. epsamen eissamen, O. Fr. esement, 

essement = L. pariter, 0. Fr. ensement, Pr. ensament (with 

inserted w). Cf. <?^5. 
Essoigne — sogna. 
Essorer — sauro. 
Essuyer — suco. 
Est Fr., 0. Fr. hest, whence Sp. este, 0. Sp. leste; from A. S. 

E. east. 
Estaca estaehe — stacca. 
Estaeha Sp. harpoon -rope; from B. est-archa. 
Estaeion — stagione. 
Estafette estafilade — staffa. 
Estala — stallo. 
Estallar — schiantare. 
Estamena — stamigna. 
Estampar — stampare. 
Estanc — stanco. 
Estancar — stancare. 
Estaneia — stanza. 
Estandarte — stendardo. 
Estano — stagno. 
Estarna • — starna. 
Estai — etai. 

Esteil 0. Fr. an arrow; from O. H. Gr. stihhiL 
Esteio — etai. 
Estera — stoja. 

Estern Pr. track, esternar to follow ; from A. S. stearne, E. stern. 
Esters estiers 0. Fr. Pr. without, except: e. g. estiers man grat 

against my will. From exterius, by metathesis extiertis estiers. 
Estiar O. Sp. to remain still ; from cestivare. Pg. estiar, = to be- 
come clear, cease from raining. 
Estivar — stivare. 
Esto O. It., Sp. Pg. este, Pr. est, 0. Fr. ist, Wal. ist aist, from 

iste. Hence questo, cotesto &c. 
Estoc — stocco. 
Estofa — stoffa. 


Estopa — stoppa. 

Estoque — stocco. 

Estor — stormo. 

Estorer Fr. to erect, build, furnish; from instaurare; estoree, 
estorement, L. L. instaunmi, staurum, E. store, Gael, star, W. 
ystor. The 0. Fr. estoire (though in L. L. instauruni) belongs 
rather to stuolo. 

Estout Pr. O. Fr. haughty, bold ; from G. slolz, E. stout, It. stolto, 
from L. stultus. From estout, Pr. estot is the 0. Fr. estotoier to 

Estovoir O. Fr. impersonal vb. to become, beseem, be neces- 
sary, pres. nCestuet, pf. m!estut. From stare, ester to stand 
near, become, which in pf. has estiit = stetit, as arestut from 
arester: from pf. estut came pres. estuet, inf. estovoir like muet, 
muty movoir. Estovoir was also used as a sbst. = necessaries 
of life, E. stover, L. L. estoverium (cf. manoir maneriuni). But 
the Rhset. has stover 5^wt;<?r = must, pf. stuvet, conj. stuvess, 
and this could hardly come from star (pf . stet), nor is it likely 
to have been introduced from the Fr. It is better , therefore, 
to refer the verb to L. studere, studuit == 0. Fr. Fr. estut, Rh. 
stuvet, stuvess = O. Fr. esteust = studuisset. What is desired 
or willed may be regarded as necessary, hence studeo scire = 
I must know, cf. Rom. Gr. .3, 204. 

Estrac Fr. lean, meagre (of a horse); from G. strack, 0. H. G. 
strac strictus = Fr. e'troit, E. strait. 

Estrada estrade — strada. 

Estragao estragon — targone. 

Estrago Sp. Pg. depravity, corruption, havoc, vb. estragar. 
From strages , cf . gorga from gurges. 

Estraier — strada. 

Estralar — schiantare. 

Estrambote — strambo, 

Estraiio — stranio. 

Estrapazar — pazzo. 

Estraper 0. Fr. to glean, cut down, hence Fr. etrape a sickle; 
from Sw. strapen, E. strip, Bav. straff en to cut. Cf. It. strap- 
pare. Or a form of estreper = exstirpare? 

Estrayer 0. Fr., Pr. estraguar to digress, E. stray; from extra- 
vagare, It. stravagare. 

Estrazar — stracciare, 

Estreer 0. Fr. to give up, deliver ; from Pr. tradar formed from 
tra-dare, ex-tra-dare, 

Estregar — fregare, 

Estreper — estraper, 

Estriar — Strega. 

Estribo Sp. Pg., Cat. estreh, Pr. estreup estrieu estrep, estriuh, 


O. Fr. esirief , E. stirrup: hence Sp. estribera, Pg. estribeira, 
Fr. etriviere and etrier. The It. uses staffa instead. From the 
M. H. G. stege-reif, L. Gr. sttreip (E. stirrup), contr. streep. 
Hence Sp. estribar, O.Fr. estriver (desestn'ver = to throw from 
the stirrup). The 0. Fr. estriver, E. strive is from G. strehen; 
sbst. Pr. estris, 0. Fr. estrif, E. 5^n/<?. From eslriho comes Sp. 
costribo support; vb. costribar. Sp. estribo estribillo = also 
burden of a song; refrain^ properly a resting-place or stirrup. 
0. Sp. estribote, 0. Fr. estribot estrabot, Pr. estribot a satire. 

Estribot — strambo. 

Estribord — stribord. 

Estriga Pg. a portion of flax for spinning; from L. striga a 
streak , or swathe of mown corn. 

Estrillar — strecchia. 

Estringa — stringa. 

Estrinque estrenque Sp.; Vg.estrinque estrinca a ropC; Fg.estrin- 
car to twist; from G. strick a ropO; with inserted n; E. string 
(v. stringa). Cf. Ven. strica a rope. Com. stricca to tie, and 
cf. tricoter, 

Estriver ■ — estribo. 

Estro It. Sp. enthusiasm; from oestrus (piCXQog). 

Estrope — stroppolo. 

Estropear estropier — stroppiare. 

Estros Pr. 0. Fr. with ad, ad estros unconditionally; immedi- 
ately ; from extrorsum (opp. introrsum) = outwardly; without 
reserve. Par estros was used; whence sbst. ia parestrusse the 

Estrovo • — stroppolo. 

Estrubar • — estribo. 

Estruendo Sp.; Pg. estrondo noise ; clamour; from tonitrus with 
ex and metathesis of the r, extronitus, cf. Fr. estonner from 
extonare. O. Sp. has atruendo. 

Estrujar — torchio. 

Estucho • — astuccio. 

Estufa — stufa. 

Estuque — stucco. 

Esturar — torrar. 

Esturion - — storione. 

Esturlenc Pr. a combatant; from 0. H. G. sturilinc, cf. adclenc 
from adalinc (E. atheling). 

Esturman O. Fr. (also estrumant, stieresman); from Du. stuur- 
man, A. S. steorman, E. steersman. 

Etablir Fr.; E. establish; from L. stabilire (It.). 

Etage — staggio. 

Etai Fr.; Sp. estay a stay (rope), Fr. etaie (Pg. esteio) prop ; vb. 


etayer; from Du. staede staye = A. S. stede, O. H. G. statu, 
M. H. G. state, vb. Du. staeden, E. stead, stay, 

Etain — stagno. 

Etal etalon — stallo. 

Etamer — stagno. 

Etamine — stamigna, 

Etamper — stampare, 

Etance — stanza. 

Etancher etang — stancare. 

Etangues — stanga. 

Etape Fr., 0. Fr. estaple a store-house; staple; from Du. stapel, 
E. staple. 

Etau — stallo. 

Eteindre Fr.; from exstinguere , It. sting uere, 

Etendard — stendardo. 

Eteule — stoppia. 

Etineelle Fr. a spark (hence 'tinsel); a corruption of scintilla, 

O. Fr. escintele, stencele (E. stencil). 
Etiquette Fr. a stitched or pinned note or billet; Rouchi esti- 

quete a pointed stick ; Neap, sticchetto. From same root as It. 

stecco a thorn ; prick; Rouchi stique a dagger ; L. G. stikke, 

stikken, E. stick, cf. Champ, stiquer to put iu; stick in, 0. Fr. 

estiquer to beat with a stick. 

Etoffe — stoffa. 

Etonner Fr.; O. Fr. estoner, E. astony, astonish; from attonare, 
extonare. 0. Pr. has estornar for estronar (tronar = tonnerj. 

Etouble — stoppia. 

Etouffer — tufo (l). 

Etoupe etoupin — stoppa. 

Etourdir — stordire. 

Etourgeon — storione. 

Etrain Pic. sea -coast; from G. E. strand. 

Etrange — stranio. 

Etraper ■ — estraper. 

Etre — essere. 

Etreeir — etroit. 

Etreindre Fr. from string ere; cf. astreindre, restreindre from ad- 
stringer e, restringere , contraindre from constringere. 

Etrier ■ — estriho. 

Etrille — strecchia. 

Etriquet — tricoter. 

Etriviere — estriho. 

Etroit Fr., E. strait; from strictus, Pr. estreit. It. stretto. Hence 
etreeir to narrow, retrecir to draw in ; retrench , verbs of in- 
choative form and active sense, from a L. strictescere , Sp. 


estrechecer. O. Fr. estrecier would = a L. striciiare. Hence 
detroit a narrow pass , from destrictus, cf. de'tresse, 

Etron — stronzare. 

Etrope — stroppolo. 

Ette It. (m.) a trifle, Com. eta, Flor. etti, Rom. etta ett, Com. 
m'importa on eta = mUmporta un frullo; from L. hetta, Festus: 
res minimi pretii ., , cum dicimus '^non hettce te facio^\ 

Etui — astuccio, 

Etuve — stufa, 

Evanouir Fr. (reflex.), Pr. esvamdr to vanish. It. corresponds 
to It. svanire, Rhset. svanir, Pg. esvair, It. pres. svanisco = L. 
evanesco, Ou is inserted as in epanouir, 0. Fr. engenouir, ama- 
douer, hafouer; the o in Pr. mano'ir = Goth, v (manvjan), 

Evaser Fr. to enlarge an opening; from vas, or opp. convasare 
to pack together , evaser un arbre to give it room. 

Eventail — ventaglio. 

Evier — eau, 

Exaucer ■ — alzare. 

Exploit Fr., Pr. espleii esplecha profit, vb. exploiter espleitar to 
perform, accomplish*, from explic^tum drawn out, accomplished 
(E. exploit). Cf. ploite (0. Fr.) from plicita, as plait from placi- 
tum. Pg. espleitar to explore is also from explicare j but in a 
different sense, to unfold, find. 

Eziandio It. = L. etiam. From etiam dens; cf. avvegna dio che, 
macari dio che, O. Ven. quanvis-deo, O. Gen. qiianvis-de, sa 
ezian dio che, ezian dio se, ezian dio. 


Pabueo — faggio. 

Paca — haca. 

Paecenda It., Pg. Pr. fazenda, Sp. hacienda, O. Fr. faciende 

business; plur. faciendum. Sp. and Pg. -- management of an 

estate, estate, whence It. azienda. So. Pr. afar (v. a/fare). 
Pacchino It., Sp. faquiUy Fr. faquin a porter, also a knave. 

From Du. vant-kin a lad. Or, perhaps, from Ar. faqir poor. 

Sic. facchinii = tavernaio. 
Paccia It., Wal. fatze, Pr. fassa, Fr. face, Sp. haz {faclia from 

the It.), Y^. face face; ir oiw fades, the first four forms from an 

old l^om.. facia, Sp. ?iacia = h. versus. Hence It. facciata, Fr. 

facade, and Pr. esfassar, Fr. effacer, E. efface. 
Pacha — faccia. 
Pacha — accia. 
Pacher — fastio. 
Paeimola faeimolo sorcery. According to Menage from faccre 


molam (Virg. sparge molam et fragiles incende hitumine lauros), 
but we should ex])ect fact- moi a like faci-mcile. 

Fa9on Fr., Pr. faissd, E. fashion; from f actio used passively, of. 
toison from tonsio. 

Fade Fr. also fat, Pr. fat (f. fada) insipid, dull (E. fade)'^ from 
fatuus, of. vax from vacuus. It. fado. 

Faggio It., Sp. haya, Pg. Pr. fay a a beech, 0. Fr. fage a beech- 
wood*, from adj. fageus fagea. Fagus is found in ^a\. fag, 
^\Q:. fagu fau, Pr. Rh. Rouchi/rtw, O.Yr.fofeu, Lomb.Gen./o. 
Fr. fame beech- nut, 0. Fr. Lorr. fame, from fagitius fagina, 
It. faggiuolo, Sp. fahuco (=^ faguco), with the same suffix as 
almendruco, Cmt. fatja (=fageaj. 

Fagotto fangotto It., Pr. Fr. fagot, Sp. fogote, E. faggot, W. 
ffagod. From fax prop. = a bundle of split pine -wood (cf. 
V. jamque faces et saxa volant), Gk. (pdxsXog (dimin.) ; g for c 
as in It. sorgo from soricem, S]). per dig on from perdicem, Pr. 
/w^or from lucem, Wal. /j«c fagot is from fax as wt/c from nux. 
The Sp. owes its form to a supposed connection with fuego, 

Faide O. Fr. feud, hence faidiu hostile, Pr. faidir to persecute, 
banish; from L. L. faida, A. S. fehdlie, 0. H. G. gafehida, 
Q. fehde, Yx. feud. 

Faille — fiaccola, 

Faillir — fallire. 

Faina It., Oat. fagina, N. Pr. faguino fahino , O. Fr. fayne, Fr. 
fouine, hence Sp. /wmfl^^ V^.fuinha, \ en. fuina foina , Lomb. 
Piedm. foin a polecat, marten, 0. E. foin. From foine, fame 
(v. faggio) beech-mast, cf. E. heech-martin. From sbst. comes 
a vb. Genev. fouiner, Rouch. founier, Lomb. fogna to track, 
cf. Fr. f ureter to ferret out, from furet, It. hraccare from 
hracco. The E. foumart = fouine and mart (== martin). 

Faine — faggio. 

Faint O. Fr., E. faint, partic. of se feindre (de quelque chose), 
Pr. se fenher to neglect; prop, to dissemble, from fingere, 
O. Fr. foindre = E. foin. Hence faignant lazy (afterwards 
YfYiiian faineant [faireneant]), cf. (1) dissembling, 
(2) lazy, Murat. : qui aut nolunt aut cum pigritia faciunt, simu- 
lantes sibi vires deesse. 

Faire O. Fr., Pr. far to speak. Not from fari but from facere 
(verba), cf . imperf. fesoient they spoke. 

Faisca — falavesca. 

Faisceau — fascio. 

Faite Fr. (m.), O. ¥v. fa'iste , fesie; from fastigium, \i. fastigio. 
Fust in Devonshire == ridge of the roof. 

Falaise Fr. a cliff, hence the name of a town in Normandy, O. 
Fr. falise; from 0. H. G. felisa (f.), G. fels (m.). 

Falavesca It. embers, Vg. faisca, O. Sip. fuisca spark, vb. Pg. 



faiscar. Another form is It. favolesca for favillesca from fa- 
villa, Veron. Parm. Crera.faliva; fuisca is for foisca for fo- 
visca falvisca (cf. topo from talpci). The O. H. Gr. falaivhca 
is from the Rom. The same suffix is found in Fr. flamm-eche 
from flamma. 
Palbala It. Sp. Pg. Fr., Sp. also farfald, Crem. Parm. framhala, 
Piedm. farabald, Rouchi farbala, E. furbeloiv; from G. falbel 
a plait, flounce, falbeln to plait? Or is this from the Rom.? 
Falbo It., Pr. falb, Fr. fauve; from O. H. G. folo (E. falloiv)^ 

Gen. falewes, G. /«/& yellow. 
Falcare dififaleare It., Sp. Pg. desfalcar, Fr. defalquer, to ^<?/Vz/- 
c«^^, abstract. Usu. derived from /"flf/^^ Sp. falcar to reap. 
But better from the 0. H. G. falgan to rob , abstract. If the 
G. word came from the R., it would be falchan falaclian. 
Paleo falcone It., Sp. halcon, Pr. falc6, Fr. faucon, O. H. G. 
falcho, Yi. falcon; from falco (first used by Servius ad ^n. 
10, 146), which is from falx, cf. falcula a claw. Festus says: 
falcones quorum digiti pollices in pedibus retro sunt curvati. 
Hence falcone, falcon, faucon a gun, dim. falconetto, falconets, 
fauconneau 2k> falconet, cf. moscJietto, sagro, terzuolo. 
Falda It., Sp. falda lialda, Pg. fralda, Pr. fauda, 0. Fr. faude, 
the skirt or fold of a robe; from O. H. Q^.falt, A. S. feald, 
G. falte, E. fold {== Rh. falda). In It. Sp. Pg. it also = the 
brow , slope , or skirt of a hill. 
Paldistorio It. Sp. Pg., Fr. faldistoire a fald- stool, Fr. fauteuil, 
O. Fr. faudestueil an arm-chair; from O. H. G. faltstiiol , E. 
faldstool {= folding-stool). For faldistorio 0. Sp. has facistor 
facistol = falz-stuol. Hence It. palchistuolo a penthouse (from 
Paldriquera faltriquera Sp. a pocket; from falda, whence fal- 
dica, then with inserted r as m faltrero a pickpocket, faldr- 
iqu - era. 
Palla — favola. 

Pallire It., O. Sp. O. Pg. fallir falir (Sp. fallecer, falecer), Pr. 
Fr. faillir to fail; from fallere. From faillir is derived the 
impers. pres. faut, pf. fallut, inf. falloir, O. Fr. faldre faudre; 
il me faut = me fallit it escapes me, I want it, I must have it. 
From fallire c-omes sbst. It. fallo falla, O. Sp. falla, Pr. falha, 
O. Yt. faille, 0. It. faglia fault; vb. It. fallare to fail, neglect, 
Sp. Rh. fallar. 
Palo It. a bonfire , Fr. falot a lantern ; from rpavog a torch , or 
from (pccQog a beacon, Piedm. faro, Ven. fand. It. falotico, 
Fr. falot = odd, extravagant (prop, flaring?). From cpccvog 
also It. fanale, Sp. Fr. fanal a ship's lantern. 
Palourde Fr. (f.) from faix lourd. It corresponds in form with 
the O. Fr. falorde falourde (f.) a merry tale, Sp. falordia. 


Cat. falornictj vb. falorder to jest, 6'^ falorder to make oneself 

Paltare It., Sp. Pg. f altar to fail (falter); hence It. Sp. Pg. falta^ 
Fr. faiite, E. fault, Sp. Pg. adj. falto, It. diffalta, Pr. defauta, 
O. Fr. defaute, default. Faltare is a freq. from fallere (falli- 

Faluca — feluca. 

Famiglio It., O.Sp. O.^^.famillo familiOy ^\v» famaigl a servant; 
from familia, cf. Sp. manceha from mancipium. 

Fanal fanale — /Vz/o. 

Panciullo — fante. 

Panello It. a linnet, Piedm. fanin, Mil. fanett; from the G. 
hanf- il - ing (hemp - ling) ? 

Paner Fr. to let dry, make into hay, faner Vherhe; O. Fr. fener 
fanir to wither. Pic. fener, L. L. af-fenare, Pr. faner, Rh. 
fanar fenar. From faenum foenum, cf. O. Fr. fanoul for fenouil, 
Lorr. fouon = Yr.foin, Lorr. fouannd = ¥\\ faner; Lim. sbst. 
fe, vb. fend. 

Panfa O. Sp. brag; It. fanfano, Sp. fanfarron, Fv. fanfaron a 
blusterer, fanfare blast of trumpet; Sp. farfante, Langued. 
farfantaine braggart; an onomatopoeion. 

Panfaluea It. embers, trifles, Fr. fanfreluche, O. Fr. fanfelue 
trifles, gewgaws. Norm, fanflue. L. L. famfaluca a corruption 
oH pompholgx (7to^(p6Xv^) (l) a bubble, (2) slag, scoria. Hence 
Mil. fanfidla. Com. fanfola, Sic. fanfonj (pi.) trifles; Fr. fre- 
luquet a fop , for fanfreluquet. 

Pango It. Sp., Pr. 0. Fr. fane, fem. Lomb. fanga, Pr. fanha, 
Fr. fange, Norm, fatigue mud. From Goth, fani (n.) gen. fanjis 
the J becoming h (fanha) ov g ^ c, cf. from venio It. vengo, Pr. 
venc. Bret, fank from the O. Fr., which Pictet refers with 
the Ir. fochall to the Sansk. panka. Fangoso, fangeux might 
also come hom. fa?mcosus (Festus, according to O. Miiller from 
famex, whence might com.Q fange [famicem\). 

Panon O. Fr. a cloth, towel, Yr. fanon f anion; from O. H. G. 
fano, Goth, fana a piece of cloth, O. H. G. hantfano a towel. 

Pante It. a boy, servant, foot- soldier, Sp. infante &q..'^ from 
in fans. Hence fanteria^infantry, fantoccio a doll, It. fanciullo 
fanciulla a child, Flor. Wol. fancella. For the loss of the 1^* syl- 
lable, ci.folto, scipido, strometito, &c. 

Pantome Fr., E. phantom; from phantasma, It. faniasima, Pr. 
fantauma (from fantalma, cf. Cat. fantarmct). O. Fr. vb. enfan- 
tosmer. Langued. fantasti a goblin , phantasticus. 

Paon Fr., E. fawn, vb. faoner. O. Fr. faon feon == young espec. 
of lions, bears, dragons &c., faoner feoner to bring forth young. 
Connected with Pr. feda (q. v.), from fetus; feon from fedon, 
as fea from feda. 



Paquin — facchino. 

Parandula Sp. Pg. Cat. profession of a comedian, also a wander- 
ing troop of comedians. Perhaps connected with the G. fah- 
rende wandering people. Far ante (Sp.) = a messenger, actor 
who speaks the prologue &c. ; farandula from a form faranda, 
as lavandula from lavanda , girandula from giranda, 

Farapo — arpa. 

Paraute — araldo. 

Farce • — farsa. 

Fard Fr. paint, vb. farder; fard = teinte, L. iincta, which in 
0. H. G. would be gi-farwit gi-farit (from farxvjan G. fdrhen 
to colour). 

Fardo Sp. Pg. a bale, pack, Sp. fardillo, Pg. Pr. E. fardel y Fr. 
fardeau; Sp. farda alfarda a notch, also a tax, Pg. farda al- 
farda a soldier's coat; Sp. fardage, Pg. fardagem^ It. fardag- 
gio luggage. Ar. farda j al-faHda pack tax, fard notch. 

Farfalla It. a butterfly, a fickle man (Wal. f erf ale), Bas. uli- 
farfalla {ulia a gnat) ; Pg. farfalhas pi. cuttings of metal in 
coining, bragging. It. sfarfallare to cut through, become a 
butterfly, N. Pr. esfarfalha to scatter (Fr. eparpiller). From 
papilio come li. parpaglione , then, perhaps through influence 
of the 0. H. G. fifaltra, farfaglione farfalla. The Sw. has 
farfalL Com. farfatola a fickle person. Rh. fafarinna butterfly 
is == L. fac farinam ^^make meaP^, Sard, faghe- farina, be- 
cause it is covered with a dust like that of meal. 

Farfante farfarron — fanfa. 

Farfogliare Neap., Lomb. farfoja, Sp. farfullar, Rouchi far- 
foulier to stammer; an onomatop. (= Fr. farfouiller to rum- 
mage) or = Ar. farfara to talk confusedly. 

Farga — forgia. 

Farinella — flanella, 

Farnia fargna the broad-leaved oak, quercus robur; from far- 
nus (Vitruv.) by some supposed to be contracted from fraxi- 
nus; the It. comes from the adj., Apicius has: farnei fungi. 

Faro Pg. scent (of dogs), track, steam of meat &c. ; from Ar. 

far ah ? 
Farouclie Fr., vb. effaroucher, from feroxferocis, cf. mordache 

from mordax. Pr. Cat. ferotge. O. Fr. harouche = insolent. 

Farpa farpao farpar — arpa. 

Farsa It. Sp. Pg., from the Yx. farce, i!^ farce, orig., as in French 
= a stuffing, thence a medley, farce, cf. satira; ivoxn farsiis 
stuffed, whence also It. farseito waistcoat, doublet; from farsa 
comes Pg. disfarzar, S. disfrazar to mask. 

Faseio It., Sp. faxo, haz, Pg. feix, Fr. faix bundle &c. ; from 


fascis. Hence It. fastello for fascettello, Fr. faisceau, It. fascina, 
Sp. faxina liacina &c. ; vb. Pr. afaissar, Fr. affaisser. 

Pasquia Sp. Pg. a ledge; from Ax.faschia (Sousa), which is from 
vb. fasacha to separate. 

Fastello — fascio, 

Fastidlo It., fastio liastio Sp., Pg. hastio, Cat. fastig, Pr. /V^^/?^ 
fastic, 0. Fr. /Vzs/?; from fastidium; vb. fastidiare. 0. Sp. 
hastiar, Pr. fastig ar fasticar, Fr. fdcher, E. /Vzs^; adj. It. /(as/e- 
^/oso, Sp. hastioso, Cat. Pr. fastigos, Fr. fdcheux, L. fastidiosus. 
The guttural is due to a form fast-icare. 

Fata — /^'. 

Fata It., Sp. /(T^rt?^ /j«<?^, Pg. Pr. /Vz6?«{, Fr. /k?'^, Dauph. /V/?/^, E. 
/«?/; vb. It. fatare, Sp. hadar, Pr. fadar, O. Fr. /(gi^r, /^^r, M. 
H. G. feinen to bewitch; from />z^« = Parca, on a coin of 
Diocletian, fatis = Dis manibus. Fatus is used by Petronius, 
Others derive it from Fatua, 

Fatras Fr. booty; ior fartas, ivom. fartus (Menage). 

Fattizio It. &c., artificial, factitious; from L. facticius; sbst. Sp. 
hechizo, Pg. feitico enchantment (whence E. sbst. fetish), like 
O. H. G. zoubar (G. zauherei) from zouivan to make; hence Sp. 
hechicero, Pg. feiticeiro a sorcerer. It. fattuccliiero. Factura is 
used in the same sense. It. fattura^ Pr. faitura {feature, cf . feat 
= fait, fetish =^ faictis well made, neat), vb. It. fatturare, 
Pr. faiturar; sbst. Pr. fachurier, Dauph. faiturier, Pr. faitilha 
enchantment is also from facer e, 

Fattuchiero — fattizio. 

Faubourg Fr. suburb. Y'ov faux-hourg =^ falsus hurgus, cf. faux- 
frais, faux -hois, fausse-clef. This der. is supported by the 
Wall, fd-bor, Wall, fa = Fr. faux. The O. Fr. form forborg 
forsbourg was spelt as though from foris, 

Faueon — falcone. 

Faude O. Fr. sheepfold; from A. S. fald, falud, E. fold, A. S. 
faled, cf. W. ffald dung. 

Faute — falta, 

Fauteuil — faldistorio. 

Fautre fautrer — feltro. 

Fauve — falbo. 

Favola It., Sp. fabla, Fr. fable, Yx, faula, E. fable, Sp. fabla 
habla, Vg.falla speech, Urom. fabula; It. favella language, from 
fabella, Sard, {m.) fueddu speech, word; dim. Yy. fabliau, O. 
Fr. Pr. fabel a short story; It. favola favellare, Sp. hablar 
(whence Fr. habler), V^.fallar, Yx. favelar faular, O.Yv. fabler 
to narrate, speak, Wal. heblei to make a noise ; from fabulari. 
The It. fola = Pr. faula, fiaba = 0. Fr. /labe with the 

Faxo — fascio. 


Fazaleja — fazzuolo. 

Pazzuolo fazzoletto It., O. ^^, fazolcto a pocket-handkerchief. 
The Sp. fazaleja is from fades (Sp. faz), L. L. faclale. Diez 
refers fazzuolo (by reason of its suffix) to another origin , G. 
fetzen a rag (cf. It. pezzuoUi). But the Sic. fazzulctlu is from 
^ic, facci (fades), and, doubtless, the It. is of kindred, per- 
haps dialectical, origin. 

Fe (phe) O. Fr. = servus. It is the O. N. fwdd- r, fed, brought 
up, cf. Sp. criado. 

Peble — fievole. 

Peehar Pg. to shut, hence fecho a bolt ; prop, to close a letter &c. 
by dating it *, from factum ^= date , Sp. fechar to date. 

Peda Pr. Com., Piedm. /<?«, Dauph. /t^Vz a sheep; irom. feta = 
qua3 peperit, spec, of sheep, cf . cordero and Virg. : Non insueta 
graves tentahunt pahida felas. Beam. heda= L. feta generally, 
Wal. fet = child, fate daughter, from fetus, vb. fcla = fetare, 
Sard, fedu ■= fetus. 

Pedera It. thick woven stuff, twill ; from O. H. G. fedara fea- 
ther, M. H. G. federe felt, L. L. penna. 

Pee — fata. 

Pegato It., Sp. higado, Pg. fig ado , Pr. feigc, Wall, feute, Fr. 
foie (m.) liver; from L. L. ficatum (sc. jecur), prop, the fig- 
fattened goose's liver, pinguibus fids pastum jecur anseris albi 
Hor. S. 2, 8; 88; cf. N. Gr. (ji'noxi from GvnGixov i^tckq. The 
accent is thrown back, and we find also figido for ficatum, cf. 
rogitus rogatus , dolitus dolatus , vocitus vocatus, provilus proba- 
tus &c. Sard, is figciu, \en.figd, Wal./?c«/. For the importance 
of the goose, cf. its name It. oca^ Fr. oie (avica, avis) the 

Peindre — faint. 

Peira — fiera. 

Pelce It., Sp. helecho, Fr. fougere fern; (1) from filix (Langued. 
feouze), (2) from fiUctum, (3) from a form filicaria. 

Peler Fr. to split ; for fester from fissiculare (Apideius). 

Peligres Sp. parishioner ; from filius gregis. 

Pello It., Pr. O. Fr. fel impious, wicked; It. fellone wicked 
wretch, O. Sp. felon fellon = fello, Fr. felon perjured traitor, 
^. felon; It. O.Sp.fellonia, Tr.felnia feuniaipro^igsicj, wicked- 
ness , Fr. fe'lonie, Sp. felonia treachery (espec. of a vassal), E. 
felony. From the A. S. E. fell, Du. fel. Pr. and O. Fr. nom. 
aing. fel (fels) ace. felon, whence the other forms, and fem. 

Pelpa It. Sp. Pg. plush; from G. felbel, Swed. fdlp; hence Fr. 
feulpier. The It. has also pelpa, Sic. felba, Sard. Cat. pel fa. 
O. Pg. falifa = a sheepskin. 

Peltro It., Sip.fieltro, Pr. Fr.feutrcj felt; h.h.filtrum; It. feltrare, 

FELUCA — FIA. 199 

Sp. filtrar, Fr. filtrer, E. /ilter; from O. H. G. /Uz, A. S. E. 
felt J with r after t, R. Gr. 1, 323; hence 0. Fr. faulrer to 
thrash, from /ilzen (to press), as f autre (=z feutre) from filz. 

Peluea It., Sp. faluca, Pg. falua, Fr. felouqvie, E. felucca; from 
Arab, /w/^ a ship. 

Penouil — finocchio. 

Peo Sp. Pg. ugly; from /Iij^^m^, O. Sp. ^e^o. 

Perlino It., O. S^. ferlin, O. ¥y, ferling ferlin a farthing; from 
A. S. feordhling (farthing). 

Perme Fr. (f.), E. farm, It. ferma, Sp. firma a signature, bond, 
coniirmation, fermare firmar to sign &c. Fr. sbst. ferte strong- 
hold, ioY fermeie fermie, of. dortoir for dormJtoir. 

Permillon fremilon O.Fr., Vi\fremil6, perhaps = haubert; from 
mailles de fer, so = fer-maillon, cf. grille for graille, provigner 
for provaigner. Al. from firmus, firmaculum. 

Perrana It., Pg. f err da, Sp. herren (f.) a mixture of various 
chopped herbs for cattle, a mash; h ova. farrago, Pg. also/fljr- 

Perrant and auferrant O. Fr., Vv. ferran alferan, an adj. used 
to denote a light colour, e. g. of grey hair, of horses &c. 
From ferro, cf. It. ferretto = iron-grey, semicanus, also fer- 
rigno, which answers to a Pr. ferrene, 0. Fr. f err ant (cf. fla- 
mene flamant), whence Pr. ferran. Al is not the Arab, article, 
but for alb- f err ant, cf. blanc-ferrant, chenu-ferrant. Al. from 
the Ar. al-fars, Sp. al-faraz a Barbary horse. 

Perropea herropea arropea Sp., Pg. ferropea fetters , from fer- 
rum and pes. 

Perte — ferme. 

Perzare sferzare It. to scourge, sbst. ferza sferza. Not from 
ferire (feritiare), since the 4*^^ conj. does not form participial 
verbs. Perhaps from the 0. H. G. ftllan, whence an intensive 
fillazan -— G. filzen to scold , hence felzare ferzare (cf. scalmo 

Pesse Fr. (f.) for Lat. natis; from /issus ftssa, whence vb. fesser. 

Petta It. a bit, piece, shred, ribbon, O. Sp. fita ribbon; not 
from vitta, which gives It. vetta, but from O. H. G. fiza a 
ribbon, thread, perhaps connected with fetzen a shred (Rh. 

Peu — fuoco, 

Peudo — fio, 

Peur — foro. 

Peurre — fodero. 

Peutre — feliro. 

Pi O. Fr. Pr. sure, certain, adv. fiement confidently; from /idus, 
It. fido. 0. Fr. adv. de fi=^ surely. 

Pia fiata — via. 


Fiaba — f avoid. 

Piaceo It.; Sp. flaco, Pg. fracOy Pr. O. Fr. flac flaqne weak, 
languid, vb. fiaccare &c.; from flacciis. The Fr. flasquc must 
come from flaccidus = flaxidus ^=^. flasquidus, cf. laxus lasque 
Idche , Lorr. fidche, Com. fiasch, 

Fiaccola It., Sp. hacha (whence Eouchi hache hace), Pg. facha^ 
Pr. falha, O. Fr. faille a taper; from facula (fax). For the 
inserted i==l cf . R. Gr. 1 , 269 , and cf . flocina , rifititare. 

Fiacre a late Fr. word , so called because the inventor's house 
in Paris bore the sign of S. Fiacre. 

Fiadone It. honeycomb , Pr. flauzon (flazon ?), Sp. flaon, Fr. flan 
(for flaon)j E. flaivn a flat cake , a flat piece of metal for coin- 
ing; L. L. flado, flato -~ O. H. G. flado f. flada (= laganum, 
placenta, libum, favus), Du. vlade (f.), connected with itkarvSy 
G.platt, E, flat. 

Fiale — flavo. 

Fiama Pied., Sp. fleme (m.), Pr. flecme, Fr.flanwie (f.), E. fleatti; 
from phlehotomus y whence also 0. H. G. fliedimd, M. H. G. 
contr. fliede , G. flicte. 

Fiancer Fr. to affiance, Pr. fiansar to promise, It. fidanzarc; 
from fides, fidanza. 

Fianco It., Pr. Fr. flanc, Sp. flanco (milit. from the Fr.) flank. 
Diez derives it from flaccus inserting n as in It. fangotto, Fr. 
ancolic &c., cf. G. for flank iveiche , M. H. G. krcnke both = 
weak. But it is more probably from the 0.1^.(j(.lancha hlanca 
(through the E. flank) to which D. objects that the G. h would 
not become / but g, v. giifo (but cf. It. Fiovo from Chlodoveiis), 
and that hlanca is fem. ; we find however It. soldo from sulza, 
Fr. tin from tinna. 

Fiappo It. (prov.), Mil. Piedm. Ven. flap, Crem. flapp flabby; 
from G. flap, flep, flahhe, E. flap, flabby. 

Fiasco It., Sp. flasco frasco, Pg. frasco, fem. It. fiasca, O. Fr. 
flasche, Fr. flacon for flascon (E. flagon), also found in the 
Germ, and Celtic tongues, E. flask, cf. Wal. plosce, Hung. 
palatzk, Lith. plcczca. On the analogy of fiaba (flaba) from 
fabula, pioppe from populus, vSp. bloca from buccula, blago from 
bacillus we may get fiasco from vasculutn (cf. f for v in para- 
fredus, biff era). 

Ficcare It., 0. Sp. Pg. Pr. ficar, Fr. ficher, O. Sp. 0. Pg. fincar, 
Sp. liincar to thrust or drive in (Pic. hinqiier). It. ficcarsi, Sp. 
fincar se to insist on; It. af ficcare, Pr. a ficar, Fr. af ficher to 
attach. Verbs in ic on the analogy of fodicare, vellicare are 
common in Rom. cf. gcmicare, volvicare, pendicare, sorbicare. 
So , perhaps , figicare from figere (dim. or frequent.). 

Ficelle Fr. f. packthread; from filum as \ifilicellwn; for the change 


of gender, cf. cervelle from cerebellum, and for the lost I , cf. 
pucelle for pulcelle, 

Piche — fitto. 

Ficher — ficcare. 

Fie flee — via (1). 

Fiedere It. to wound, irova. ferire, SipJierir &c., r being changed 
to d. 

Fief — /io. 

Fiente Fr., 'Pr.fenta dung. From a form fimitus (cf. O. Yr.friente 
^^ fremitus) a corruption oi fimetum. Cat. is fempta, N. Pr. 
femto fiendo , 0. Sp. hienda. 

Fiera It., Sp. feria, Pg. Pr. feira, Fr. foire, E. fair; from feria 
(ferim), fairs being held on saint's days , cf. G. messe. 

Fierce fierche flerge 0. Fr., Pr. fersa, 0. E. fers, L. L. fercia 
queen at chess; from V^x^.ferz a general. Fierge transformed 
into vierge gave rise to dame reine, Sp. reyna. 

Fievole It., Sp. Pr. feUe, Pg. fchre, Fr. foible, O. Fr. floible 
floibe, E. feeble; from flebilis, the first / being dropped. Cf. G. 
swach (1) flebilis (2) debilis, and wenig (1) flebilis (2) parvus, 

Fifre — pipa. 

Figer Fr. to curdle, congeal ; from figere. A late word, but found 
in Stephanus (1539) and Nicot. 

Fignolo It. a pimple; from G. finne. 

Fila It. Sp, Pg. Pr., Fr. E. file a row, prop, a thread, from fdum. 
Vb. Fr. filer, defiler, E. file, defile, O. Fr. pourfiler, E. purfile 
to embroider (Chaucer), hence also sbst. ^6^^/^', "Fa. defile. Hence 
It. Sp. filo, Fr. fil edge of a weapon (pr. thread); vb. af flare 
(1) to sharpen, (2) incite, Sp. afilar =^ (l), Pg. = (2); Pg. 
en far to thread , pierce , frighten. 

Filhar 0. Pg. to take; prop, to take into one's family, from 

Filipendula It. Sp. Pg., Fr. filipendule a plant, so called from 
the tubercles attached to its thread-like roots. 

Filou Fr. a sharper, rogue, Piedm. Com. /^/on, Piedm. also fluca, 
vb. Fr. filouter. The L. L. is filo; from O. H. G. fdon to ftle, 
cf. fourbe, fripon, polisson, also slang Eng. file = rogue. The 
Fr. fdouter may be from the part, gi-fdot = expolitus. The 
Du. has fielt good-for-nothing, sbst. felterye. The Lorr. af/ilou 
= filou from a vb. aifflei to deceive = Fr. affiler to polish. 
The difficulty lies not so much in the root as in the termina- 
tion. May it be from E. fellow ? 

Filtrar filtrer — feltro, 

Filza It. a row or string of things, vb. infilzare; from flumy 
through a form flitium. 

Finanza It. a receipt, quittance, Pr. finansa, Fr. E. finance, plur. 


It. finanze, Fr. E. finances; from finis. Pr. /in = end, settle- 
ment, xelogj specially of an adjustment of a legal quarrel, 
usu. by payment of money, L. L. finis = ^^finalis concordia, 
amicabilis compositio '', finem faccre componere de lite, E. fine. 
Hence vb. finar finer finire to pay a stipulated sum, which 
sum was prop, la finance, E. finaunce = fine, L. L. financia = 
generally ^^prsestatio pecuniaria". 

Fincar — ficcare. 

Fineo Ven. a finch, Lat. fringilla; from O. H. G. fincho, G. 
finke, E. finch. Veneroni gives also a form frinco. 

Findar Sp. to finish, conclude; from finitus, Pg. findo. 

Fino It. Sp. Pg., It. also fine, Pr. Fr. fin, whence E. fine^ G. 
fein, 0. H. Q, fimliho (liY^ cent.). The fundamental meaning 
is: perfect, pure, sincere; Vr, fin aur, fine gold, fin amor, fin 
vertatz, 0. Fr. define ire from pure anger. From finitus finished, 
perfect, cf. din from clinatiis, cuerdo from cordatus, manso 
from mansuetus, and for the sense cf. Sp. acabado, Lat. j^^r- 
fectus, Gk. xkXELog. 

Fino infino It. particle =:L.^e;iM5; irovo. in finem, fine, cf.Festus: 
tenus significat finem. In L.L. (A.D. 849) we find de alia parte 
fine flumen &c. The Pr. has fis, N. Pr. Cat. fins, Beam, fens, 
Sard, finza, finzas. 

Finoeehio It., Sp. hinojo, Pg. funclio (whence FimchaV), Fr. fe- 
nouil, ^.fennel; ivova. fwnicidum , L. \^. femiclmn. 

Fio It., Pr. O. Cat. feu (hence O. Pg. feii), Fr. E. fief from the 
O. Fr. fieu; vb. Fr. fieffer, 0. Fr. fiever, Pr. affeuar to feoff. 
It is the Lomb. fiu in fader-fium patrimony, 0. H. G. film fehii 
(pecus), G. vieh, Goth, faihii possession, E. fee= 0. Fries. 
fia in Ijoth senses. The h was lost (cf. R. Gr. 1, 312), the 
short e became ie as in Pr. mieu from w^w5, and Pr. u = Fr. /* 
'Q,{.juif= Vr.judeu, Fr. fieffer for /?^?;^r as in ensuifer for ew- 
suiver. Sic. /(?^w substitutes the regular ^ for /?, R. Gr. 1, 311. 
From fiu feu came the L. L. feudum feodum (in the 9^^ cent.), 
the d being euphonic, as in ladico for laico, chiodo for chio-o 
(clavus clauus). The L. L. word spread into the Rom., It. Sp. 
feudo &c. 

Fiocina It. a harpoon; from fuscina with i = I inserted, cf. fiac- 
cola, and with ci for sci, cf. cacio for cascio. Sard, fruscina, 
Mil. frosna insert r = I. 

Fioco It. hoarse, faint, weak. Diez derives it from raucus (frau- 
cus, cf. fromho, froco, fioco, fioco). Mahn, however, maintains 
that the meaning of iveali {fioco lume Dante &c.) ought to 
precede that of hoarse, and derives it from flaccus by means 
of a form flaucus. Flaccus is connected with ^Id^, E. flag, 
flahhy, A. S. wlaec == E. luJ^e (luke warm). The Pr. frauc 


makes the der. from raiicus more plausible than that from 

flaccus which in Pr. is flac. 
Pionda It., Vv^fronda, Yv.fronde a sling. From funda It.fonda, 

O. Fr. fondCj with inserted i ^^ I, of. fiocina. 
Pioretto It., Sp. florete, Fr. fleurci a foil; so called from the 

button on the point, like the bud of a flower. 
Piorino It., Sp. Fr. E. florin, orig. a gold coin, stamped with 

the lily (fiore) of Florence, hence also in 0. Pg. frolenca for 

Piotta frotta It., Sp. flota, Pg. frota, 0. Fr. flote, masc. It. fmtio 

frotto (cf. fragello from ftagellum), Fr. ftot a troop flood, tide; 

from fluctus. Vb. It. fiotiare &c. to float, from fluctuare. From 

frotta comes frottola a vaudeville. Com. frotola jest. 
Pisehiare It. to whistle, from fistula, L. L. fiscla, 
Pisga Sp. Pg. a harpoon, \h, fisgar; from Goth, fiskon to fish, 

O. H. G. fisker a harpoon. 
Pistella It. a basket, from fiscella, fisc-ett-ella. 
Pita — fetta. 
Pitta It. soil that gives way under the feet; from O. H. G. fiuhti 

moisture (G. feucht moist) ? For iu to = passing into i, cf. 

R. Gr. 1, 287, and cf. Rhset. /iecht from feucht. 
Pitto It., Sp. hito, Pg. fito fixed; sbst. Sp. hito, Pg. fito a mark, 

target, landmark, hita a peg, nail. It. fitto rent (=: fixed 

price). From the 0. Lat. fictus (Lucret. Varro) = fixus. The 

Fr. fiche a peg may = Sp. hita, though ficher is better referred 

to ficcare. 
Piueia fueia hucia O.Sp. confidence; from fiducia. Hence com- 
pounds such as: afiuciar ahuciar , desfiuzar deshuciar, des- 

Piusso — floscio. 
Piutare — flauto. 
Plaeo — fiacco. 
Plaeon — fiasco. 
Plageolet — flauto. 
Plagorner Fr. to flatter meanly; from flatter and corner (aux 

oreilles) according to Le Duchat. 
Plairar Pr. Cat., Fr. flairer, Pg. cheirar ^/? = Pg. ch), = L. fra- 

grare, changed to flag are; sbst. Cat. flaira, 0. Fr. Pic. flair, 

Pg. cheiro. The It. and Sp. have only derivatives, such as 

fragrante, fraganza fragancia, 
Plairer — fragrare. 
Plambe Fr. the iris, flag, 0. Fr. Pic. also =i flame; from flam- 

mula flamble flambe. Hence flamher, flambeau &c. 
Plamberge Fr. a sword, now only in the phrase: mettre flam- 

berge au vent to draw swords ; it is the G. flamberg flamberge 

from flanc flank and bergen to cover. Cf. froberge used as 


the name of a sword, accordiag to Grimm from fro (lord) and 
her gen, or from the god Fro = N. Freyr. 

Man ■ — frignare. 

Plan — fiadone, 

Flanc — fianco. 

Flanella frenella It., Sp. franela, Yx.flaneUe, E. flannel. The 
primitive form is found \x\.Q.Yx.flaine a bed-covering (Roque- 
fort), cf. W. curaing (l) bed-covering, (2) flannel. Flaine may 
be from velamen vHamen, as flasca from vlasca. The Pg. form 
farinella is quite anomalous. 

Plaon — fiadone. 

Plaque Fr. a puddle, slough 5 from Du. vlacke a lagoon. Cf. 
Ducange , flaco flactra. 

Plasque — fiacco. 

Platir — flatter. 

Platter Fr., Pr. flatar, E. flatter; from A. S. O. N. E. flat, O. H. 
G. /laz. Hence also O. Fr. flat a blow, flatir to strike to the 

Plauto It., Wal. flaute, Sp. Pr. flatita, Fr. flute, E. flute; vb. Pg. 
frautar, Vr.flautar, YY.fliiter to flute. The old form was flahutc 
flaute which form it still keeps in Pic, also with an s flahuste, 
vb. flahuter flaiiter. Flaiiter is for flatuer (cf. veude for vidue, 
Pr. teune for tenue), from flatus, the u being kept as m flatu- 
eux. From flauta is Pr. dim. flautol /laujol (flautiolus), O. Fr. 
flajol, Fr. E. flageolet. It. fiutare to smell is from an old form 
flautare, cf. rubare from rauhen. 

Plavelle 0. Fr. flattery; from flahellum a fan. 

Pleau Fr. a scourge , O. Fr. flael, E. flail; from flagellum. With 
r for / the It. has fragello, W. ffrowyll, 0. Fr. srogell. 

Plecha fleche — freccia. 

Pleche de lard Fr. flitch, O.Fr. flique flee, Pr. fleca. From A. S. 
flicce, E. flick flitch, G. flick. 

Plechir Fr. Pr. to bend. From flectere, reflechir = reflectere, 
though ct is not usu. changed to ch in Fr. (cf. pacciare), 0. It. 
fiettere, It. flettere is a Latinism. 

Pleco flueco Sp. fringe; from floccus, v. f rente. 

Pleis — flechir. 

Pleme — fiama. 

Plete flette Fr. a ferry-boat, from Du. vleet, E. fleet. 

Plete — /r^/. 

Pletrir Fr. to wither, Berr. flatrir, O. flaistrir. From the O. Fr. 
adj. flaistre flestre withered, which is a contraction from 
flaccaster. ^ 

Pleurer — fragrare. 

Plibot Fr. from E. fly-hoat. Hence Sp. flibote filibote. 


Plin Fr. a thunderbolt, whetstone; from 0. H. G. flins, A. S. 

E. flint. 
Floe — froc. 
Ploresta — foresta. 
Florin — fiorino. 
Floscio It., Sp. floxo, Pg. frouxOy Pr. fluis lax, slothful, weak; 

from fluxus, whence It. fiusso transient. 

Flot flota — fiotta. 
Flotar — frottare. 
Fiotta It., Sp. flota, Pg. frotay Fr. flotte, E. fleet. The O. Rom. 

words for classis are It. armata^ Sp. armada, Pr. estol, Fr. 

estoire. The O. Fr. flote (fluctus v. fiotta) had a wider sense, 

e. g. flote cle gens as well as flote de nefs; the later word is 

prob. through the Du. vloot or the Sw. flotta. 
Flou Fr. languid, feeble, O.Fr. (fem. floive), O.Fic.flau, Rouchi 

flau. This latter is the orig. form, of. O. Yr. poi po pou from 

pau. From flaccus corrupted into flaucus. (Cf. suif for siwv 

from seviim). From flou comes the adj . fluet for flouet. 
Floxo — floscio. 
Fluet — flou. 
Flute — • flauto. 
Focaccia It., ^^. hogaza, Fr. fouasse fouace a csikey bun; from 

focus, Isidor: cinere coctus et reversatus est focacius. Cf. foca- 

lia, fouaille, fuel. 
Foeile — fuoco. 
Fodero It., Sp. Tg.forrOj Fr. feurre (E.fur), O.Fr. fuerre foerre 

foarre (the Hue au Fouarre = Vico degli str^ami of Dante Par. 

10). The meanings are, in It. sheath, lining, fodder, in Sp. 

Pg. lining, sheathing, Pr. O. Fr. sheath, Fr. fodder; hence 

Fr. fourreau; ^^. forrage, Fr. fourr age, foiirrure fourier &Q,., 

E. forage; vb. \X. foderare , Sp. forrar, Pr. folrar, Fr. fourrer. 

From Goth, fodr a sheath, O. H. G. fustar sheath, fodder, 

O. N. fodr sheath, lining. 

Fofo Sp. Pg. spongy, soft. The same root appears in Ven. fofio 
asthmatical, breathless, soft, weak, ^h^i.fofa, homh. fuf a 
fright (breathlessness), Com. f of a a spongy substance; it is 
the Du. pof vb. pofl'en, G. pufl'en, E. pufl", f for p by assimila- 

Foga It. violence, impetuousness , whence Fr. fougue, fougueux; 
vb. It. fogare. From fuga , Sp. fuga = liveliness, quickness; 
this is supported by the Romag. Crem. fuga. Focus would 
have given fuoca. 

Foggia It. fashion, shape, manner, vb. foggia; ironv\i. fovea 
a hole (Pg. fojo, Sp. hoyo lioyii). For the connexion of mean- 
ings, cf. It. cavo, Gk. xvitoq. The Ven. form is foia, so thn 

206 FOGNA . — FONDA. 

word cannot come from Fr. forge = Piedm. forgia a forge; 
Sard, forgiai = Fr. forger. 

Fogna It. conduit, fognare to draw off water; from siphon 
(Menage) ? 

Foible — fievole. 

Foie — fegato. 

Foin Fr. hay ; from foenum faemmi. The regular fien := It. fieno 
would have been confused with /len ^^ /imus , and ae some- 
times becomes o/, cf. blot's. O. Fr. Pic. fern answers to a L. 

Foire Fr., Kh. futra diarrhoea; from foria, 

Foire — /lera. 

Fois — vece. 

Foison Fr. E., Pr. foiso; from fusio, It. fusione. 

Foja It. heat (sexual); from furia^ Rh. foia. 

Fole fouc O. Fr., Pr. folc, Com. folco a flock, troop, crowd; 
from O. H. G. A. S. folc, O. N. folk a crowd, E. folk; A. S. 
/loc, E. flock, is 0. Fr. /loc (flou). 

Folego — holgar. 

Folia — follare. 

Follare It., Sp. hollar, Pr. folar, Yx. fouler to tread on, E. to 

full\ It. folia fola, Sp. folia, Fr. foule (Pg. fuUi) a throng, cf. 

It. calca J also Sp. huella a footstep, hiiello a tread; hence It. 

fallone, Fr. foulon a fuller. The L. has not preserved the vb. 

fullarCj but has the sbst. fullo. Hence It. affollare, O.Sp. afol- 

lar, Pr. afolar, Fr. afoler, to spoil. 

FoUe It., O. Sp. fol, Pr. fol, fem. fola, Fr. /ow /"o//^^, sbst. and 
adj. droll, fool (Oat. foil = choleric); hence Fr. affoler to 
make a fool of (whence E. foiP), Pr. afolir to be a fool. Folle 
is the L. follis used as an adj. (cf. R. Gr. 2, 232); it does not, 
.however, denote the empty -headedness of the fool but his 
instahility , Lat. f oiler e (Jerome) meaning to move in and out, 
up and down, so a restless ghost, a hobgoblin, is termed It. 
folletto, Pr. Cat. Yr. follet. Beam, hoidet, cf. Fr. feu follet = 
ignis fatuvis. In an O. Fr. psalter we And for de mandalis iuis 
non erravi de tes commandemenz ne foliai from folier to err. 
Sp. follo7i = indolent, rogue, braggart (0. S.); Burg, feidteu 
= a beneficent spirit that guards cattle at night = a Fr. fol- 

FoUon — folle. 

Folto It. thronged; not Uroni folia , but = infullus. Sic. 'fiftdlu. 

Fona Pg. flake of fire. Goth, fon, O. N. funi glowing coal, 
embers , whence G. funke spark. 

Foncer — fondo. 

Fonda Sp. a tavern, O. Sp. sling = Sp. honda; from funda a 


purse, L. L. place of rendezvous for market-people, of. bursa 
borsa in both senses. 

Pondaco It.; Sp. fnndago, O. Fr. fondique a warehouse; from 
Ar. fondoq alfondoq (whence Sp. alhondiga, Pg. alfandegd) a 
tavern for merchants, also a store -house (from Jtavdoxsiov 
Ttavdomov). The suffix tc in Rom. is so unusual as to forbid 
the der. from L. L. funda, v. fonda. 

Fondefle O. Fr., = L. L. fundibalum fundibulum , Sp. fundibxdo. 

Fondo It. Oat., Sp. liondo, O. Sp. Pg. fundo deep. From fundus 
an old adj . found in profundus, or from sbst. fundus Sp. fondo, 
Pg. fundo &c., sbst. being used as an adj. cf. R. Gr. 2, 232, 
and cf. folle. From fundus we have in Fr. (besides fond) 
fonds, Vr.fons, cf. /ils from /iHus; hence Pr. fonsar fondar, 
Fr. f oncer, fonder E. found, Pr. a fonsar (cf. [yreonsar from 
preon ^= profundus), Fr. enf oncer, O. Fr. afonder. In the Pr. 
esfondrar, Fr. effondrer the r corresponds to the / of the It. 

Fonil Sp., Pg. funil, Basq. unila; from fundibidum for infundi- 
bidum, Lim. enfounil. It is the same as the E. funnel, Bret. 

Fonsado O. Sp. 0. Pg. fosado; from fosar to surround with a 
foss, thus prop. = a fortified camp. 

Fontaine — fontana. 

Fontana It. Sp. Pr., Fr. fontaine, Wal. fentene, E. fountain; 
from fons, L. L. fontana (sc. aqua). 

Forain — fuora. 

Forban — bando, 

Forbire It., Pr. forbir, Fr. fourbir, E. furbish; from O. H. G. 
f urban to purify: da lor costumifa die tu tiforbi, Dante. Hence 
It. furbo, Fr. fourbe rogue, cf. fripo7i from f riper , Sp. limpiar 
(l) to clear (2) to clear out, rob, cf. also escamoter, fdou. 

Force O. Fr,, Fr. forces (only plur.), Pr. forsa shears; from for- 
pex forpicis. 

Force — forza. 

Forceis — fuora. 

Forcene — senno. 

Foresta It., Sp. Pg. Qsii. floresta, Pr. forest for esta, Fr. foret (f.), 
E. forest. Tne Sp. floresta has adopted itself to flor, and bears 
also the meaning of a flowery mead. We find in L. L. (f. 
whence Fr. foret), foreste (n.), forestus, forestum forastum, 
foresta forasta , in the sense of unenclosed land, opp. p^rcw^ 
= enclosed land. The O. G. varst, G. forst is from the Rom. 
Some derive from the O. H. G. for aha a fir, forehahi a fir- 
wood. But, besides the loss of the h (usu. g in Rom., cf. ar- 
guer from arahon), the termination ast est is very unusual, 
though found sometimes, cf. brumasto brumesto. From L. L. 


forasticus = exterior (Placidus) came L. L. forastis forestis 
(for as foris) = outlying land , open , unenclosed , cf . forestiere 
= exter extrarius. Forasticus is also found in It. forastico. 
Sic. furestico, Pr. foresgue , Cat. feresteg wild, savage, Wald. 
forest strange. Pic. liors-ain country people, prop. = these 
outside the town. Zeuss derives /bre5^« fromW. fforest, which 
is, however, from the E. 

Forese — fuori. 

Porfare O. It., Pr. Fr. forfairCy L. L. foris facere = offendere^ 
nocere prop, to err, do wrong, oi. foris consiliare to mislead. 
In O. Fr. se forfaire envers qnelqumi = se mefaire vers q.; 
with ace. ^r: to lose, forfeit a thing, forfaire son fief, M. H. G. 
verwUrken y A. S. forvyrcean. Part, forfatto forfait = (l) an 
evildoer, L. L. forisf actus , Goth, fravaurhts (2) an evil deed, 
L. L. forisf actum , Goth, fravaurhts (f.), E. forfeit == a thing 
forfeited. The prefix is the same as the i}.ver, l^.for iw forget y 
forswear &c. 

Forgia Piedm., Sp. Pg. forja, Fr. forge, E. forge, Pr. farga, 
Sp. frag a; from fahrica, vb. forgiare &c., fahricare. = au 
from ab, Pr. faur = faher, O. Fr. fevre, Fr. orfevre = auri- 

Formaggio It., Pr. formatge fromatge, Fr. fromage, Pic. &c. for- 
mage, S^. formage cheese. Yroni Ijnt. fofi?iaticus h^om. forma 
a press : liquor in fiscellas vel in formas transferendus Columella. 
Pr. fourmo = forma. 

Fornire It., Sp. Pg. Pr. fornir, Fr. fournir, E. furnish. The Pr. 
has also the form formir furmir to perfect, finish = It. fornire, 
also fromir (It. fronire) ; it is fro'm the O. II. G. frumjan to 
further, perfect. 

Foro It. Pg., Sp. fuero law, statute, jurisdiction, Pr. for,0. Fr. 
feur statute, tax; ivom. forum. Hence Sp. Pg. Pr. aforar, O. 
, Fr. afeurer to tax, rate, guage. From fore?isis is S^. forense 
foreign , It. forese countryman , influenced by for as. 

Forro — fodero. 

Forza It., Sp. fuerza, Fr.forsa, Fr. E. force, vb. forzare SiC. 
L. L. forcia from a L. foi^tia (fortis), prob. used in the spoken 
L., if formed later we should have expected fortia as from 
falsus falsia. Or forcia may be from the vb. fortiare, from 
fortis as graviare from gravis, leviare from levis. Hence It. 
sforzare, Sp. esforzar, Fr. efforcer, whence sbst. It. sforzo, 
Sp. esfuerzo, Pr. esfortz , Fr. effort (E. effort) for effors, the s 
being rejected as though it had been a mere case suffix. 

Forziere It. a coffer, from (poQxiov (Ferrari), or better ^=-- O. Fr. 
f order, L. L. forsarius (for fortiarius) strong-box = Fr. coffre- 
fort, from forza, force, 

Fouasse — focaccia. 


Foudre Fr., Pr. foldre folzer, O. Fr. esfoldre, from fulgur foVre 

foldre, It. folgore, Wal. fulger. 
Foudre Fr. a tun , from G. fuder, E. f udder. 
Fouet (pron. foil) Fr., Mil. foett, Cat. fuct a wliip; scourge, vb. 

fouetter; from fou = fagus, Eouclii fouet = a fagot, bundle of 

twigs, whence = rod, w^hip. 
Fouger Fr. ; from fodicare, Komag. fudglie. Hence f outlier, Pr. 

fozilhar, from a ioYva fodicidare , whence Wall, foyan a mole. 

Hence also, by assimilation, far -f outlier to rummage. Lang. 

fourfouUd seems compounded with furca , cf. frugar, 
Fougere — felce. 
Fougue — foga. 
Fouiller — fouger. 
Fouine • — faina. 
Foule fouler — follare. 
Fourbe fourbir — forhire. 
Fourgon Fr. a wagon; prop, a wagon with a thill, ivoxn furca. 

It. forcone, Sp. hurgon. 
Fourmiller Fr. to swarm; -~ formiculare from formica, O. Fr. 

formier = formicare. Sp. gusanear, from giisano a worm , has 

the same meaning, cf. also M. H. G. wibelen from wibel 

Fourrage fourreau fourrer — fodero. 
Fouteau Fr. beech, Pic. fo-iau; from fagus, the t being a late 

insertion, cf. sureau dim. from O. Fr. seu (salix). 
Foyer Fr., Pr. foguier hearth; from adj. focarius, Sp. liogar. 
Foxa Sp. = anas torquata, coot; from tp^'C% (Covarruvias). 
Fra — ira. 
Fracassare It., Sp. fracasar, Fr. fracasser to smash, sbst. fra- 

casso, fracaso, fracas, Wc^. f areas. The Pr. frascar is from 

fracsar as lasc from laxus. From fra-cassare = h2ii. inter- 

Fracido It., corr. fradicio, putrid; from, fracidus , which occurs 

once in Cato de Re Rust., but which, corrupted and widely 

spread in It., must have been common in the spoken Latin. 
Fraga Pg. rough stony ground, Sp. Vg.fragura roughness. From 

the root of L. frtig-osus, cf. Imhhone. Sp. fraga = bramble, 

blackberry (from frCigum strawberry"), cf. Pg. fragoso wild, 

uncultivated. Perhaps the Pg. word is the same as the Sp., 

taking a modified meaning through fragosus. 
Fragata — fregata. 
Fragua — forgia. 
Frai — fregare. 
Fraiditz fraidel fradel Pr., O. Fr. fradou^ wretch ; from O. H. G. 

freidi freidlc a deserter, apostate, M. H. G. vreidec faithless. 
Fraile — fraire. 



Fraindre O. Fr. to break, from frangere; Fr. enfreindre from 

Praire freire O. Sp., Pg. freire, Sp. fraile freile = Fr. frere, E. 
friar, contr. Sp. frmj (It. fra), Pg. /m^ fern. Sp. fraila &c. a 
nun ; from f rater, prob. through the Pr. (where fraire is re- 
gular), as the forms are not Spanish. 

Frairin frarin O. Fr., Pr. fraire poor , miserable ; from fraler a 
monk (Gachet). 

Frais Fr. (pi.) costs, expenses; from L. L. fredum (= mulct a 
qua reus pacem exsequitur. Due), O. H. Gr, fridu, G. friede 
peace, friede-hrief a letter of acquittance, ci. pagare=pacare. 
Hence vb. defrayer, E. defray. 

Frais — fresco, 

Fraise Fr., Pr. fraisa strawberry, hence Sp. fresa? Prob. from 
fragum, whence Wall, freo^ Parm. fro. 

Fraise fraiser — fregio. 

Fralda — falda. 

Framboise Fr,, whence N. Pr. framhoiso, Sp. framhuesa, Cora. 
framhrosa, Piedm. flanhoesa raspberry. From Du. hraamhczie, 
O. H. G. hrdmheri = Yi. Ijramhle-herry. The h wns (hanged 
to f, perhaps from fraise. 

Frana It. fall of earth, vb. franare; irovn fragnmia , fvamna, cf. 
Jjaleno from psXs^vov. 

Franco It. Sp. Pg., Pr. Fr. frimc, E. frank, N. Pr. fran ciiomo 
Tor pure as gold. Usually derived from Wifi name Fi^anctis, 
0. H. G. Franco, and this from the A. S. franca a dim. of 
framea a spear (Tacitus). J.Grimm, however, derives it frnm 
the Goth, freis = G. fret, E. free, whence the name of the 
people, who gave their name to the national weapon. There 
are two sets of forms, one with a soft c, the other with a k 
(chy qu); li.francese, S^.f ranees, ¥r. francois, from the L. 
Francia; It. franchezza, Sp. franqueza , Fr. franchise (where 
the cli = It. ck, cf. dnchesse, sachet &c.), from G. Franco, the 
G. guttural being invariably retained in derivatives, cf. horgo. 

Frangia It., Sp. franja, Fr. f range, whence Du. frangie, G. 
franse fringe. From framea would be regularly formed frange, 
as from vindemia vendange, cf. gheronc. But framea was an 
uncommon word , so it is better to refer it to fimbria whence 
fringe (E.), frange, cf. Wal. flmhrie, 0. Pr. frefnna = a form 
fremhia. Kouchi frinche (frimhia), Sic. frinza from an O. Fr. 

Franzir — froncir. 

Frappa — arpa. 

Frapper Fr., Pr. frapar. Like f riper from the Norse , where 
hrappa means to scold, l^.frape, adj. hrappr violent, E. fraple 
to make a noise (cf. increpare), whence ff-ape a crowd, O. Fr. 


frapin frapaille. Cf. also the E. flap, Du. flappen, Fr. (Rheims) 
frapouille = E. flap (subst). 

Frasca It. Rh. leafy branch, whence Sp. frasca, Rh. sfrascar to 
strip off boughs. Diez derives it from virere, virasca vrasca 
frasca, 2^^ fuggiasco ixoim. fuggirc , cf. Sp. vercl-asca. But it is 
better to connect it with Qoih.frasts a child. Frasche=iY\Q^^, 
whence Fr. faire des frasques. 

Prassugno — fresange. 

Fratta It. a hedge; from (pQatraiv^ N. Gr. tpQantri = cpQay^ta^ 

Fray freile — fraire, 

Frayer — fregare. 

Frayeur Fr., O. Fr. froior, Pr. freior fright; hence Fr. eff'roi, 
O. Fr. esfroi, Pr. esfrei, vb. Fr. efl'rayer, Pr. esfreyar esfrei- 
dar. From frigidus, frigiis, shivering being the effect of fright 
as well as of cold, cf. (pQi66ELv^ horrere, schaudern, farsi di 
gielo &c. Others derive the word from E. fray, fright , but 
these are prob. from the Rom. 

Frazada — fregio. 

Freecia It., O. Sp. Pg. freclia, Sp. Pg. Pr. fleclia, Fr. fleclie 
(E. Fletcher = an arrow -maker), Piedm. Sard, flecia, also 
frizza, y^2tS\..fliche an arrow; from Du. flits an arrow, M. H. G. 
Vliz, flitsch a bow. 

Fredon Fr. a shake in singing; Yh. fredonner; from the root frit 
in fritinnire to chirp? 

Fregare It., Sp. Pg. Pr. fregar, Fr. frayer, O. Fr. froyer (cf. 
plicare ployer), E. fray (freak = streak), rub ; from fricare. 
Hence It. frega lust (E. freak), Fr. frai spawn, O. Fr. fraye, 
Rh. frega, It. fregola. Sp. refregar, refriega; It. s fregare, Pg. 
esfregar, Sp. estregar. 

Fregata It., Sp. Pg. Cat. Neap, fragata, Fr. frcgate, E. frigate, 
orig. = a small boat. Yyqvh fabricata , cf. hastimento bateau. 

Fregio It., Sp. friso freso , Fr. frise f raise fringe, E. frieze {== a 
horizontal broad band occupied with sculpture) ; vb. It. fre- 
giare, Fr. friser f raiser to curl, frizzle, Sp. frisar to raise the 
nap on cloth , frisa = E. frieze (stuff). It. frisato, Fr. fraisette 
frizzet ruffle, Sp. frezada frazada a blanket. Prob. from the 
German name Frisa Fresa = curly, whence Fries, frisle, E. 
frizzle. We find in L. L. frisii panni, saga fresonica, vesti- 
menta de Fresarum provincia. 

Fregola — fregare. 

Frelater le vin Fr. to adulterate wine; from Du. wyn verlaten 

to pour out wine. 
Frele Fr., E. frail; from fragilis. It. fraile. 

Frelon Fr. a hornet; from frele, cf. Berr. grelon from grele = 
gracilis, and Gr. ()q)rj^ connected with GcpCyycn, and = the 
slender (compressed) insect. O. Fr. froilon is from O. Fr. 



form fraile (oi = ai). The G. horm'ss, E. hornet, has reference 

to the humming horn -like sound of its flight. 
Prelore O. Fr., and still in Fr. dialects, lost, forlorn, from the 

G. verloren. The form forelores = A. S. forloren, E. forlorn. 
Preluquet — farfaluca, 
Frene Fr. (f.) an ash, O. Fr. fresne fraisne; ivovn fraxinus , Pg. 

Prente Sp. forehead; a euphonic contraction of fruente (frons), 

cf. fleco from flueco , ester a from storea, 
Presaie Fr. a screech-owl, V oii. presaie , Gasc. hresagxie , from 

prcBsaga, the bird being regarded as one of ill omen, also 

called effraie, oiseau de la mort , G. todtenvogel , leichhtihn. 
Fresange fresanehe fraissenque O. Fr. a young pig, N. Pr. 

fraysse; from 0. H. G. frisking, G. frischling a shoot. The It. 

frassugno = frisking friskung, but derives it meaning from 

siigna, frassugno (fraysse sugna) = swine's fat. The Sic. fri- 

singa is prob. from the Fr. 
Fresco It. Sp. Pg., esc, Fr.frais, f.fraiche, Wall. /Vm; 

from O. H. G. frisc, A. S. fe?'sc, E. fresh, W. fresg, Bret. 

Freso — fregio. 
Freste O. Fr. (m.), Pr. frest a gable ; from O. H. G. ^/rst top, 

Frestele 0. Fr. flute , vb. fresteler, Pr. frestelar, from fistella for 

Fret Fr., Pg. frete , Sp. flete; from O. H. G. freht, E. freight. 
Fretes — frette. 
Fretiller Fr., Pr. frezilhar. From a L. fritillare (fritillm) to 

shake, though this should have given frediller. Frictillare 

would suit the form better. 
Fretin Fr. parings, refuse, fry; from, ftictum. 
Frettare It., Pr. fretar to rub. It. fretta, N. Pr. freto haste; 

from fricare frictum. Fr. has f rotter for froiter, Burg, fretter. 

From frotter comes the Sp. frotar flotar, and Fr. dim. froler 

(frotler), Norm, freuler (= friculare). 
Frette Fr. i^. fret in heraldry) iron hoop, pi. grating, hence 

Sp. fretes; for ferrette, from ferrum. 
Freux Fr. rook; from O. H. G.- hruoch, A. S. hroc (cf. cocus 

queux), O. N. hrokr, Dan. roge, L. G. E. rook, H. G. ruech. 

For f = h Q,i. frimas f riper. 

Frezada — fregio. 
Frezar — frizzare. 

Friand frieandeau frieasser — • frique. 

Friche Fr. (f.) h fallow; from Gr.frisch, 'E. fresh, cf. novate from 
novus according to Ducange, hut frisch gives fratche, so it is 


better to derive friche, with Grimm, from fracUlium, cf. 
Langued. roumpiido, Norm, briser to break up land. 

Priente O. Fr. = L. fremitus, It. fremito. Le Duchat writes 
frainte and derives from frangcre. 

Prignare Lorab. to whine, whimper, also to jeer, Qom.. frig na 
a whimpering woman, Crem. nice, captious. Prob. iorflignare 
from G. flennen to make wry faces, Sw. flina, Dan. fline, E. 
fri7ie, whence also Lomb. frigna = a ravine (prop, a grinning 
mouth), O. Fr. /Ian an embrasure (opening in the walls), G. 
/lans a wry face. From frignare come It. infrigno infrignato 
wrinkled, morose, Dauph. se deifrind to be morose, cf. Fr. 
se refrogner se renfrogner, E. frown (refrogner for refroigner, 
01 = i), 

Prileux Fr. frosty; frigidulosus , from L. frigidulus. 

Primas Fr. rime, vb. Pic. f rimer. From 0. N. hrim, A. S. hrim, 
E. rime, Du. rijm, Bav. reim pfreim. Pic. rimee has lost the h, 

Pringuello — fringuer. 

Pringuer Fr. to move quickly backwards and forwards , Bret. 
f ring a, Langued. f ring a to caress. From a root found in Lat. 
fringutire to trill, fringilla a finch, frigutire, frigulare, W. ffreg 
chatter. Bret, fringol a shake, trill, Fr. fringoter, It. fringot- 
tare to trill , are from fringuer, frigoter from frigutire. From 
fringilla, root fring, is It. fringuello, corrupted into filunguello, 
Crem. frangol , Piedm. franguel frangoi. 

Priper Fr. to wear out, consume greedily, Berr. friper = to lick 
a plate, Anj. fripe^=. Gk. or\)ov\ f ripper to eat greedily, hence 
Yr.fripon a purloiner, rogue, friperie, ^.frippery (prop, stolen 
property). Fr. fr = N. hr (cf. frimas), friper = N. hripa to 
do hastily. 

Pripon — friper. 

Prique O. Fr., Pr. fric, N. Pr. fricaud brisk, lively, Dauph. 
fricandela a sprightly damsel. From Goth, friks, 0. H. G. 
freh eager, greedy, M. H, G. vrech, A. S. free bold, O. E. 
frek sprightly; for the connexion between boldness and 
sprightliness , cf. gaillard. Hence also N. Pr. fricaud dainty, 
costly, fricot a dainty dish, Fr. fricandeau, vb. fricasser, the 
notion of daintiness being derived from that of greediness. 
Mahn, however, derives fricasser from f rictus (frigere), whence 
fricare for frictare. 

Prire Fr., E. fry; from frigere, It. frig g ere. Hence also friand 
dainty, nice, Norm, f rioter to be eager, greedy, Rouchi /r/o/^r 
to hiss , sputter (of meats on the fire), Fr. affrioler to entice, 

Prisato friso — fregio. 

Prisol frisuelo frejol Sp. a kidney -bean; L. L. fresa. Gloss. 
Plac. : defresum detritum , unde adliuc fresa faha, quce dbtrita 


frangitur , fitba fresa dicta quod earn frendant i. e, frangant, 

Prisone frosone frusone a sort of finch ; from frcndere frcsxis. 

Frisson Fr. shivering, L. L. frictio; from a form frigUio contr. 
frictio fricon , ivoiafrigere , O. Fr. Pr. frire, 

Prizzare It. to gnaw; smart, Sp. frezar to consume, rub, dig 
up, N. Vv. frizc'i to grind, crash; sbst. Sip.ft^eza, Vw fressa 
track. Partly from f rictus frictiare, partly from O. H. G. 
frezzan, G. fressen to eat, consume. Fr. froisser to crush, 
O. Sp. fresar to murmur , may be referred to frendcrc gnash, 
part, fressus, or from f rictus (cf. Pic. froicher). 

Proc Fr., E. frock. From L. floccus, Pr. floe with both L. and 
Fr. meanings , L. L. floccus froccus. Perhaps also connected 
with the O. H. G. hroch, G. rocA, though, usually, only the 
N. hr becomes fr in Fr. (cf. frimas, f riper frcux), and we find 
no N. form lirockr. 

Proisser — frizzare. 

Proler — frettare. 

Prollo It. tender (of flesh -meat), weak. L. fluida caro = \i, 
came frolla: fluidulus , flollo, frollo, cf. stridulus strillo. 

Promage — formaggio. 

Prombo — romho. 

Proneher 0. Fr. to snarl , snort ; from rhoncare (Sidonius), v. 

Proneir O. Sp., Sp. fruncir, Cat. fnmsir, Sard, frunziri, Pr. 
froncir, Fr. froncer to gather into plaits, wrinkle, fnniucCy 
Sp. fruncir las cejas to frown; 0. Fr. sbst. fronce, E. flounce, 
Sard, frunza. Froncer = frontiar (frons) prop, to contract 
the brows. Pg. franzir is a corruption. 

Fronde — fionda. 

Protar — frettare, 

Protta frottola — fiotta. 

Protter — frettare. 

Prouxo — floscio. 

Prugare It., Sp. hurgar, Pg. for car, N. Pr. furgct, O. Fr. furgier 
to stir with a stick, sound, probe, search, with inserted 
vowel, Ven. fur eg are, Sard, forogai. Cf. It. rinvergare from 
verga, Piedm. fustigne from fust is, L. pcrcontari^ which is, 
perhaps , from contus. 

Prullare It. to whistle , whizz , rustle : perhaps from ftuctuare 
dim. fluctulare fluUare fridlare, cf. froUo, but more prob. a 
mere onomatop., fridlo = the whirring noise made by par- 
tridges when they rise. 

Prusto It. = L. frustum; frustare to whip, scourge, prop, (as 
Pr. frustar) to slash, cut in pieces, hence frusta a whip. 


Pucar Sp. a rich man ; from a German name Fugger, v. Schmel- 

ler 1, 516. . 
Fucia — fiucia. 
Fucile — fuoco. 

Fueina It. a forge ; smithy. From focus, cf. fucile, 
Fuero — foro. 
Fuerza — forza. 
Fuina — faina. 
Fuisca — falavesca, 
Fujo It. dark. From a Lat. form in -his, furvus fiirvius furvjus, 

cf. Sp. agriOj curvio, crasio, sdberhio, novio, and v. crojo, mezzo, 

rozzo, vizzo, bujo. 
Fula — follare. 
Fulano Sp., O. Sp. fidcm, Pg. fulano fudo = L. quiclam; from 

Arab, folan. 
Fulo Pg. = L. fulvus; for the loss of the v, cf. polilla. 
Fulvido It. shining; ivom. fulgldus, with the v oi fulvus. 
Fumier Fr. dung, O. Fr. femier; from fimus, cf. O. Fr. Pic. 

Champ, fumelle for femelle, O. Fr. frumer for fermer. 
Fummosterno It. a herb ; corrupted from fumus terrm, Fr. fume- 

terrc, E. fumitory, 
Funcho — finocchio. 
Fuoco It., Sp. fuego, Pg. fogo, Pr. fuec, Fr. feu, Wal. foe; from 

focus used for ignis in L. poets , and in L. L. focum facere = 

facer e ignem. Hence It. focile fucile , Fr. fusil a steel, fire- 
lock, musket (fusil), cf. G. flinte. 
Fuora jfeori It., Sp. f tier a, 0. Sp. fueras, Pg. for a, Pr. for as 

fors, Fr. hors (Ji asp.), 0. Fr. fors, Wal. fere, = L. extra; 

ivom. for as for is. Hence, too, Rh. or a or. Pr. forceis £or for s- 

eis:=^ foras ipsum (cf. anceis, aincois); Fr. hor-mis =z foras 

missum; Sp. foraneo forano, Fr. forain, O. Fr. deforain, E. 

Fura9ao — uracano. 
Furbo — forhire. 
Furo Sp. wild, shy, also hurano; like the It. furo from L. fur, 

cf. hacer furo to conceal a thing artfully. 
FuroUes Fr. (f. pi.) exhalations; for furoles from feu, formed 

like It. focajuolo, cf. flammcrole ignis fatuus. 
Furon O. Sp., Sp. huron, Pg. fur do, O. Fr. fuiron; It. furetlo, 

Fr. furet, Du. /wr^i^ /"ort^^ fret, ferret , Langued. fure a mouse; 

vb. Sp. huronear, Sard, furittai, Fr. furetter to ferret, search. 

Prob. an old L. word; Isidore has: furo a furvo unde el fur; 

lenebrosos enitn et occiiltos cunicidos effodct. From fur a thief. 

It. fur one, L. L. furo; cf. G. maus (mouse), Sansk. mushika, 

from mausen, Sansk. mush to steal. 
Fusaggine It. the spindle -tree; hojnfusus. 


Puscello It. a fescue, straw; from, fustts, iov fusticello. 

Fusil — fusco. 

Fusta It. Sp. Pg., Fr. fiiste a kind of galley, a foist; from ftistis, 
Sp. fusie, Pr. fustj L. L. fustis wood, cf. It. legno a ship, from 
lignum. Hence Fr. fiit = stock, cask &c., fxitaie a forest, ajfiit 
gun-carriage {etre a Vaffut to be on the watch), affuler to 
mount, set. It. affustare. 

Pustagno frustagno It., Sp. fust an, Pr. fnstani, Fr. futaine, E. 
fustian; from Fostdt in Egypt, where it was made. 

Putame — fustagno. 


Gabardina — gaVbano. 

Gabbano It., Sp. O. Fr. gahan a coarse cloak; prob. from the 

same root as cabana, gabinetlo (capanna); hence also S^.gabar- 

dina, gavardina, E. gaberdine, 
Gabbia gaggia It., Sp. Pg. gavia, N. Pr. gavi (m.), Fr. E. cage, 

O. Fr. caive, Ven. Sard, cabbia; from cavea. Hence dim. It. 

gabbiuola, Sp. gatjola, Pg. gaiola, O. Fr. gaole jaiole (Sp. jaula), 

E. gaol jail, Fr. geole. Hence cajoler, E. cajole, Fr. enjoler to 

wheedle, coax, inveigle, Sp. enjaidar to imprison. Gabbione 

gives Fr. E. gabion, 
Gabbiano — gavia, 
Gabbo It., Pr. O. Fr. gab gap banter, jest, vulg. E. gah; vb. 

gabbare &c. ; from N. gabb '^eaviw^y vb. gabba, 
Gabella It. Pg., Sp. Pr. gabela tax, excise, Fr. gabelle salt -tax, 

vb. gabellare &c. From the A. S. gafid gafol, E. gavel (which 

is from gifan, Goth, giban, give), whence L. L. gablum gabu- 

lum, gabella (prop, a plur. oi gahelluni), 
Galainetto gabinete — capanna. 
Gable Fr. (f.) E. From L. gabalus a cross, Varro: gabalum cru- 

cem did veteres volunt. The Norm, gable is m. 0. H. G. ga- 

bala, G. gabelisy perhaps, nearer than the L. word. Cf. L. 

furca = gable. 
Gaburo It., Crem. gabeurr a boor; from O. H. G. gaburo, 
Gaeha — quatto, 
Gaeher Fr. to row, move, gdche an oar, from O. H. G. waskan 

to wash; hence gdcliis puddle, O. Fr. ivaschier to soil. 
Gado — ganado, 
Gafa Sp. Pg., Fr. gaffe, E. gaff a hook, Sp. gafo cramped (of 

the nerves), leprous ; vb. Sp. gafar, Fr. gaffer to hook ; from 

Celt., Gael, gaf, H. G. gaifung an iron ring, gaifen to cut 

Gafar — gabella. 


GAGE — GAL. 217 

Gage — gaggio. 

Gaggio It., Sp. Pg. Pr. Fr. gage pledge, wages (gages)^ Pr. gadi 
gazi^N')S\., testament; vb. Pr. gcttjar, 0. Fr. gager to pledge, 
Fr. to wager; It. engaggiare, Vwengatjar, Yw engager to pawn 
(Ei. engage); Yv.degager. L.L. has vadium ivadium bail pledge, 
f. vadia, vb. ivadiare, invadiare, disvadiare , revadiare. Hence 
N. Gr. ^ddiovy Bas. hahia. Not from the L., for the v would 
remain soft, but from the Goth, vadi (partly from vidan to 
bind,^ partly from vas vadis), O. H. G. wetti, M. H. G. wette, 
O. Fris. ved pledge, G. ivette wager, vb. Goth, gavadjon to 
promise, M. H. G. ivetten, G. wetten to bet. 

Gagliardo — gala, 

Gaglio — quagliare. 

Gaglioffo It., ^\). gallofo gallofero , Yi. loafer, a beggar, rogue; 
Rouchi galoufe a glutton. Wall, galofa gaioufe; Sp. gallofa a 
bit of bread, Rh. gagliaffa, Lomb. gajoffa. From Galli off a 
alms given in the monasteries to the French pilgrims to S. Jago. 
Cat. galyofol = Galli offiila. 

Gagliuolo It. husk, pod. Com. gajum a nutshell. From L. L. 
galgidus haca Ttvgrjv Isid. ? The Wall, has gaille geie a nut, 
V. Grandgagnage , who derives it from calhim. 

Gagner — guadagnare. 

Gagnolare It. ; from gannire. 

Gago — ganguear. 

Gai — gcijo. 

Gaif Fr. = E. waif, vb. guever; L. L. ivayfium, res vaivce, iirny- 

viare. Gaif = E. waif orig. = animal errans or vagans, from 

E. wave waive, A. S. va/ian, 

Gaillard — ■ gala, 

Gaimenter waimenter O. Fr. (Chauc. waymentynge), Pr. gay men- 
tar, Dtii\])h. gueimentd to lament, bewail. From the inter j.^w<//, 
on the analogy of lamenter. In Fr. guermenter we see the Celtic 
root, Gael, gairm, W. garmiSy Bret, garmi to cry, Du. kermen. 
Fr. se gramenter, however, points to G. gram, 

Gaine — guaina. 

Gaita Sp. Pg. Cat. flageolot, bag-pipe ; from Pr. gaita a watcher, 
so = watcher's pipe. Or better from Arab. gaiUah flute. 

Gaivao gaivota — gavia, 

Gajo It., 0. Sp. gayo, Pg. gaio, Pr. gai jai, Fr. gai, E. gay 
from O. H. G. gdhi rash, Qf.jdhe. Hence Sp. gayo gay a, Pr. 
gai jai, 0. Fr. Yic.gai, Yr.geai, Y.jay, Sp. rjayar to variegate. 

Gal O. Fr. a stone; hence Fr. galet a pebble, galette, Pr. galeta 
a flat cake, li.galetta, %^,galleta a biscuit; prob. an oldGallic 
word, connected with W. calen (f.) a whetstone. 

218 GALA — G A LIMA. 

Gala It. Sp. Pg., O. Fr. gale show, parade, munificence, charm- 
ing address &c. ; vb. O. Fr. gdler; hence It. gallone, Sp. galon, 
Fr. galon, E. galloon, lace ; Fr. galant, Sp. galante galan galano 
(elegantly-dressed), E. gallant; O. Fr. galois gallois &c. From 
O. H. G. geil proud, A. S. gal lively, O. H. G. geili pride. 
It. gagliardo, Sp. gallardo, Pr. galhart, Fr. gaillard^= A. S. 
gagol g eagle wanton, cf. also ^.jall strength, O.Gael, galach 
strength, hardihood. 

Galanga It. Sp. Pg., O. Sp. garingal, O. Fr. galange ^ garingal, 
E. galingal, G. galgan galgant a root imported from China 
and Java ; from Ar. khalangdn which is from the Persian. 

Galant — gala. 

Galappio — chiappare. 

Galardon — guiderdone. 

Galaubia It. costliness, expenditure; from Goth, galauhs costly. 

Galbe Fr. (m.) the slope or arch of a roof; from M. H. G. ivalbe 
(m.) = G. ivalm slope, hence G. gewolbe arch, vault. The (il 
(for au) of the Fr. shows the late origin of the word. 

Galbero It., Mil. Com. galbe a gold- hammer (})ird); = L. gal- 
hula (Mart. Plin.). From the later form galgidns, come Sp. 
galgidOf It. ri-gogolo, rigoletto =n aurigalguhis. Parm. galbeder, 
Crem. galpeder = galb -icterus. In Sp. the bird is also called 
oro-pcndola, in Fr. loriot. 

Galdre Sp. a loose overcoat; introduced from 6^w^/<?6T-land. 

Gale Fr. itch, se galer to itch. From the G. galle, E. gall to gall, 
It. g allay Sp. agalla a tumour, all, perhaps, from L. galla a 
gall-nut. It. galla; Pictet refers to Irish galar galradh a 

Galea It. O. Sp.^ Pg. gale, Pr. galea gale galcya, O. Fr. galee, 
yalie, E. galley; It. galeotta, Sp. Pg. galeota, O. Fr. galiot; It. 
galeazza, Sp. Pg. galeaza, Fr. galeasse, E. galleass; It. gale- 
one, Sp. galeon, Pg. galeao, Fr. gallon, E. galleon. It. Sp. Pg. 
Pr. Lomb. galcra, Fr. galere = galea and in Sp. Pg. a covered 
wagon. Probably from the Gk. (like so many other nautical 
words) where ydXr} == i^sd^ag £tdog(Hesych.) a gallery, which 
may well have given its name to a large ship with covered 
rows of seats ; this would account for the accent (galea). From 
gale = ydkri, or from galer a comes g alter la &c., gallery. 

Galera galere — galea. 

Galerno Sp. Pg., Pr. galerna, Fr. galerna a North -West wind, 
cf. Bret, gwalern gwalarn gwalorn. From Celtic gal , E. gale 
with a Pr. termination, cf. bolerna, buerna, suberna. 

Galgo Sp. Pg. a greyhound; from canis Gallicus, cf. Ov. Met. \, 
533. Ut cants in vacuo leporem cum gallicus arvo vidit. 

Galgulo — galbero. 

Galima Sp. pilfering, booty. From Ar. ghanima. 


Galimatias Fr. nonsense, a confused heap of words. The 
etym. is unknown. Cf. E. gallimawfrey, Fr. gallimafree a con- 
fused heap of things, a hodge-podge, which Wedgw. makes 
an onomatop. 

Gallare It. to swim, exult, esserc a galla to float. Not from the 
floating of the gall nut, but, prob. from g alius, cf. Sp. lencr 
mucho gallo to be very arrogant, It. galloria exultation. 

Galleria It., Sp. galeria, Pg. galaria, Fr. galerie, E. gallery. In 
L. L. galeria = an ornamental building, hall, and a court- 
yard. V. s. galea, 

Gallofo — gaglioffo, 
Gallone — gala, 
Galoeha galoche — galoscia. 
Galon — gala. 

Galoppare It., Sp. Pg. galopar, Pr. galaupar, Fr. galoper, E. 
galop , sbst. It. galoppo &c. It is the Goth, hlaupan, O. H. G. 
gahlaufan, A. S. gehledpan (E. leap\ G. laufen to run, Pr. au 
= G. au, cf. aimir = haunjan, raubar = raubon, raus = raus. 
The Du. ivalop is from the Fr. ivalop, waloper. It. gualoppare, 
iv=.g^ cf. gar con ivarcon, gaignon waignon, gaquiere waquiere. 
It. galopo. It. galuppo, Fr. galopin (in fables = the messenger 
hare) a foot -boy, varlet = O. H. G. hloufo, 

Galoscia It., Sp. galoeha, Fr. galoche, E. galosh; from L. gallica 
a slipper. The Sp. is haloza, Wedg. makes it a lengthened 
form of clog. 

Galtera • — gota. 

Gamaehe — gamba. 

Gamarra Sp. Pg. a martingale; also found in the Basque, whence 
like most words in arra, it is derived. But. cf. O. H. G. ga- 
marjan to hinder (mar), A. S. gemearra a hindering. 

Gamba It. Sp. Cat., Pr. gamba in gambaut, Pg. gambia, Fr. 
Jambe leg. We find forms with the tenuis , O. Sp. Pr. Sard. 
camba, Eh. comba. Alb. khembe, and without the b, O. Sp. ca?na, 
O. Yr.jame. From the root cam or camb found in cam-iirus 
cam-erus crooked, cam- era an arch, cam -er are to arch, Celt. 
cam crooked, camineg a felloe, Pg. camba, which form prob. 
existed in L. = Gk. xa^itij^ Celt, cam for ca?nb (cf. Cambodu- 
num&c). Besides Pg. ca?nba a felloe, we find cambaio crooked, 
O. Sp. encamar to bend. Burg, camboisser. Hence, also, Sp. 
Jamba = ^.Jamb, It. gambo stalk, gambone, Fv.Jambon, Sp. 
jamon a ham, gammon, O. Fr. gamaehe a leg -covering, E. 
gamashes. Hence, aho^Fr. gambiller to leap, Fi. gambol =0.}^. 
gambaud, Fr. gambade. 

Gambais gambaison Pr. , O. Fr. wambais, gambeson, O. Sp, 


gamhax, O. Pg. canbas a waistcoat, M. H. G. ivamheis, G. 
ivams, from 0. H. G. wamha belly. 

Gambero It., Sp. gamharo, 0. Fr. jamhle, N. Pr. jambre, Dauph. 
chamhro a crab; from cammarus. 

Gambo — gamba. 

Gamella Sp.Pg., Fr. gamelle a wooden trough = camella a drink- 
ing vessel. 

Gamo gamuza — camozza, 

Gana It. Sp. Pg. Cat. appetite. FromO.H. G.^emow = to gape, 
cf. hadare, hiare, %aCv£iv^ and v. guadagnare, 

Ganache — ganascia. 

Ganado Sp., Pg. gado flock, herd; from ganar, so ;= the gained, 
acquired, cf. O. Fr. proie = herd, Pr. aver, N. Pr. aver (f.) 
= sheep. Basq. atcienda a head of cattle = Sp. hacienda pos- 

Ganar gan9ar — guadagnare. 

Ganascia It., Fr. ganache a jaw. Augmen. from gena. 

Ganehir guenchir Pr. O. Fr., Rh. guinchir to give way; from 
O. H. G. wankjan icenkjan, G. ivanken. From sbst. ivank 
comes Com. guanch a fault. 

Gancio It., Sp. Pg. gancho a hook, Fr. ganse a loop for holding 
a button. Prob. from root cam gam, v. gamba. 

Gandir 0. Fr., Pr. giiandir to give way, retire, 0. Fr. also gan- 
diller; from Goth, vandjan, O. H. G. ivantjan wentjan, G. wen- 
den to go, E. ivend. 

Gangamu Sic. a net; from ydyya\iov. 

Ganghero It. a hinge, Sard, cancaru, Mil. canchen, Pr. ganguil, 
Hesych. ^dy%aXo^. Henee It. sgangherare to unhinge, Pg. 
escancarar to open wide. 

Gangrene — cangrena. 

Ganguear Sp. to speak through the nose, adj. gangoso. An 

Ganivet — canif, 

Ganse — gancio. 

Ganso — ganta. 

Gant — guanie. 

Ganta Pr. also ganto, a wild goose, O. Fr. gante, gente, Wal. 
gcnsce gensac (Pol. geska, Puss, giisak dm\.). Pliny has gantce, 
and Venant. Fort, distinguishes anser and ganta. It is the 
L. G. gante ^ Du. gent (E. gander) y M. H. G. ganze, O. H. G. 
ganazzo, whence Sp. ganso. 

Ganzua Sp., Tg.gaziia a picklock; from B.gaco-itsiia a false key. 

Ganon ganote Sp. windpipe; from canna. 

Gara It. contest ; from Fr. gare = ware ! It. gar are to vie = Fr. 
garer to beware. 

Garabato Sp., Vg.garavato a pothook. From the A.v.garb(girab) 


the edge of a sword? Hence gardbo garahato, cf. horca hor- 
cate; or from Ar. kxilldb a pothook. Larram. derives it from 
a Basque word gorobatu to seize. 

Garabia — garhino. 

Garabito Sp. a stall or booth; from ^.garau a chamber and itoa 
damp (Larramendi). 

Garance Fr. (hence Sp. granzd), Pic. waranche, L. L. garantia, 
warentia madder; the Greeks called 'red' akrid-ivovy on the 
analogy of which may have been formed from verus verare, 
verantia varantia. 

Gar anon — guaragno. 

Garant garante — guarento. 

Garba — gerhe, 

Garbanzo Sp. chick-pea; according to Larram., from B. gar an 
corn and antzua to dry. 

Garbillo Sp. a sieve , garhillar to sift, E. garble. The Ar. has 
girhdl, vb. garhala, but the Rom. word is, perhaps, from the 
L. cribellum, cf. earner o for crenero, bergante tor brigante, 
Garbin a hair-net = cribrum? 

Garbin — garbillo. 

Garbino It. Sp., N. Pr. garbin a south-west wind; from Ar. 
garb west, vb. gar aba to set (of the sun), whence also Pg. ga- 
rabia west. It. has also agherbino. 

Garbo It. Sp. Pg. behaviour, elegance, E. garb; vb. It. garbare 
to please, Sp. garbar to show aflPectation; Pr. garbier a brag- 
gart; from 0. H. Gr. gar awl garivi ornament, Gr. gerben, Du. 
gaeriven to deck ^b =zw, cf . falbo = falawer. 

Garbo Ven. Com. garb gherb (It. ^^r^^/^o Veneroni) bitter; from 
O. H. Gr. hariv, G. herbe sour. 

Garbuglio It., Sp. garbiiUo, O. Fr. garbouil grabouil tumult, con- 
fusion. From garrire and bullire, cf. Sp. bulla. It. buglione, 
Cat- bulyanga a noise. 

Garce gar9on — garzone. 

Garde garder — gnardare. 

Garenne Fr., also varenne for warenne, E. warren, L. L. wa- 
renna. Perhaps from O. Fr. garer warer to guard, be ivare, 
enne for ene = ine, cf. gastine, guerpine, ha'ine from G. roots. 
Du. has warande. 

Garer Fr., Pr. garar to take care, beware; from O. H.G. waron. 
Hence Pr. esgarar = garar, but Fr. egarer, whence It. sgar- 
rare to mislead. 

Garfio — graffia. 

Garfo — greffe. 

Gargamela — gargatta. 

Garganta — gar gait a. 

Gargatta It., O. Fr. Pic. gargate, Rh. gargata, Genev. garga- 


tame, Jura garguelotte &c., Bret, gargaden, O. E. gar gate, Sp. 
Pg. Cat. gargauta throat; from giirges with suffix att , and the 
onomatop. gargarizzare to gargle, Sp. gargara a gargling noise 
in the throat = Ar. vb. gargara, cf. It. gorgogliare gorgozzo, 
gargagliare gargozza &c. Hence also Sp. gargola, Fr. ^/^rr- 
gouille, E. gargoyle gurgoyle, also Pr. gargamcla, Fr. garga- 
melle (Rabelais) throat, Pg. gorgomilos (pl.)> Sp. gorgomillera, 

Gargo It. cunning, malicious, Piedm. gargh idle ; from O. H. G. 
Ati?/'^ crafty, cf. O. N. hargr obstinate , idle. 

Gargote gargotte Fr. cook-shop. From Pic. gargoter to seethe, 
an onomatop. 

Garlar Sp. to chatter ; from garrulus. 

Garlopa — varlope. 

Garnache garnir garnison — guarnire. 

Garofano It., Sp. giro fie girofre, Pr. Fr. giro fie a clove, pink 
(O. E. gillofer, gelofer, Shaks. gilly-vor, gilly- flower); from 
caryophyllum with the Gk. accent, xaQvocpvXXov , but Wal. 
carofil qarofil, Ar. qaranful. 

Garone — gherone, 

Garou — loupgarou, 

Garra Sp. Pg. a claw, talon , Pr. garra hough ? (cf. squarar cou- 
per le jarret\ \Jvai, jaro, Genev.jaire. Hence It. garretto, O. 
Fr. garret, Fr. jarret, Sp. Pg. jarrete hough, ham (whence 
jarretiere, g artier, E. garter), N. Pr. garrou, Sard, garroni; 
Fr. g arr ot ]omi, cudgel, Sp. garrote, whence Fr. garrotte, E. 
garotte. From W. gar shank, Bret, gar shin; cf. W. cdmez 
gar hough. V. Dief. Celt. 1, 129. 

Garrafa — caraffa. 

Garrama Sp. Pg. tax, plunder; Ar. ghardma, 

Garrie Pr., Cat. garrig the ilex. From garra? cf. chaparra. 

Garrido Sp. Pg. neat, pretty; from Ar. gari with Rom. suffix 
as in florido. 

Garrobo — carrdbo. 

GaruUa Sp. ripe grapes; from B. garau-illa dead grain Larr. 

Garza — garzone. 

Garzo (garz) Lomb. heart of a cabbage (It. garzuolo). Mil. gar- 
zoeu bud of vine, Ven. garzolo bunch of flax on the distaff, 
Lomb. garzon milk thistle. From L. carduus through a form 
Gardens car dear e, cf. orzo from liordeum; we have car dare and 
garzar, garzolo and Parm. carzocid, garzon and Sic. cardedda. 
Fr. carde (carder, E. card) = It. cardo = L. cardus for car- 
dims. V. garzone. 

Garzo Sp. Pg. blue -eyed, a corruption oi zarco, for carzo, cf. 
gavasa for hayasa. 

Garzo Sp. agaric; corrupted from agaricus. 

Garzone It., Sp. garzon, Pg. garcdo, Fr. gar con, Pr. also gartz, 

GAS — GAUGE. 223 

O. Fr. gars a lad, f. garce a prostitute. Orig. = a servant 
boy, garce a servant maid, gar con also = a rascal, the first 
meaning being simply boy (pucr) and girl, cf. Jura gars son, 
garse daughter. Prob. from the same root as garzuolo, garzo, 
from cardims, in the sense of a bud, stalk &c., cf. It. toso, 
Yy. petit trognon, ^ , kleiner hutzel , Gr. ;cdpog, Gael, ^^/.v, cf. 
Mil. garzon = garzone and carduus. For the medial cf. Lorr. 
gade •= carde, gadd = carder, Sp. garza a heron is prob. the 
same word as garce, and alludes to the tuft hanging down the 
heron's neck like a girl's hair , cf . garceta = a young heron 
and a lock of hair. 

Gas Fr. It. &c., E. gas; from Du. geest, G. geist spirit, E. ghost. 

Gasa — gaze. 

Gasalha gazalha Pr., 0. Fr. gazaille, L. L. gasalia a company; 
hence Pg. agasalhar, Sp. agasajar gasajar to treat in a friendly 
way, divert, O. Pg. agasalhar se com huma mulher to marry. 
From O. H. G. gisello, gasaljo, G. gesell companion. L. L. 
gasalianes=^QiQi\k).. pi. gasaljans. O.V^.gasvUlado =gasaiUado. 

Gaspiller Fr. to lavish , Pr. guespillar, Wall, caspoui; from A. S. 
gespillan (E. spill), O. H. G. gaspildan to consume. 

Gasto It. in Com. gast a lover; from G. gast , E. guest. 

Gate Rouchi Wall., Lorr. gaie, Champ, gazette, Jura gaise; from 
Goth, gaitei, Du. geit, O. H. G. geiz, G. geifs drivel, slaver. 

Gateau Fr., O. Fr. gastel (Sic. guasieddii), Pr. gastal cake; from 
M. H. G. O. E. ivastel (Chaucer). 

Gater — guastare. 

Gatto It., Sp. gato. Cat. gat, Pr. cat, Fr. chat, f. gatta, gata, 
cata, chatte, N. Gr. ydxa a cat, not in Wall, which has metze, 
pisice instead. From the Celtic and German ; Ir. cat, W. cdth, 
A. S. E. cat, O. N. kottr. The Lat. catus is late , v. Freund. 

Gauche Fr. left, O. E. gauk, E. gaivk 'gawky. G = G. iv, for 
Kouchi frere ivauquier stepbrother = Fr. frere gaucher. From 
O. H. G. welk, E. iveak , cf. It. mano stanca the tired, manca 
the maimed, Sp. zurda the deaf, redruha the giving way, 
N. Pr. man seneco the aged = the weak. Cf. M. H. G. tenc 
left with Sw. tehngg weak. The Pr. E. gaulic requires a Fr. 
gale. Sp. g audio unlevel from gauche? Others, however, 
derive gauche from gawk and this from awk (aivkward) with 
prefix ge; v. Garnett's Philol. Essays p. 66. 

Gaucher — gualcare. 

Gaufre Fr., Pic. ivaufe, O. Sp. guafla, L. L. gafrum a cake; 
from G. ivaffel (E. wafer), connected with wal>e honey -comb, 
so prop, a honey-comb (in texture) cake, this from vb. ivehen, 
E. weave. 

Gauge O. Fr. in 7iois gauge walnut; from O. H. G. walah tvalc 
foreign (G. ivdlsch, welsh) whence gauge, as from del' catus 


deuge. A. S. was veal-hnut, 0. N. val-linot, G. ivallnuss, E. 

Gaule Fr.^ Rouchi waule a pole ; from Goth, valus (= L. vallus 

whence the au), Friesl. wahi, not from L. vallus, which would 

be against the rule. 
Gaupe Fr., Burg, gaupitre a drab, dirty, ugly woman, perhaps 

from O. E. wallop a lump of fat. 
Gausser Fr. (se gaiisser de) to be merry about anything; perhaps 

from Sp. gozar, which is also used reflexively. 
Gaut gualt gal O. Fr., Pic. Norm. Rh. gualt, Pr. gau gaut; from 

G. wald wood. Hence O. Fr. gaudine, Pr. gaudina a thicket, 

Pg. gudinha an estate? 
Gavasa — bagascia. 

Gave Pic, Wall, gaf, Champ, gueffe a bird's crop, vb. Pic. se 
gaver, N. Pr. se gavci, Champ, gueffer, Fr. s'engouer to cram 
oneself. Pic. engaver to cram, Fr. gavion throat, Langued. 
engavachd to throttle. Mil. gavasgia, Com. gavazza a large 
mouth. Perhaps from cavxis cavea. In the South of France 
gava gave = a mountain- stream, cf. (ktve de Pau, Gave de 
Couterets &c., which, according to Mahn, is the 0. Fr. gave 
= eaUf aqua, Goth. ahva. 

Gavela Pg., Sp. gavilla, Pr. guavella, Fr. Javelle sheaf, bundle, 
handful. From captdus capellus capella, N. Pr. masc. gavel, 
Pic. gaviau, cf. martulus, scroplmla, which give 7narlellus scro- 
p] tell a (ecr Quelle) . 

Gavetta It., Sp. gahata, Yr.Jatie a wooden bowl; from gabtUa 
an eating -vessel, O. H. G. gebita, L. L. capita, cf. ^.jata a 
manger. Fr.jVz//^? from gahata, as dette from debitum. Pic. has 
gate, Norm, gadejade, 0. Fwjadeau. Sp. gaveta a drawer is 
from the same. 

Gavia Sp. a sea-mew, Pliny's gavia. Hence Sp. gaviola, Pg. 
gaivota; Sp. Pr. Neap, gavina; It. gabbiano, Pg. gaivao a sort 
of swallow. 

Gavia - — gabbia. 

Gavilan Sp., Pg. gaviao a sparrow-hawk. Mil. Com. gavinel, 
ganivel, Pr. gavanli. From L. L. capus (capere), cf. G. habicht 
from haben, Isid. ('capus) capys italicd lingua falco dicitur, 
Serv. ^n. 1, 20, falco qui Tuscd lingua capys dicitur. Cap-el-an 
^= gav-il-an from a dim. capellus, cf. gemellus gemelo gemeo; 
cap = gav as in gav-ela from cap-ulus, 

Gavina gaviota — gavia, 

Gavion — gave. 

Gayo — gajo. 

Gayola — gahbia. 

Gazapo Sp., Cat. catxap, Sard, gacciapu, Pg. cacapu a young 


rabbit. Perhaps from dasypus Pliny (daovTiGvg), g for <?, cf. 
camozza, apo for epo being a commoner termination. 

Gaze Fr.^ Sp. gasa, E. gauze; from Gaza in Palestine. 

Gazmono Sp. a hypocrite , a tartuffe ; from B. gazmuha one who 
kisses (sc. images and relics of saints). 

Gazon Fr. turf, Arag. Crem. gason; from O. H. Gr. waso, G. 
wasen. A. S. vase, Du. ivase = also mud, whence Fr. vase f,, 
Pg. vasa , Norm, gase, engaser = envaser. 

Gazouiller — Jaser. 

Gazuza Sp. great hunger; from B. gose-utsa. 

Gazza It., Pr. gacha, agassa, Fr. agace a magpie; from 0. H. G. 
agalstra, whence also It. gazzera. 

Gazzella It., Sp. gazela, Fr. gazelle algazelle, E. gazelle; from 
Ar. gazdl. 

Gazzetta It., Sp. gazeta, Fr. E. gazette; prop, the name of a 
Venetian coin (from gaza), so in Old English. Others derive 
gazette from gazza a magpie , which , it is alleged , was the 
emblem figured on the paper ; but it does not appear on any 
of the oldest Venetian specimens preserved at Florence. The 
first newspapers appeared at Venice about the middle of the 
16^^ century during the war with Soliman II, in the form of a 
written sheet, for the privilege of reading which a gazzetta 
(= a crazia) was paid. Hence the name was transferred to 
the news - sheet. 

Geai — gajo. 

Geant Fr. a giant, Vr.Jagan; from gigas gigantes. 

Gecchire It. in aggccchirsi to humble oneself, O. It. giccMto, 
giachito, Mil. gecchiss = geccMrsi, Pr. gequir, O. ^^. jaquir to 
let pass, O. Cuit.jaqidr to permit, O. Fr. gehir to grant, say, 
confess. From O. H. Q.Jehan, Goth, aikan to utter, to con- 
cede. Aggecchirsi = to give in to a person, ch = h as in an- 

Gehir — gecchire. 

Geindre Fr. to groan , sigh ; from gemere. 

Geira Pg. as much land as could be ploughed in a day; ior ju- 
geira, \j. jug arms. 

Geitar — • gettare. 

Geito Pg. figure, shape, gait; h^ora Jactus. 

Geldra It. rabble, Pr. gelda, O. Fr. gelde a troop espec. of foot- 
men; from L. L. gclda, G. gilde^ A. S. gild, E. guild. O. Fr. 
also gueude: gueude marchande = merchant's guild. 

Gelso It. mulberry tree ; for inoro gelso = morus celsa as opp. the 
morus liumilis the blackberry; Sic. ceusu, Gen. sa^t^sa = L. 
celsus celsa. 

Gelsomino — gesmino. 

Geneive — gengiva. 



Gene Fr. (f.), 0. Fr. gehene torment, vb. gener; from Heb. 

Genevre — ginepro, 
Gengibre — zenzovero. 
Gengiovo — zenzovero. 
Gengiva It. Pg. Pr., Sp. encia, Fr. gencive, Wal. gingie gum-, 

from gingiva; cf. Sard, senzia, Pr. cmgiva, Cat. geniva, Berr. 

Genh., genie • — ingegno. 
Genia It. offspring , Sic. jinia; from yevsa. 
Genisse Fr., Vr. Ju?iega a heifev^ ivova. junix jtmicis ; c{. genevre 

ixQin juniperus. Jura gegna=junega; Com. has gioniscia, Eh. 

Genou — ginocchio. 
Gens ges Pr., 0. Fr. gens giens, N. Pr. ges or gis, Cat. gents ■-= 

Yv. point. From gentium, as pretz h^ompretium; 7ion gens = 

non gentium = minime gentium; or from genus, non genus = in 

no kind, not at all. 
Gente O. It., O. Sp. gento, Pr. gent, f. gent a, 0. Cat. gint ginta, 

O. Fr. gent gente handsome, fine, genteel; vb. agenzare agen- 

sar agencer to please ; probably from genitus a man of birth, 

Jiomme de naissance. 
Geole — gdbhia. * 

Gequir — gecchire. 
Gerbe Fr. O. E., 0. Fr. garhe , Pr. Cat. Arag. garba a cheaf, 

vb. gerher, Arag. garhar; it is the O. H. G. garha, G. garhe, 

Du. garve, E. garb (in heraldry). 
Gercer Fr. jarcer to chap , crack , gerce a moth , a book - worm. 

From a form carptiare (carpius), ge for ca, cf. caveola gedle. 
Gergo It., Sp. xerga; It. gergone, Fr. Y^. jargon; O. Sp. girgonz, 

Sp. gerigonza, Pr. gergonz unintelligible chatter. In O. Fr. 

we find for jargonner gargoner and in 0. E. gargoun. Perhaps 

from the root garg (v. gargatta). Cf. also Sp. guirigatj. 
Gerigonza — gergo. 
Gerla It., N. Pr. gerlo, 0. Fr. geurle jarle a basket; from geru- 

lus a porter. 
Germandree — calamandrea. 
Ger mania Sp. gibberish, language of the Gipsies, who called 

themselves germani brothers , also hermania from hermano. 
Ges — gens. 
Gese O. Fr. a pike, from the 0. Gallic gcesum, or 0. Gael, gais 

(f.), L. L. gesa, B. gesi. 
Gesier Fr., E. gizzard (O. Fr. also Jws?>r); by dissimilation from 

gigeria bird's entrails (Lucil. Petron. Apic). Pic. giger, gi- 

Gesmino It. (corrupt, gelsomino, Lang, gensemil), Sp. Fr. jas- 


min, ^. Jasmine Jessamine ; from the Arab, tjdsamun or yasamln 

Freyt. 4, 514'\ 
Gesta It., 0. Fr. geste^ Pr. gesta lineagO; stock. Lat. gesta used 

in the sing. = fl) exploits of a people (2) the chronicle of 

these exploits (3) lineage, stock. 
Geto — gettare. 
Gettare gittare It., Sp. Jitar, Pr. getar gitar, Fr. Jeter, Sp. echar 

to throw; from. Jactare (in com^. Jectare), sbst. Fr. ^.Jet, Pr. 

get. It. geto, ^.Jess. Pg. deitar (O. Pg, geitar) = dejeter, de- 

Gheda — ghiera, 

Gheppio It. a kestrel ; from yvtl; yvitog. 
Ghermire — gremire. 
Gherone garone It., Sp. giron, Pg. girdo, Fr. giron, a gore or 

gusset in a garment (in heraldry a triangle), a lap. From 

O. H. G. gero ace. gerun, M. H. G. gere, 0. Fries, gare, 

from ^^r a spear, cf. L. L. pilum vestimenti, so called from 

the shape. 
Ghezzolt. black or moorish ; from cegyptius, ci. gheppio, ghe=gy. 
Ghiado It. extreme cold, Pr. glay fright, Pr. Cat. esglay, 0. Sp. 

aglayo; vb. It. agghiadare to benumb, O. Sp. aglayarse to be 

astonished , Pr. esglayar. Pr. glay, It. ghiado also = gladius, 

cf. desglayar to kill desglaziar = degladiare; O. Fr, glaive = 

shriek of death as well as sword (E. glaive). Cold and fright 

are so named from their piercing effects. 
Ghiaja It. gravel ; from glarea, O. Sp. glera, 
Ghiattire schiattire It., Fr. clatir, O. Fr. glatir, Sp. Pg. latir to 

yelp, bark; sbst. Pr. glat, 0. Fr. glai (?) cry, shriek; an 

onomatop. like G. klatschen, Du. klateren, E. clatter, Gr. 'aXd- 

^£cv, L. lat -rare. * 

Ghiazzerino It., >^ip. Jacerina , Tg.Jazerina, Fr, Jazeran , O. Fr. 

Jazerant Jazerenc, whence Fg. Jazerdo a coat of mail; N. Pr. 

Jaziran, Burg. Jazeran a necklace. The word was orig. an 

adj., Sp. cota Jacerina , Fr. hauberc Jazerant. Prob. from Sp. 

j«z«rmo = Algerian, from Ar. al-Jazdir (or ^/-^^za^'r) Algiers.. 
Ghiera It. an arrow , from O. H. G. ger a missile. The Lomb. 

gaida a speer is the same word as the Piedm. Parm. gajda, 

Crem. Mil. gheda, Sard, gaja a gusset, cf. gherone. 
Ghignare and sghignare It. to snigger, Sp. guinar, Fr. guigner 

to wink, leer, peep; from A. S. ginidn to gape, O. H. G. 

ginen, or from 0. H. G. kinan adridere, though G. k does not 

usu. == g, 
Ghindare It. (for guindare), Sp. Pg. guindar, Fr. guinder to wind 

up; from 0. H. G. windan, E. ivind. Hence It. guindolo (hin- 

doloj, Sp. guindola, Fr. gidndre; Sp. Pg. guindaste, Fr. guindas 



andvindas, iYom.iheDi\. ivind^as, G,wind-achse (sixie), whence 

Bret, gwindask , E. windlass. 
Ghiotto It., Pr. 0. Fr. gloi a glutton; from glutus, ghittiis (glut- 

tire). It. ghiottone, Sp. Pr. gloton, Fr. glouton, E. glutton, from 

gluto (Fest. s. v. inghwies); vb. It. inghiottire, Pr. englotir, Fr. 

englouter from gluttire. From the same root are the Pr. glot a 

bit; morsel; and It. ghiozzo. 
Ghiova It. for ghieva, L. gleba, cf. piovano ior pievano. 
Ghiozzo — ghiotto. 
Ghirlanda It., Sp. Pg. guirnalda, 0. Sp. guarlanda , Pg. also 

grinalda, Pr. Cat. garlanda, E. garland, ¥i\ giiMande. Prob. 

from a form wierelen of the M. H. G. ivieren to bind, O. H. G. 

wiara a wreath. 
Ghiro It.; Pr. glire, Fr. loir a dormouse; from glis gliris. Hence 

Fr. Sp. liron, Pg. lirao. The N. Pr. greoule is from glirulus, 
Gia It. Sp. 0. Pg. ya, Pg. Pr. 0. Fr. ^'«;, ^rom. Jam. Fr. ^^eyVi for 

^^j^« = It. di gia. 
Giaeo It.; ^i^.Jaco, Fr.JaqueL, dim. J aqtiette, IE,. Jacket, prop. 

a soldier's jacket; whence G. J ache. According to Ducange 

from Jaque the name of a Count of Beauvais c. 1358. But v. 

Wedgw.; who says the Jack was a homely substitute for a 

coat of mail; being the familiar name usea so generally for 

mechanical contrivances; e. g. hoot -Jack, roasting-jack &c. 
Gialda — geldra. 

Giallo It., Sip.Jalde, Vg. Jalde Jalne , Fr.Jaune yellow. The Fr.; 
orig. Jalne, is from gallmms (Wnl. galbi?}) and homjalne, Jalde, 
Lomb. giald. The It. giallo suits the O. H. G. gelo (G. gelb), 
E. yellow y a for e as in gialura from gelo. Fr. hejaiine gull, 
ninny -— hecjaime, properly of a young unfledged bird; so 
gull Sw. gul yellow. • 

Giannetta — ginete, 

Giara It., Sp. Pg. Pr. Jarra, Fr. Jarre, E. Jar; It. m. giarro, Sp. 
Pg. Jarro &c. ; from Ar. Jarrah a water- vessel. In O. Pg. we 
find also zarra, z = Ar. J. 

Giardino It., Sp. Jardin, Pg. Jar dim, Vi\Ja?rlin gardin Jerzin, 
Yv. Jar din, gardin, f. Pr. giardina, E. garden; from O. H. G. 
garto (gen. dat. gartin), or; as the form giardi7ia would seem 
to hint ; a Eom. der. from O. H. G. gart (orig. gard), E. yard, 
Goth, yards, Gael, gart, W. gardd, E. garth. Wal. gard en- 
closure is the Goth, yards. 

Giavelotto It. prob. from the Fr. Javelot ^ O. Fr. gavelot, Bret. 
gavlod, M. H. G. gahilot; also It. giavelina, ^^. Jahalina, Fr. 
Javeline, F. Javelin, Bret, gavlin. The root is found in the E. 
gaveilock, A. S. gafldc, from the 0. N. gefja a spear; N. gaflok 
gafeloc gafeluc (Grimm) ; or from Ir. galibla a spear ; W. gafl 


(Pott, Diefenbach). The 0. Fr. has an unintelligible form 

gaverlot garlot. 
Gibet — giubhetto. 
Gibier 0. Fr. in aller engibier to hunt , Fr. gibotjer, sbst. gibier, 

0. Fr. gibelet (Et.giblet), Fr. gibcciere, Y^.gipciere gipser (Chauc.) 

a hunting-pouch, a purse. Perhaps connected with gibet gibbet 

(halter), whence gibier to catch birds in a noose? 
Gier gieres giers a particle found the oldest Fr. monuments = 

L. ergo; from erg ierg whence ger gier as from ego ieo jeo gie, 
Gieser — gese. 
Giga It. O. Sp. Pr., 0. Fr. gigue a string- instrument, Sp. giga, 

Fr. gigue, ^.Jig. From M. H. G. gtge, vb. gtgen, G. geige a 

violin , vb. geigen. Hence Fr. gigot a leg of mutton (from the 

shape), Sp. gigote minced meat. 
Giglio It., Sp. Pg. lirio, Pr. Jililirilis, Fr. lis, Piedm. Mil. liri, 

Sard, lillu, O. Sp. lilio, Eh. f. gilgia, M. H. G. gilge, Sw.Jilge 

iige a lily. A notable instance of the principle of dissimilation, 

the g and the r being used to prevent the repetition of the /. 

The Fr. requires a form lilius, cf. O. H. G. lilio, M. H. G. 

gil^e (m.). V. Pott, Forsch. 2, 99. 
Giler Norm., N. Pr. gilhd to hasten away ; from O. H. G. gtlan 

giljan (Pr. h =j) for gi-ilan to hasten, G. eilen. The Com. 

is zela cf. Com. zerlo, zoja = It. gerlo, gioja. 
Gilet Fr. a waistcoat; from Gille, the name of the first maker 

Gina — agina. 
Ginepro It., Sp. enebro, Pg. zimbro (z rare for g), Fr. genievre; 

from juniperus. The e for u is Fr. (cf. genisse), whence Du. 

jenever, Dan. enebar. 
Gineta Sp. Pg., Fr. genette, E. genet a wild -cat, civet-cat (in 

the Levant). Of Eastern origin. 
Ginete Sp. Pg. a light -armed trooper, gineta. It. giannetta a 

short spear carried by such, Sp. gineta ginete, It. ginnetto gian- 

netto, Fr. genet, ^.jennet. Probably from yv^vTJtrjg. 
Gingembre — zenzovero. 
Ginoceliio It., Wal. genunche, Sp. hinojo, 0. Sp. ginojo, Pg. 

giolho joelho, Fr. genou (from genoit) knee ; from genuculum for 

Giocolaro giullaro It. from jocularius; Sp. joglar juglar, Pr. 

joglar from j ocularis; It. giocolatore , 0. Fr. jogleor , 0. E. 

jogelour, ^.juggler, Yv, jongleur, horn Joculator ; O.Fr. Jongler 

from Joculari. 
Gioglio It., Sp. Joyo, Pg. Joio, Pr. Juelh darnel, from lolium, 

cf. giglio from liliujn. It. has also lolio, Arag. luello &c. Hence 

Tg. Jocira a winnowing- sieve. 
Gioja giojello -^ godere. 


Griorno It., Pr. O. Csit.Jorn, Fr.Joiir; from diurnum, L. L. Jor- 
niis; dies is found in It. dl, Sp. Pg. Pr. dia. Hence It. sog- 
giorno, O. Sp. sojorno, Pr. sojorn, E. sojourn, Fr. sejour &c. 

Giostrare — giusta. 

Griovedi It., Yy. jeudi, Pr. Cat. dijous; from /o^;/5 ^/^'s, diesJovis; 
^i^.Jneves, Vr.jous, from /oy/s, Wal. ^o/, Ven. Romag. zohia. 
Pg. quinta feira = jts^Tttrj in Mod. Gr., M. H. G. p/inztac, 
V. Schmeller 1 , 321. 

Giraffa It,, Sp. girafa, Fr. girafe, E. giraffe; from Ar. zarrdfah, 

Girandola girandula girandole — ^?ro. 

Gire It. to go, defective; from de-ire(?), cf. L. L. de-ambidare, 

Girfalco gerfaleo It., Sp. gerifalte (from the Fr.), Pr. girfalc, 
Fr. gerfaut, E. jerfalcon; the gir ger is prob. the O. H. G. gir, 
G. geier ■= Sansk. grighra a vulture , and this was afterwards 
connected with gyrare so that we have in L. L. gyrofalco {a gy- 
rando Albert. Mag.). Cf. It. ruota, Ven. ronda, Gr. oiCgytog. 

Giro It. Sp., Pr. gir a circle, round; from gyrus. 0. Fr. gires 
pangs of labour, Berr. girande gerente a woman in labour. It. 
gir are J O. Fr. girer from gyrare; It. girandola, Sp. girandula, 
Fr. girandole a fire- wheel, girandole, from a lost giranda = 
Fr. girande; Yv.girouette for girotette (cf. It. gir otta) a weather- 

Girofle — garofano. 

Giron — gherone. 

Gisarme — guisarma. 

Giu — giuso. 

Giubba giuppa It., Sp. al-juba, Vr.Jupa, Fr.Jupe, Com. Crem. 
gibba, Mil. Rh. gippa, M. H. G. gippe joppe; It. giubbone, Sp. 
jubon, V^.jubdo gibcio, Csit.gipd, Vr.Jubon, Fr.Jupon, Wal. 
jubea. From Ar. al-jubbah a woollen petticoat. Hence also 
Sp. chupa. It. cioppa(?), G. schaube. 

Giubbetto giubbetta It., Fr. gibet , whence E. gibbet. The It. is 
a dim. of giubba, a little jacket, a collar, a halter. For i from 
u, cf. genisse. 

Giuggiola It., Sp. jujuba, Fr. E. jujube; from zizyphum. The 
usu. Sp. word is azufaifa. 

Giulebbe It., f^i^.julepe, Pr. Fr. Yi. julep; from Ar.julCib, from 
Pers. gul rose, and db water. 

Giulivo It., Pr. 0. ¥y. joli for jolif, Yi. jolly, Fr. ^o// pretty ; vb. 
O. Fr. joliver jolier to enjoy oneself. Not from Jovialis, but 
from O. ^.jol a Christmas festivity (E. yule), Swed. Dan.^'t//, 
Goth, jiuleis. 

GiuUaro — giocolaro. 

Giumella It. as much as can be held in the two hands placed 
together; irom. h. gemellce. For the m from ^, cLFr.jumeau. 

Giunare It., Wal. ajuna, Sp. ayunar, Vg.jejuar, Yr.jeonar, Fr. 


jeuner to fast; from jejunare (Tertull.); the je is lost in Fr. 
jeuner, Sp. a-yunar (cf. ayer from heri). For giunare we have 
It. digiunare, Pr. Cat. dejunar, adj. digiuno dejun (jejunus). 
Fr. dejeuner, Sp. desayunar, Wal. dejiina break -fast. 

Giunchiglia It., Sp. junquillo, Fr. jonquille, E. jonquil; from 
juncus, its hotanic name being narcissus juncifolius, 

Giusarma — guisarme. 

Giuso It., contr. ^/w, 0. Sp. j^w50 ayuso jus, O. Tg.juso, Vr.jos 
jotz jus, O. Fr. ^'w5^ Wal. ^m Jo5 for L. infra. From deosum 
for deorsu?n, L. h.josumjusum asjornus from diurnus, O. Sp. 
also <?m50. 

Giusquiamo It., Si^.josquiamo, Yv.jusquiame (f.) henbane; from 
hyosciamus (vo^xva^og)^ corrupted into jusquiamus by Palla- 

Giusta giusto (cf. contra contt^o), Pr. josta, O. Fr. joste juste; 
homjuxta also = secundnm^ in Rom., which meaning it had 
often in L. L., and occasionally also in L. Hence It. giustare 
giostrare, Sp. Pg. justar, Pr. jostar justar, Yx.jouter, O. Fr. 
joster juster, Yi. joust orig. = to bring together; sbst. giostra, 
Vy. josta justa, Yr.joute, ^. joust, M.H.G. tjost, M.Du.joeste; 
Cf. Berr. mon champ joute au sien adjoins. Hence Pr. ajostar, 
Fr. ajouter to add , E. adjust. The E. jostle is a frequentative 

Givre Fr. (f.) a snake in heraldry, O.Fr. givre snake; for guivre 
from viper a, O. H. G. wiper a, whence also 0. Fr. wivre, W. 
gwiher, Bret, wiher, E. viper. Givre also = a snake -like mis- 
sile and an icicle, Burg.gevre, Vr. givre, gibre, Csit.gebre hoar- 
frost , vb. Pr. gibrar, Cat. gebrar. 

Glaba It. a layer, shoot; from clava; for the &, cf. the form 

Glacier O. Fr. (glacoier) to glide. From glades, so to slip like 
ice, cf. brillare, to shine like beryl, corbare to cry like a raven, 
formicare to swarm like ants. 

Glai — ghiattire. 

Glaieul — glaive. 

Glaire (f.) Fr., Pr. glara humeur visqueuse, Sp. clara (de huevo 
=glaire d'ceuf). It. cJiiara, 1^. glare, gleire, glere {gleyreGh?iuc.). 
Not (as Grimm) from A. S. glaere amber, which ^^L. glcesum, 
O. N. gler glas, Dan. Sw. glas, E. glass, nor (as Mahn) from 
the Celtic: Bret, giaour, W. glyfoer drivel, slaver, connected 
with Br. glao glav, W. gwlaw rain (connected with L. pluvia), 
Br. gleb, V^. gwleb givlyb wet; but from clarum ovi, cf. Pr. 
clara d'un hueu. It. chiara, Sp. clara, M. H. G. eierkldr. It 
borrows the gender of glarea gravel (It. chiara also := sand- 

Glaise Fr., Pr. gleza clay; from L. L. glis glitis = humus tenax. 


adj. gliteus = cretaceus. Glis is, perhaps, connected with Gk. 
ylCa glue , ylioiQog. 

Glaive Fr. (m.), Pr. glavi a sword, E. glaive, It. glave a sword- 
fish. From gladiiis came Pr. glazi (z = d), glai glavi, cf. from 
adulterium azuUeri aiUteri avtdieri, vidua veuza veuva. Glaive 
= glavi as saive = savi, O. Fr. glai (whence gla'ieid) ~- Pr. 

Glaner Fr., Pic. Champ, glener, N. Pr. glend, E. glean, Fr. glane 
a handfull of ears of corn &c. ; From the Celtic, 
W. glain gldn = clean, vb. glanhau to clean up, to glean. 

Glapir Fr. to yelp; Du. klappen, M. H. G. klaffen, O. H. G. 
klaffdn. Hence Fr. clavaud, cf. Du. klahbaerd, E. clapper, 

Glas — chiasso. 

Glasto — guado. 

Glatir — ghiattire. 

Glave — glaive, 

Glay — ghiado. 

Gleton 0. Fr., also gletteron, Fr. glouteron a burdock; from the 
G. klelte, O. H. G. chlcito, ace. chleUun, chletton. 

Glette Fr. litharge; from the G. {^'A\iQY-)gldtle. 

Glisser Fr. to slip; from G. glit-scn glitschen, Du. glitsen. We 
find in It. glisciare, O. Fr. glinser j N. Pr. linsd, Burg, linzer, 

Gloriette Fr., Sp. glorieta a bower, prop. = a fine, handsome 

chamber (gloria). 
Glousser — chiocciare, 
Glouteron — gleton, 
Glouton — ghiotto. 
Glu Fr. (f.), Pr. glut, Vg. grudc bird-lime, Yt.glue; from glus 

glutis (Ausonius). Hence Pic. englui, Pr. englul, Sp. engrudo, 

vb. engludar engrudar. 

Glui Fr., Pr. glueg straw; from Flem. geluye gluye, or from W. 

GnafFe It. interj . ; from mia fe. 
Gobbe Fr., Norm. ^oZ^6'/, Y^. gobbet, Norm, gohinc a meal, Fr. 

goher to gobble, E. gob a mouthful. Cf. Gael, gob, W. gwb a 

beak, v. Dief. Goth. Wb. 1, 169. 

Gobbo It., Rh. gob a hump, Fr. gobin, from gibba gibbus, L. L. 
gybbus (KV(pog). Al. from W. gob a heap. 

Gobelet — coppa. 

Gobelin goblin Fr., E. goblin hob-goblin. From Tco^ccXog, whence 
also G. kobold? V. Grimm Myth. p. 420, Diefenb. Goth. 
Wb. 1, 150, who compares Bret, gobilin an ignis fatuus. But 
the Bret, gobilin is doubtless the W. coblyn (properly == one 
who knocks, from cobio to knock), v. Wedgwood. 

Goceia It., Crem. (m.) gozy gouzy a drop. Not immediately from 


gutta, but prob. from vb. gocciare, for gotteggiare = Vr. go- 
teiar, Pg. gotejar. 

Goda is[. Pr. a dirty slut, O. Fr. godon a rake, Fr. gouine a 
whorC; for godine, dim. Bnrg, godineta, Rouchi godineie, Burg. 
gaudrille, O. Fr. gouderois (cf. 0. E. gaudery sprightliness); 
godemine pleasure; vb. O. Fr. goder, Fr. godailler, Berr. gou- 
ailler to feast, revel; also Sp. (gipsy) godo godeho, godizo 
dainty, goderia a drinking-bout, Pied, gaudineta, Pg. engodar 
to allure, cf. Rouchi godan lure, bait. Basq. godaria = cho- 
colate (enticing drink) from the Rom. From the l^.gaudere(?), 
but the sbst. goday adj. godo, can only be referred to the W. 
god wantonness. Hence, perhaps, also the Fr. goinfre a rake, 
the rare termination being found also in gouUafre. The verb 
godailler is referred by some to a sbst. godale = E. good ale. 

Godailler godon goinfre — goda. 

Godere gioire It., O.Pg. gouvir, Pr. gauzir jauzir, Yv.jouir, Pic. 
se gaudir, horn gaudere; sbst. ^g. goivo, Vy. gang joi, Wald. 
goy y^.joy , ^\^o i. It. gioja, S^.Joya, Pg.Vr.Joia, Yr.joie, 
Sp. Pg.=jewel, Fr.:=joy, It. Pr.==joy, jewel, hom. gaudium, 
gaudia; hence It. giojello, ^^. joy el, Yr.Joiel, 0. Yr.joel, Fr. 
joyau, Yi. jewel y L. L. (wrongly) jocale ior gaudiale. Vr.jau- 
zion, i. jauzionda from gaiidibundus Apuleius and L. L. 

Godet Fr. a pitcher, for gotet = gottet from guttus, It. gotto. 

Godo — goda. 

Goeland Fr. a gull; from the Celtic, Bret, gwelan, W. gtvylan 
(E. gull?), Gael, foilenn, from vb. gwela Bret., gwylaiv W., 
to cry. 

Goffo It., y^'^.gofo, Fr. goffe, Yi. gof guff {^yoy.) stupid, clownish. 
Perhaps the same word as L. L. gufa (vestis == villata) thick, 
coarse. Some derive it from the Gk. 'nca^pog. It is connected 
with the Bav. goff a blockhead. 

Gogna It. pillory, halter; shortened from vergogna, cf. Sp. ver- 
guenza, and gogna = dilemma. 

Gogues Fr. (pi.) merriment, goguettes tricks, se goguer, gogue- 
nard, gogaille, Lang, goug alios = goguettes. Bret, has gogea 
to mock, W. gogan satire, or gogues may be from G. gaucli 
cuckoo, cf. O.N. gauka to be merry = goguer. Fr. gogue also 
= plentiful supply of good things to eat, etre en gogo to live 
in clover, goguelu one so living, insolent, from W. gog super- 

Goi 0. Fr. in vertu-goi ==■ vertu de dieu, mort-goi, sang-goi, N. 
Pr. tron de goi z=z morbleu, from G. god got. Vertu- guieu is 
for vertu- dieu. Similar corruptions are frequent in oaths. 

Goitre Fr. (m.), O. Fr. Pr. goitron; from guttur gutter, whence 
goetr goitre. We find Li.h.gutturnia for gutturnea, cf. roburnea 
from rohur, whence L. L. gutturnosus , Pr. gutrinos. 


Goiva — gubia, 

Golafre — goliart. 

Goldre Sp., Pg. coldre a quiver; from corytus. 

Goliart O. Fr. Pr., 0. Pg. goliardo, L. L. goiiardiis, O. E. goU- 

ardeis (Chauc.) a low j ester ^ parasite, It. goliare to long for, 

from gula, whence also Fr. gouliafre, Sp. golafre greedy, for 

term. of. goinfre (goda). 
GoUizo Sp. gorge of mountains &c.; from gula, Sp. gola, 
Golondrina — rondine, 
Golpe It., O. Sp., Rh. guolp, golp, whence O. Sp. gulpeja, 0. Fr. 

goupille gourpille, usu. m. goupil gourpil, also wourpille iverpille 

iverpil a fox; vb. 0. Fr. goupiller to creep, slink aAvay; Fr. 

goupillon a tail, brush (prop, of the fox), goupille the body of 

a nail as opp. the head. From vulpes, v = gu sometimes, cf. 

R. Gr. 1, 187. Other names of this animal, so w^ell known in 

the fables of the middle ages , are renard, Pr. guiner, Cat. 

guineu, Sp. raposa, zorra, O. Sp. marotay gulhara, Sard. 7nar- 

gianiy Lang, mandro. 
Gomia Sp. (f.) a prodigal, glutton; from gumia (grumia?) Lucil. 

and Apuleius. 
Gomito — cuhito. 
Gomona gomena gumina It., Sp. Pg. gumena, Fr. goumene 

anchor - cable ; from Ar. al-gomal or al-gomol. 
Gond — gonzo. 

Gonda gondola It., whence Sp. gondola, Fr. gondola a gondola. 
From Jtovdv = a drinking-vessel (Fr. gondole), or from an 0. 
L. gondus = scyphus patera (Menage from an old Glossary). 

Gonfalone It., 0. Pg. gonfalao, Pr. 0. Fr. gonfanon, Fr. gonfa- 
lon a banner; from O. H. Q^.gundfano (gimdja battle and fano 
cloth). From the form cundfano come Pied. Sp. confalon, Pr. 
confano, 0. Fr. confanon. Sic. cunfahiniy Ven. confaloniero. 

Gonflare It., Fr. gonfler, W. genfa to swell ; from conflare for 
mflare (N. Pr. coufla). It. gonfio, Genev. gonfle ■= Fr. gonfle, 
as enfle = enfle. N. Pr. gofe full, vb. goufa, Genev. goffet 
thick, come from the same, not from goffo. 

Gonna It. a petticoat, O.Sp. Pr. gona, O. Fr. gone a coat, monk's 
habit, L. L. gunna, L. Gr. yovva^ Alb. gune. Varro mentions 
a L. gaunaciim a shaggy covering, but the form does not suit 
the Rom. word. Prob. the L. and Rom. are both from the 
Celtic, W. gwn, E. gown, though Diez says these may be 
from the Rom. (^givn from gone as fwl from fol), v. Due. s. 
guna, and Marsh, Origin and History of English, pp. 86, 542. 

Gonzo engonzo Pg., Sp. gonce gozne, Fr. gond, Pr. gofon for 
gonfon a hinge. Gonzo from L. contus, gofon from gomphuSj 
gond from contus and Lorr. angon = ancon. 


Gronzo It. rude, sottish. From Sp. ganso? or from Ven. gozzo 
= It. ghiozzo. 

Gora (o aperto) an aqueduct , mill-leat; from the Sw. wnor, Rh. 
vuor (so = guora), v. Frisch 2, 459*^. 

Gorbia — guhia. 

Gordo Sp. Pg., Pr. gort fat, thick, Fr. gourd stiff, engourdir to 
benumb ; from L. giirdus (Laberius in Gellius, and Quintilian) 
stupid, doltish; Quintilian says oi gurdus: ex Hispanid duxisse 
originem audivi, cf. O. Sp. = stupid. The It. ingordo greedy 
is rather from "m gurgitem^^y cf. 0. Fr. adj. en f rum (It. ingor- 
darsi == se mgurgitare). 

Gore — gorre. 

Gorge — gorgo. 

Gorgia gorgogliare — gorgo. 

Gorgo It., Pr. O. Fr. gore gort, Fr. gour whirlpool; It. Sp. Pr. 
gorga, Fr. E. gorge, also It. gorgia; from gurges. Pr. gorgolh 
from gurguUo, vb. It. gorgogliare &c. 

Gorgojo Sp. weevil; from curculio, 

Gormar — gourme. 

Goro — haero. 

Gorra Sp. Pg. It. a cap, Sp. also gorro. From the Basque gorria 
red, a favorite colour for caps. Articles of clothing are often 
named from their colour, cf. l)ujo. It. gorra = also an osier, 
prop, the red osier. O. Fr. gorres = rubans, livrees des nou- 
veaux maries Roquefort, gorrer gorrier gorriere = hotn?ne et 
femme magnifiquemeni pares, O. Fr. gorre verole, mal ve- 

Gorupo — groppo, 

Gos — cuccio. 

Gosier — gueux. 

Gota It., Pr. gauta, Yx.joue (whence Yj.jaw?) cheek, jaw; Cat. 
galta, Mod. golta, Rh. gaulta; Sp. has only galtera = cheek- 
piece of a helm. Pr. au gives o al ou; gauta is the L. gahata, 
h.Li.gavata (Bret, gaved) gauta, as parabola paravola paraula. 
Gahata = an eating -vessel (Langued. gaouda). 

Goto Pg. throat ; from guttur. 

Gotta It., Sp. Pg. gota, Fr. goutte, E. gout; Wal. gute, It. goc- 
ciola apoplexy; from gutta, G. troph: tropfen apoplexia in a 
Diet., date 1445. These diseases were supposed to be caused 
by drops of water from the brain, v. Ducange. Hence Fr, 
esgout eg out a drain , gouttiere a gutter. 

Goudron — catrame. 

Goufflre — golfo. 

Gouge — guhia. 

Gouge Fr. a wench, N. Pr. gougeo a maid; whence Fr. goujat; 
from Heb.^oy people; the Jcavs called a Christian maid goye. 


Gouine — goda. 

Goujon Fr.^ E. gudgeon, from L. gohio (It. Sp.). 

Gouliafre — goliart. 

Goupil goupillon — golpe. 

Goupiller — volpilh. 

Gour — gorgo. 

Gourd — gordo. 

Gourde — cucuzza. 

Gourme Fr. glanders ; Pg. gosma foul humours y gosmar Sp. gor- 
mar to vomit ; Rouchi gourmer to sip, Fr. gourmand a glutton, 
Norm, gourmacher to be foul; Yy. gourmer to beat with the 
fists, to bit a horse, gourmette a bit, gourmander to maltreat, 
fall foul of. From N. gormr dirt (gor), E. gor7n to soil (cf. 
Berr. eau gourmie dirty water), W. gorm repletion, whence 
gormes a burden, gormail oppression. Others make a separate 
word gourme found in Bret, gromm and in gourmette, gourmer, 
gourmender, and coming from Celtic crom (crwmm) bent, cf. 
E. curb from Fr. courbe = curvus. 

Gourmette — gourme and grvmo. 

Gousse — guscio. 

Goutte — gotta. 

Gozne — gonzo. 

Gozo Sp. Pg. pleasure, mirth, vb. gozar, 0. Val. gozar. Cat. 
gosar, N. Pr. gausd. From gaudium, Cat. gotj, 0. Val. got jar, 
cf. mitj from medius, ratj from radius. From jozo is Sp. re- 

Gozque — cuccio. 

Gozzo It. crop, craw, Lomb. goss. Shortened from gorgozzo. 
from gurges; we have f. gorgozza and also cor gozzo. For the 
loss of the P* syllable, cf. cenno. Sorgozzonc sergozzone ^^ 
sub guttur pugnus inflictus Ferrari. Trangugiare = trangor- 

Graal greal grasal O. Fr., Pr. grazal, O. Cat. gresal a cup or 
bowl of wood, earth or metal. In South France grazal grazau 
grial gran are used for various kinds of vessels , Fr. grassale 
= a bowl. From greal comes O. Sp. g7ial greal , Pg. gral (a 
mortar), O. Ven. graellino. The Saint graal of the Romances 
was the dish which was used at the institution of the Holy 
Eucharist, M. H. G. grdl. The d of the L. L. gradalis answers 
to the z of the Pr., which, therefore, would appear to be the 
earliest form. Two of the various derivations given may be 
mentioned as probable: (1) gratialis from gratia in L. L. == 
the Holy Supper, which, however, does not suit the Fr. 
graal; (2) crater, L. L. cratus whence cr at alls, grazal, graal. 

Grabar — graver. 

Grabuge Fr. a quarrel, brawl, Rouchi grabuche, O. Fr. gra- 


heuge. Prob. a compound word, Pr. grahma, vb. grahusar, 
O. Fr. greuse, Jura greuse. 

Graeeo gracculo graechia It., ^^.grajo graja, V^.gralho gralha, 
Pr. grallia, 0. Fr. graille a jay, jacdaw; from graculus, L. L. 

Gracidare It. to croak (of frogs), Sp. Pg. graznar (of ravens). 

Grada It. Sp., Pg. grade (f.), E. grate, Sp. Pg. also = harrow, 
from crates; It. gradella. From dim. craticola (L.L. graticuld), 
come It. graticola, Fr. ^n7/^, ^n7, E. grill, Mil. grella, Fr. vb. 
griller, E. ^r?//^ for graille graille (i for flf?, cf. chignon grignon) 
O. Fr. also grail, vb. graelier, graaillier, Berr. grdler. 

Grado It. Sp. Pg., Pr. ^r«^^ Fr. ^re, 0. E. gree will, liking; 
from gratum. Hence It. malgrado , Pr. malgrat, Fr. malgre, 
E. maugre (sc. « ;;2«/ grado), cf. L. ;??«/^ grains. Vb. It. gradire, 
Pr. gradir; It. ag gradire aggradare, Sp. agradar agreiar, Fr. 
agreer to please, approve, E. agree; It. agradevole , Sp. Pr. 
agradahle, Fr. agr cable, E. agreeable. 

Grafflo It., Sp. garfio garfa, Pr. grafio a hook, claw; vb. It. 
graffiarc, Tiwv^. grafftner (sbst. grafftn); Fr. agrafe a brooch; 
It.aggraffare, ^^.agarrafar cngarrafar, Wall. «</;Y//<?r to grasp. 
From O. H. G. krapfo krafo a hook, E. ^r«&. 

Gragea — treggea. 

Graille graja — gracco. 

Grama Sp. Romag., It. grdmola, Pg. gramadeira a brake (for 
hemp), ^^.gramilla; yh.Fg. gramar, B,omsig. grame to prepare 
hemp, ^^.gramar to knead dough, It. gramolare in both senses. 
Perhaps from carminare. 

Gramalla — camaglio, 

Gramallera — cremaillon. 

Grammaire Fr., Pr. gramaira gramdiria , E. grammar; formed 
from the Pr. gramddi = grammaticus , whence gramadaria gra- 
mdiria, d being vocalized into i. O. Fr. masc. gra?naire = 
grammaticus (grammaticarius) , Basque gramaticaria , O. H. G. 
gramatichare ; hence Fr. grammairien. Cf. L. L. judicarius 
from judex. 

Grana It. Sp. Pr., Pg. grda, O. Fr. graine (whence E. grain) a 
scarlet berry, coccus ilicis, scarlet cloth, in Sp. also = cochi- 
neal (coccus cacti), L. L. grana, M. H. G. gran; from granum, 
cf. xoxxog, V. omn. Marsh, Lectures on Eng. Lang. Hence 
It. granata = a granate or garnet stone, and = Sp. granada a 

Granehio grancio It., Pr. Cat. crane, W. crane, Bret, krayik. 
Wall, cranche a crab, Fr. chancre a cancer; a corruption of 
cancer cancri. Hence Pg. granquejo garanquejo , Sp. cangrejo 
from a dim. cancriculus. Hence, too. It. grancire to seize? 

Granciporro It. cancer marinus ; from cancer and pagurus. 


Graneire — granchio. 

Grange — granja. 

Grangear — granja. 

Granguejo — granchio. 

Granito It., Sp. granido, Fr. granit, E. granite; from granum 

because of its grained appearance ; granito prop, a participle 

of vb. granire. 
Granja Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. E. grange; from granea L. L., which has 

also a form granica, whence 0. Fr. granche, Pr. granga. Sp. 

has the special sense of farm, whence grangear to till, gain. 
Granter — creanter. 
Grappa It.^ Sp. Pg. grapa hook, claw, Sp. grapon; Fr. grappin 

an anchor, Ven. grapeia bur; vb. It. grappare aggrappare, 

l^ovm-.grapper, Vicagraper (agrape, Wall. agrap=.Yx. agrafe). 

From O. H. G. krapfo, G. krappen, W. crap, E. grab. Hence 

also It. grappo grappolo, Fr. grappe, 0. Fr. Pic. Champ, crape 

grape -stalk, grape, Du. grappe krappe , E. grape. 
Grascia It. provisions, grascino inspector of markets; from ayo- 

QaaCa. Grascia also = Fr. graisse fat. 
Graspo — raspare. 
Grasso It., Sp. graso, V^.graxo, Pr. Rh. Wal. Fr. gras fat; from 

crassus, L.L. grassus; also It. Fg.crasso, Si^.crassio crasio, Fr. 

crasse, E. crass (usu. in metaph. sense). 
Grasta It. a flower-pot; a Sicil. word, from yd6xQa a big-bellied 

Grattare It., Sp.Pr.^;Y//«r, Fr. gratter to scratch; from O.H.G. 

chrazon, Du. kratsen &c. Hence Fr. gratin, egratigner; It. 

grattugio, Dauph. gratusi a rasp, cf. It. graitugiare y Pr. gra- 

tuzar, 0. Fr. gratuser. 
Gratusi — grattare. 
Gravelle gravier gravois — greve. 
Graver Fr., E. grave, Sp. grabar (from the Fr.); from G. graben 

rather than from ygdcpeiVy g) =:= /f, cf. yQucpCov greffe. 
Gravir Fr. to climb; from gradus, It. gradire, Fr. gra-ir, gravir; 

cf. emblaver, parvis, pouvoir.. 
Graznar — gracidare. 
Gre — grado. ^ 

Gredon — gretto. 
GreflPe Fr. (m.) an office, bureau, 0. Fr. grafe, Pr. grafi = L. 

graphium, cf . bureau for a similar extension of meaning. Hence 

Pr. grafinar to scratch, N. Pr. esgraffd, 0. Y\\ esgraffer to 

scratch out, Fr. egraffigner to blot, soil. 
Greffe Fr. (f.), greffer = E. gra/f graft, M, Du. grafe, grafen. 

Identical with the former word, f. from ,11. plur.; the shoot 

would be sharp and pointed like the stylus , cf. Sp. mugron. 
Gregues Fr. breeches ; from W. gwregys girdle. 


Grele Fr.; Pr. graile slim, thin, shrill; from gracilis. Hence 

O. Fr. sbst. gr aisle grelle, Vv, graile a wind-instrument, cf. 

clairon from clair. 
Grele greler — gres. 
Grelo — grillo. 
Grelot Fr. a bell; from grelle (v. grele), or from croialum a rattle, 

greloUer to chatter witli the teeth. 
Grembo lap; ixova gremiwn, grembio{yfh.enQ.Q grembiatd)^ gre7nho ; 

cf. combiato from commeaius, Mil. scimhia for scimmia, vendem- 

hia for vendemmia. 
Gremire ghermire to claw; from O. H. G. krimman. 
Grenon — greha. 
Grenouille Fr., Pr. granolha a frog = It. ranocchia from a Lat. 

ranucula, O. Fr. renouille , rane raine in several dialects. For 

the g prefixed cf. grenonillette for ranunculus , It. gracimolo ;= 

Grena Sp. tangled hair, Pg. grenha hair of the head, Vr. gren 

(m.) beard; whence O. Sp. grenon grinon^ Pr. O. Fr. grignon 

grenon guernon beard or mustachio. From L. L. granus {vide- 

rnus granos et cinnabar Gothorum Isid.) = 0. H. G. gram (pi. 

whence the Rom. forms with the weak n) , M. H. G. gran, 

O. N. gron beard , G. granne bristle , also Gael, granni long 

hair, W. grann ^^cilium'^ The Rom. ? is prob. due to crinis. 
Greppia It. \creppia) , Pr. crepia crepeha, O. Fr. crebe, greche, 

Fr. creche a crib; from O. H. G. krippa krippea, O. G. cribbia, 

E. crib. From the kindred L. G. form krubbe come the Pr. 

crupia, Piedm. Ven. grupia, Gen. groeppia, Romagn. gropia. 

The B. has a similar form khorbua. The Sp. uses a L. word, 

pesebre, Lomb. parseiv, presef. 
Greppo It., Rh. grip, Ven. grebano, Com. grip crap {■= Rh. crap 

carp gravel) cip (from clip) cliff; from O.l^.Q.klep, Gr.klippe, 

E. cli/f, W. clip. 
Gres Fr. (m.) sand -stone, N. Pr. gres coarse sand, whence Pr. 

greza gressa (graissa), Fr. grele hail- stones , yh. greler; dim. 

Fr. gresil fine hail, Pr. grazil, vb. gresiller, grazilhar. Cf. N. 

Pr. gi^ezo grit = 0. Pr. greza hail, G. kieseln to hail from kies 

gravel. Gres comes from 0. H. G. griez grioz , G. gries, E. 

grit, cf. grele (gresle) from M. H. G. griezel a grain, granule. 
Gresil — gres. 
Gresillon O. Fr. a cricket ; from gryllus, for grecillon, cf . oisillon 

from avis, pucelle from, pulla. 
Greto It. sandy shore; from O.H. G. grioz, O. N. gtiot, E. grit. 
Gretto It. greed, or adj. greedy; M.H.G.^nY, Sidi^.gritec greedy. 

With the L. G. ^ for t we find Fr. gredin, Pic. guerdin, Lorr. 

gordin, cf. Goth, gredus, O. N. grdd, E. greed. 
Greve It., Pr. greu, O. Fr. grief (Fr. sbst. E. grief), Wal. grew, 


from gravis, whence It. aggrevare, O. Fr. agrever, Pr. agreu- 
jar (as ii aggraviare aggreviare), O.Fr. agregier, O.Y^.agregge, 
= aggravate, Fr. rengreger to make worse; grevis for gravis, 
being often paired with its opp. levis, cf. Pr. ni greu ni leu. 
O. Fr. griete = gravitas, 

Greve Fr. (f .) a flat sandy shore , Pr. Cat. grava gravel , Rh. 
grava greva sand -flat, Nqxi. grava be^ of a mountain stream, 
Fr. gravier, gravelle, gravois, E. gravel. Bret, has krae grae, 
kroa groa. Perhaps from crau, W. crag. 

Griceiare It. to scowl, to long for; Com. sgriza to gnash; from 
same origin as Fr. grincer (q. v.), O. H. Gr. grimizdn to gnash. 
It. griccio gricciolo = shivering fit. 

Gridare It., Sp. Pg. grilar, Fr. crier (E. erg); sbst. It. gfido 
grida, Sp. grito, Fr. cri (erg); Parm. cridar, Yen. criaf^e, Mil. 
cria, O.Sp. cridar gridar, crida grida grido. The root is found 
in the Goth, gretan, E. greet, Du. krgten, also in the Celtic, 
but the immediate etymon is L. qumtare whence kiritare cri- 
tare gridare, cf. Fr. Cricq from Qidricus, triaca from theriaca. 
It. sgridare, O. Fr. escrier have been influence^ by the O. H. 
G. scrum. 

Grief — greve. 

Grietar Sp., Pg. greiar to split, burst, sbst. grieta greta, Lomb. 
cretlo; from crepitare. 

Griffe Fr. a claw, griffer to claw ; from O. H. G. grifariy G. grei- 
fen, E. grip, sbst. grif, grip. Piedm. has grif. Com. grif sgrif 
a claw. Ph. grifla; It. grifo a snout. Connected with these is 
It. griff grif one, ^^. grifo, Vw grifo, Fr. griffon, ^.griffn 
from L. gryphus, Fr. vb. griffer. It. grifagno, O. Fr. grifaigne 
expressed, in the latter language at least, not so much the 
rapacity of a bird of prey as a malignant threatening aspect : 
Charlie a la harhegrifaigne, cf. Dante: Cesar e armato con gli 
occhi grifagni (falcon eyes). 

Grifo — griffe. 

Grignon Fr. crust of bread. Norm, grigne, Pic. grigneite. N. Pr. 
grignoun = grape -stone &c. From graniim, grignon for 
greignon or graignon, cf. chignon for chaignon, hargnigner for 
hargaigner. From grignon comes Fr. grignoter. 

Grigio — griso. 

Gril grille — grada. 

Grillo Sp., V^.grilho, Ywgrilho, Yx.grillet fetter, manacle; from 
the clanking sound like the note of the cricket (gryllus), cf. 
O. Fr. gresillon, which has both senses. 

Grillo It. Sp. caprice, whim ; from the sudden leap of the cricket 
(grillo) QS..capriccio, and Rh./^nZ/rt; in both senses. Wi.grillare. 

Grillo Sp., Cat. grily, Pg. grelo shoot, sprout, vb. grillar &c. 
From gracilis, through the O. Fr. grel. 


Grim Pr. afflicted , grima affliction , grimar to be afflicted ; from 
O. H. G. grim furious, E. grim, cf. gram (gramo). 

Grima Sp. fright (at seeing something dreadful), Pg. aversion. 
From A. S. grima ghost, from same root as the preceding 
word , V. grimoire. 

Grim.ace — grimoire. 

Grimo It. wrinkled; from O. H. G. grim, E. grim. Sbst. grinza 
a wrinkle, grinzo wrinkled, aggrinzare from 0. H. G. grim- 

Grimoire Fr. a conjuring- book, unintelligible talk i^.gramary); 
from O. N. A. S. grima a ghost (whence Fr. E. grimace), gri- 
moire like executoire, monitoire &c. There are others words 
from the Norse mythology, e.g.cauchemar, loup-garou, iruiller. 
Genin finds a form gramare for grimoire and refers them to 
grammaire (i. e. Latin). Then, the form must have been 
adapted to grima. 0. Fr. ingremance , Pg. engrimanzo gib- 
berish are corruptions oi nigremance , Pr. nigromancia, Wall. 
egrimancien from necromancien. Littre (Hist, de la langue 
francaise) approves of Genin's derivation, which is, more- 
over, supported by the E. form gramary. 

Grimper Fr. to climb ; from 0. H. G. klimban, E. climh, G. klim- 
men, or from Du. grijpen (G. greifen) to seize, Norm. Wall. 
griper = grimper; Berr. grimper - - to seize. 

Grinar Pr. to grin; from O. H. G. grlnan, G. greinen, E. grin; 
hence It. di-grignare. Com. grigna. Champ. Pic. grigner les 
dents, from an 0. H. G. form grinjan = A. S. grinian. Sbst. 
Rh. grigna grimace. 

Grineer Fr., Pic. grincher to gnash ; from O. H. G. gremizon = 
A. S. grimetan. Cf. It. gricciare. 

GrintaLomb. a grim sallen look, haughtiness; Ven. ^rm/« rage, 
scorn; from O. H. G. grimmida grimness. 

Grinza — grimo. 

Gripo — gripper. 

Gripper Fr. to seize; Goth, greipan, E. grip, O. N. gripa, Du. 
grijpen, = 0. H. G. grifan, G. greifen. Lomb. grippa to rob. 
It. grippo a pirate -ship, Sp. gripo a trading vessel. 

Grippo — gripper. 

Griso grigio It., Sp. Pg. Fr. gris, grey, also sbst. Sp. Pg. O. Fr. 
gris, O. E. grys (Chauc. = grey fur). Hence It. grisetio, Sp. 
griseta , Fr. grisette a sort of grey stuff, Fr. also a person of 
the lower orders, cf. E. horel folk, from hujo. From 0. S. 
gris canus, M. H. G. gris grise, L. L. griseiis, whence It. gri- 
gio, Rh. grisch, O. Sp. grisco, 

Gritar — gridare. 

Grive Fr., Cat. griva a thrush; an onomatop. (Menage). 

Grogner groin gronder — grugnire. 



G-role Fr. (f.) a rook. The form acul ought to give acle or ail, 
graculus gracula graille (v. graced), but as seule from secuhmi 
so may have been formed graule grole, v. meiile. It. grola, 
Du. grol from the Fr. 

Gromma It. crust (of wine); cf. Sw. grumlete sediment, Swed. 
grums grummel, 

Grommeler Fr., Wall, groumi; G. grumeln grumen, E. grumble, 
cf. W. sbst. grwm. 

Gronda It., Rh. grunda, Fr. sever onde, E. sever ans, Rouchi 
souvronie, O. Fr. souronde eaves; from snbgrimda (Varro). 
Hence grondare to drip, grondaia stillicidium. 

Grongo gongro It.; from congrus, yoyyQos, Fr. congre, E. 
conger &c. 

Groppo gruppo It., Sp. grupo gorrupo, Fr. groupe, E. group; 
It. groppa, Sp. grupa, Pg. garupa, Pr. cropa, Fr. croupe, E. 
crowj9 (cf. Fr. trousse in both senses); vb, 0. Fr. croupir to 
squat, Fr. to prop. The root is found both in the Germ, and 
the Celt. prop. = something compressed, O. H. G. kropf, 
Norse kryppa a heap, bunch, 0. H. G. krupel, G. kruppel, E. 
cripple, vb. N. kriupa, L. G. krupen to cower, Gael, ci^up to 
contract, W. cropa, E. crop. Hence groppone, croupion rump, 
O. Fr. crepon (c from N. krippa); E. crupper, 

Grosella Sp. Cat., Fr. groseille, Com. crosela, Pg. groselheira, 
Rouchi grusiele. Wall, gruzale; from grossus coarse, G. kraus- 
heere krduselbeere , Sw. krusbar, Du. kruishezie, Eng. (corrupt) 
gooseberry, = It. uva crespa, G. Ar^w^ = rough. 

Grosso It. Pg., Sp. grueso, Pr. Wall. Fr. gros thick, sbst. gros 
the name of a coin. L. L. grossus, G. groz grandis, crassus, 

• which latter, however, should have given Pr. graut, and is 
found in Berr. grot grout, E. groat. Hence E. engross, grocer 
= Fr. marchand grossier one who sells by the gross. 

Grotesque — grotta. 

Grotta It., Sp. Pg. gruta, Fr. grotte, Pr. O. Fr. C7^ota crote a 
cavern, E. grotto, hence Burg. Genev. encrotter to bury; from 
crypta {TiQVTCTrj)^ Wal. cripte; adj. It. grotiesco, Fr. E. gro- 
tesque prop, like a grotto, fantastical in shape &c. 

Grouiller Fr. to crawl, stir; from O. H. G. grubilon, L. G. gru- 

beln to grabble, G. grilbeln, cf. O. N. gr^ufla. Cf. also O. H. G. 

crewelon, Du. krevelen, E. crawl, Berr. gravouiller. 
Gruau Fr. groats ; for grueau = O. Fr. gruel which is for grutel 

from A. S. grut, O. H. G. gruzi, G. griitze, whence also E. 

gruel, W. grual. Champ, gru = bran. 
Gruecia — croccia. 
Grude — glu. 
Grueso — grosso. 


Grufolare It. to grunt, to turn up the soil as a pig; from grifo 
snout , and grugnire to grunt. 

Gruger Fr. to chow a hard substance (O. E. grudge), cgruger to 
pound small, hence E. gnrgeons. Perhaps from M. H. G. griiz, 
O. E. grut, Pr. gru, E. groats, with suffix icare = Fr. ger 
(vindicare venger). N. Pr. gruci = to make groats. Cf. gruan. 

Grugnire It., Sp. gruhir, Pr. gronhir gronir^ Wall, grogni; from 
griinnire. Also It. grugtiare, Fr. grogner. Hence sbst. It. 
grugno, Vv.groiih, Fr. groin, O. Pg. gruin the snout. Cf. O. 
H. G. grun, grunnl, E. groan, W. grwn. From grundirc is Pr. 
grondir, O. Fr. grondir grondre, Fr. gronder. O. Fr. groncer 
= 0. H. G. grunzen, E. grunt, 

Grulla Sp. a crane; from gi^uicida. 

Grumeler — grumo. 

Grumo It. Sp. Pg. a lump, clot, O. Fr. grume divers sorts of 
corn. It. grumolo heart of cabbage, Sp. grumete a boy, ship's 
boy (cf. garzone), whence Fr. gourmette; Fr. se grumeler to 
clot together , curdle ; from grumus grumulus a heap. 

Grupo — groppo. 

Gruta — grotta, 

Gruyer Fr. forester. As verdier from viridis, so gruyer from G. 
griin, E. green, M. H. G. gruo = pratum. 

Gruzzo gruzzolo It. heap , mass of things , Wal. gruetzi; of G. 
origin, cf. Sw. griiiz, M. H. G. gricz. 

Guacharo — guado. 

Guadagnare It., Rh. gudoignar, Pr. gazanhar for gadanliar, Fr. 
gagner iov gaagner, Yi. gain; O. Sip. guadaner to mow; sbst. 
It. guadagno, Pr. gazanh, Fr. E. gain; Sp. guadana, Pg. gtia- 
danha a scythe. The orig. meaning is prob. found in O. Fr. 
gaaigner to cultivate land (jgaagnage gaaignerie profit of land), 
whence the sense of acquiring. From O. H. G. iveidanon or 
weidanjan (G. iveiden) to hunt, pasture. From guadagnare we 
have Pg. ganhar, Cat. Val. guanyar. Sp. O. Pg. ganar (L. L. 
ganare) is too old to be a mere contraction, and is prob. con- 
nected with gana (q. v.). From ganar, Pg. ganancia, gancaj 
vb. gancar, O. Pg. guaancar from guadagnare. Dante fnf. 
24, 12 has ringavagnare from O. Fr. regaagner, 

Guado It., Pr. gud, Fr. gue iovdiy from O. H. G. ivat, O. N. vad; 
vb. It. guadare, Pr. guazar (guasar), Fr. gueer, from ivatan, 
G. ivaten, E. z^;«<?^. Sp. has vado vadear from the Latin; 
esguazo esguazar from the Pr., It. guazzo guazzare. Guazzo 
= a drinking -place, Sp. guacharo = dropsical, guachapear 
to paddle in the water. 

Guado It., Fr. guede (f.), O. Fr. gaide ivaide, pro vine, vouede 
woad; from O. H. G. iveit, A. S. vdd, E. ivoad. From an 
O. Fr. guesde came L. L. loaisda, guasdiwn, guesdium. Wall. 



waiss royal -blue (for waist as cress for crest, L. crista, aoiiss 

for aoust, L. augustus), Sp. Pg. glasto = Gallic glastum. 

Guai It. Sp. Pg., 0. Fr. wai, Fr. ouais; sbst. It. giiajo, Sp. Pg. 

guaya; from Goth. 2;«/, O. H. G. z^;^^ E. w;oe^ W. givae, L. t;^^. 

Guaime It., 0. Fr. gain, Wall, way en, Lorr. veyen, Fr. re-gain 

aftermath; from O. H. G. weicla pasture, G. weide, or from 

vb. weidon, with Rom. suff. ime guad-ime guaime; cf. It. guas- 

time from guastare. Rouchi has waimiau, Norm, vouin (for 

gouin gain), 0. Fr. vuin. 

Guaina It., F'r. gaine, 0. Fr. game, Rou. waine, W. gwain a 

sheath; from vagina. Mil. has guadinna, Ven. gnazina. 
Gualeare It., Rom. gvalche, O. Fr. gaudier, Dauph. gouchier, = 
O.E. t^;^/^ to full; from O.H. G. ivalchan, G. ivalken, Fi.tvalk, 
(walker = a fuller). Hence gualchiera, O. Fr. gouchoir. 
Gualcire It. to pull to pieces ; from O. H. G. walzjan volvere, 

vellicare, G. wdlzen to roll, to waltz. 
Gualda Sp., Pg. gualde, Fr. gaude. It. guadarella a plant for 
dyeing yellow, weld , whence Sp. gualdo, Pg. gualde, 0. Sp. 
guado yellow; from E. iceld, G. wau, 
Gualdanalt. an incursion of soldiery, a troop of soldiers (Dante); 

from M. H. G. woldan a storming. 
Gualiar galiar Pr. to deceive, gualiart scornful. From a G. 
source, Goth, dvals foolish, A. S. dvala error, dvelian dveligan, 
to err, Du. dwalen. For the loss of the d cf. guercio. 
Guancia It. cheek; from O. H. G. wanga wanka, G. wange, 
l^Q3i^.guo/fola vuoffola is from L. offida a bit of meat [ci.hucca 
(1) cheek (2) bit], or from 0. H. G. hiufila. 
Guanto It., fep. Pg. guante, Pr, guan, Fr. gant, dim. Sp. guante- 
lete, E. gauntlet. Beda has: tegumenta manuum qum Galli wan- 
tos vocant. From a G. source: O. N. v6tlr = vantr, Swed. 
Dan. vante. 
Guanir Sp. to grunt; from A. S. vdnjan, 0. H. G. tveindn, E. 

Guappo Neap., Mil. guapo haughty. Com. vap vain (v for gu), 
Sp. Pg. guapo bold, elegant, Gasc. gouapou; sbst. Sp. guapeza 
ostentation; vb. Norm, gouaper to sport. From a G. root, 
found in A. S. vapol a bubble, vb. vapolian, Du. ivapperen. 
Guaragno It., Sp. guar anon, O. Sp. guar an (Val. guard), Pr. 
guaragnon a stallion; from L. L. waranio , which is from 
0. L. G. wrenjo, Du. wrene, 0. H. G. reineo, cf. E. wren = 
lascivus, the root being found in Sansk. vd?'a tail (veredus?). 
Guardare It., Sp. Pg. Pr. guardar, Fr. garder, E. guard; from 
O. H. G. ivarten to take care, W. givara, Sk. vri to protect; 
sbst. It. Sp. guardia (i.), Pr. guarda (f.), Fr. garde (f. m.), 
E. guard, from Goth, vardja, O. H. G. warto (m.), loarta (f.). 
Hence also It. guardiano, Sp. Pr. E. guardian, Fr. gardien; 


It. guar dingo, Sp. gar dingo; It. sguardare, 0. Sp. esguardar, 
O. Fr. esgarder. 
Guardingo — giiardare. 

Guarento 0. It., Sp. gar ante, Pr. guar an guiren, Fr. gar ant a 
guarantee, L.L. ivarens, E. warrant, O. Fries, werand warand; 
from 0. H. G. weren to give bail for, warrant. The Pr. guiren 
is the orig. form , vb. It. guarentire &c. 
Guari It., Pr. Cat. ^rtf?r^, Fr. guere gueres = h. multum. Besides 
gaire, Pr. has granren ganren (= grandis res), used with or 
without a negative. Both were used adjectively: ganren vega- 
das, gaire companhos, of. It. guan tempo. Guari is from O. H. 
G. wdri = L. verus, Pr. guaire gaire; for the sense of. L. 
probe, gaivdri = prohitas. Fr. naguere = il n'a guere, non ha 
guari non est multimi (temporis); ViQdim. pa-vaire not much 
= Pr. pas guaire. O. Fr. guersoi great thirst = guere soif. 
Com. gerr is from O. It. gueri. Or from O. H. G. weiger 
{== O. Pr. form gaigre) ^^much" only found in unweiger = 
''not much'\ 

Guarire guerire It.; O. Sp. O. Pg. guarir (Sp. guarecer), Pr. 
0. Fr. garir, Fr. guerir; from Goth, varjan, 0. H. G. werjan, 
G. wehren to defend. Hence Pg. guarita, Sp. garita, O. Fr. 
garite, Fr. guerite a safe place (E. garret y Chauc. warice, wa- 
risli), sentry-box &c. ; formed from an It. participial form gua- 
rita, cf. reussite from riuscita. Piedm. garita, Ven. gar eta, 
Crem. garetta are from the Fr. ; the pure Sp. is guarida a lurk- 
ing place. Cf. Dief. Wb. 1, 205. 

Guarnaeeia — guarnire. 

Guarnire guernire It., O. Sp. guarnir, Sp. guarnecer, Pr. Fr. 
garnir, E. garnish; from O. H. G. ivarnon, G. warnen (warn), 
or from A. S. varnian to take care of, O. Fries, wernia to 
protect, whence Rh. varniar, but Lomb. guarna suits the O. 
H. G. word. O. Fr. garnir also == inform, admonish, as 
O. H. G. warnon, A. S. varnian, E. warn. Hence It. guarnae- 
eia guarnacca, Sp. garnacha, Pr. gannacha^ Fr. gamache a 
robe, cf. O. H. G. warna; It. guarnello an undergarment; It. 
guarnimento, Fr. garnement, E. garment, and It. guarnigione, 
Fr. garnison, E. garrison. 

Guaseotto ^ — biscotto. 

Guastare It., O.Sp. O.Pg. Pr. guastar, Sp. Pg. gastar, Fr. gdter 
to spoil, waste. From vastare or from O. H. G. wastjan (from 
sbst. wastjo, M. H. G. wasten, E. waste)? From the L., with 
the influence of the G. w; cf. adj. It. guasto, Pg. ^«5^o, 0. Fr. 
guaste =: vastus; digua stare, deguastar, degdter = devastaer. 
O. Fr. gastir is from wastjan. 0. Fr. guastine = waste, desert, 
adj. gastin. 

Guatare guaitare It., Pr. guaitar, Fr. guetter to watch; sbst. 


Crem. Pr. guaita, O. Fr. guette, Fr. (m.) guet; from O. H. G. 

wahten, sbst. walita, G. ivacht, Goth, vahtvo, E. ivatch. Hence 

It. agguatare, Sp. Pr. aguaitar, O. Fr. aguetier = guatare; It. 

aguato, Sp. agaity Fr. aguet (usu. in pi.), ambush, whence 

daguet = d' aguet. 
Guattera — guetre. 
Guazzo — guado. 
Gubia Sp., Pg. goiva, N. Pr. gubio, Fr. E. gouge, L. L. gnvia 

guhia and gulvia gulbia. From the Basque guhia a liole, giibioa 

a throat. Larr. derives gubia from gurhiaj cf. It. gorhia sgor- 

Ma, L. L. gulbia. 
Gudazzo It., Crem. Com. gudazz a godfather, f. gudazza; from 

O. H. G. gotti, f. gotaj G. gothe, 
Gue — guado. 
Guede — guado. 
Guedeja — vedija. 
Gueder Fr. to satisfy (only in partic. guede) ; from O. H. G. tvei- 

don, G. weiden to pasture, whence also Wall, waidi. 
Guenille Fr. rag, rogged coat; from Flem. ^^^ewe woollen over- 
coat, or like souquenille from gonna q. v. 
Guenipe Fr. a dissolute woman, slut, Dauph. ganippa; from 

Du. knipje trap , cf. knip brothel , G. kneipe ale - house. 
Guenon Fr. female ape; from quena woman, E. quean, queen; 

or from O. H. G. ivinja amica. Cf. It. 7nonna a female ape, 

from madonna. 
Guepe Fr. a wasp; from vespa, the gu from the O. H. G. wefm, 

G. ivespa, E. ivasp, cf. Lorr. voisse (vo = O.Yi.(a. w), Champ. 

gouepe, Berr. gepe. 
Guer guerle — guercio. 
Guereho — guercio. 
Guercio It., Com. sguerc , Rh. guersch (uiersch), O. Sp. guereho, 

Pr. guer guerle, Dauph. guerlio squinting. From O.H. G. twer 
' diver ch, G. quer oblique, E. queer. 
Guerdon — guiderdone. 
Guere — guari. 
Gueret — barbecfio. 
Guerir guerite — guarire. 
Guermenter — gaimenter. 
Guerpir O. Fr., Pr. guerpir gurpir to give up, desert, resign, 

Fr. deguerpir; from Goth, vairpan, O. H. G. werfan, G. iver- 

fen to throw. From an old German custom of throwing a 

straw into another's lap on ceding any property to him. 

V. Ducange. 
Guerra It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. guerre, E. tvar; from O.H. G. iverra, 

0. E. werre, vb. O. H. G. iverran to bring into disorder, so 

guerrier in O. Fr. = enemy, make -bate. 


Guet guetter — guatare. 

Guetre Fr. (f.), Yi. gaiter, hang.gueto, Wall. gueit, Chami^. guete, 
Piedm. gheta, Rouchi gtietloii, Bret, gweltren, 

Gueude — gheldra. 

Gueux Fr. (f. giieuse) beggar , vb. gueuser, Sw. gosen. Perhaps 
connected with guemc throat. Whether gueuse be from It. 
gozzo, or Fr. gosier from It. gozzaja = gozzaria is doubtful. 
Others make gueux the same word as queux (coquus) , cf. 

Gufo It. an owl ; from 0. H. O. huf huvo. 

Gui Fr. mistletoe. From Celtic gwid, gue, guy , L. viscus (It. 
visco vischio), 

Guiar — guidare, 

Guiehe guige O. Fr. a ribbon thong (espec. of a shield), It. 
guiggia. From O. H. G. tvindicas , plur. of windinc (fasciola 
^^vindinca^' Gl.). Hence also Provin. s'aguincher to deck one- 
self (with ribbons). 

Guichet Fr., O. Fr. iviket guischet, Pr. guisquet, E. wicket, Du. 

winket; from 0. N. vik, A. S. vie, 
Guidare It., Sp. Pg. guiar, Pr. guidar guizar guiar, Fr. guider, 

E. guide; sbst. It. guida, Sp. guia, Pr. guida guit, O. Fr. guis, 

Fr. E. guide. Perhaps from 0. H. G. vitan to watch, cf. It. 

scorgere, and for the medial 0. Fr. hadir hair from hatan; 

sbst. guida = Goth. A. S. vita counsellor. From guidare is 

Fr. guidon. 
Guiderdone It., Pr. guazardon (for guadardon) guiar don guier- 

don, 0. Fr. guerredon guerdon , E. guerdon, Sp. g alar don, Pg. 

galarddo, 0. Cat. guar do, L. L. ividerdonum; vb. guider do- 

nare &c. Widerdonum is a corruption (through donum) of the 

O. H. G. widarlon recompensation, A. S. widherlean, G. wider 

back , /o;^ = /o^w. Sp. galardon is for gadardon. Pr. Synon. 

guazardinc is through Lomb. ^^mo: garathinx. 
Guidon — guidare. 
Guiggia — guiehe. 
Guigne — visciola. 
Guigner — ghignare. 
Guljo Sp. guija gravel, guijarro pebble -stone. From Basque 

eguiya angle, guijarro from eguijarria angular stone, v. Lar- 

Guile 0. Fr. E., Pr. guila, m. guil, vb. 0. Fr. guiler, Pr. guilar, 

E. beguile. From A. S. vile, E. wile, cf. W. gwill, Bret. gwU 

a thief. 

Guilee Fr. a shower of rain. Wall, walaie for waslaie; from 0. 
H, G. tvasal rain; guilee like ow^^'<e &c. 

Guilena Sp. a plant, columbine; from aquilina. 


Guilha — gniler. 

Guilledin Fr.^ from E. gelding. 

Guimauve — malvavischio. 

Guimple guimpe O. Fr. f., E. wimple; from O. H. G. wimpal, 

G. ivimpel a pendant, streamer. Sp. impla a veil may come 

from ivimpal as well as from infula, cf. Andalucia from Van- 

Guindar guinder — gliindare. 
Guingois Fr. mievenness; from O. N. kingr kengr a bend, for 

quingois, by assimilation. For suff. ois v. E. Gr. 2, 314. 
Guinar — ghignare. 
Guiper O. Fr. to work with silk thread , whence Fr. guipure a 

sort of lace; from Goth, veipan to festoon, O. H. G. wiffan to 

weave, G. tveifen to reel.- Cf. aggueffare. 

Guirlande guirnalda — ghirlanda. 

Guisa It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. E. guise; vb. Sp. guisar; Pr. desguisar, 
Fr. deguiser, E. disguise; from O. H. G. ivisa, G. iveise, 

Guisarme O. Fr., Pr. gasarma, O. Fr. gisarme jusarme, Vv. ju- 
sarma, It. giusarma, 0. E. gisarm gysarn^ also Fr. wisarme 
vismme, whence O. Sp. hisarma a sort of light weapon, L. L. 
gisarm(i, often found with epith. esmolue sharpened, ground. 
It is often found in connection with ftdx falcastrum , which is 
translated by the 0. H. G. getisarn (G. jdieisen a hoc). This 
may have become getsarna gisarna, and then, through arma, 
gidsarma. The form with w follow the analogy of such words 
as guivre givre wivre, gachiere jachiere ivaquicre, Dief. derives 
it from gesara, v. gese; others from gcesum and arma, which 
would be too artificial. 

Guiseart guiehard 0. Fr., Pr. guiscos sharp, acute; from O. N. 
visk-r. Others make it =■ wizard, wiz and hart, wise- heart. 

Guita Sp. Pg. packthread; from vitta through 0. H. G. ivita. 

Giiitarra guitarre — chitarra. 

Guitran — catrame. 

Guivre — givre. 

Guizzare sguizzare, Ven. sguinzare, Mil. sguinza to quiver as 

, fish do; from G. witsen ivitschen. 

Guizzo — vizzo. 

Gume Pg. (m.) acuteness; from acumen, whence, perhaps, Sp. 
gumia, Pg. gomia agomia a poniard. 

Gurrumina Sp. uxoriousness; from Basque gur-mina evil in- 

Gusano Sp. Pg. a worm; from cossus, whence also Eh. coss. 

Guscio It. shell of nuts, eggs &c., Fr. gousse (f.) husk, pod, 
Mil. guss (m.) gussa (f.), Eomag. goss gossa; hence Fr. gousset 
fob, ^.gusset. Placidushas: galliciciola cortex nucis juglan- 


diSy perhaps for galliciola from galUcia (nux gallica a walnut), 
which might become It. galcia galscia guscio, Fr. gmisse gousse^ 
Com. s-gausc for s-galsc. 


Habla hablar habler — favola, 

Haca Sp., O. Sp. Pg. faca, O. Fr. hague (h asp.) a nag; O. Fr. 
liaquet, Sic. accheltu a nag, Pic. haguette a little mare; Fr. 
haquet a dray. From E. hack; hackney = Du. hakke-nei (E. 
nag , Du. negg, G. nickel), whence Fr. haquenee, 0. Sp. Pg. 
facanea, Sp. hacanea, It. acchinea, chinea. 

Hacha hache — accia. 

Hacha — fiaccola. 

Hacia — f accia. 

Hacienda — faccenda. 

Haeina — fascio. 

Hacino Sp. stingy, niggardly; from Ar. ^hazin. 

Hagard Fr. Qi asp.) stubborn, espec. of falcons, E. haggard, 
G. hagart; from E. haivk with depreciative suffix ard (as in 
husart &c.). The E. adj. haggard is a different word (from G. 
hagcr lean). 

Haie Fr. (asp.) hedge; from M. Du. haeghe, Du. haag (whence 
the Hague), O. H. G. hag a town (cf. town &c.). Vb. 0. Fr. 
hayer, O. H. G. hagan, G. hagen. 

Haillon Fr. (asp.) rag; from M. H. G. hadel, G. hader. 

Hair Fr. (asp.), O. Fr. hadir, from Goth, hatan, or, better, from 
A. S. hatian, O. Fris. halia, 0. S. hetian, E. hate. O. Fr. he 
from Goth, hatis, A. S. heti hate; hence haior ha'ine, Fr. haine, 
whence haineux, E. heinous. Pr. has a comp. azirar airar 
(adirare), sbst. azir air. 

Haire 0. Fr. (asp.) haircloth; from O. H. G. hara, O. N. haera 
hair -stuff. Norm, hair (m.), E. hair = 0. N. 0. H. G. hdr. 

Haise (hese) 0. Fr. (asp.), L.L. hesia. Norm, aiset, Rouch. asiau 
a small door or grating. Norm, haisier a cart -rack, Basque 
hesia a hedge. From hirpex a barrow, Fr. herse , E. hearse. 

Halt O. Fr. (asp.) pleasure, joy, haitier to animate, cheer, de- 
hait dejection, low spirits, vb. dehaitier, Fr. souhait wish, 
souhaiter. From Goth, ga-hait, O. H. G. ga-heiz, O. N. heit 
promise, vow, cf. L. votum (1) vow (2) wish; a hait = accord- 
ing to one's wish, souhait = secret desire. Wedg. connects 
hait with E. hey-day (== G. hey da), to hoit, hoity-toity. 

Halagar Sp., 0. Sp. falagar afalagar, Val. falagar. Cat. af ale- 
gar, Pg. afagar to cajole, caress, sbst. haldgo &c. From a 


form flaihan of the Goth, ihlaihcm to caress (or O. H. Gr. flehon 
to fawn), whence flag falg falag. 

Halar Sp., Fr. hale7' Qi asp.), Pg. alar; from 0. N. hala, O. H. 
G. haldn, E. haul. 

Halbran Fr. (asp.), albran Sp. Fr. a young wild duck , halhrene 
broken- winged, vb. halhrener to shoot ducks. From G. haW- 
ente (half-duck) = anas querquedula, so called from its small 
size, for halber ent (M. H. G. ant masc.) cf. halber ampfer. 
Hence, perhaps, E. auburn, Wedg. 

Halbrene — halbran, 

Halcon — falcone. 

Hale Fr. (asp.) summer -heat, vb. hdler to burn up, dry. The 
circumflex is not for a lost s (cf. 0. Fr. haller), the word being 
from Du. hael dry. 

Haleine — alenare. 

Haler — halar. 

Haligote harligote O. Fr. (asp.) rag, vb. haligoier harigoter; 
from E. harl a filament , O. H. G. harluf licium. 

Hallar Sp., O. Sp. fallar (still used in the sense of finding a 
verdict = Fr. trouver^ to find. The obs. form falar might be 
from Pg. aflar (O. Sp. ajar v. achar), cf. Sp. sajar and Jasar, 
garzo and zarco, faccrir and zaferir. From aflar is Sp. ajar 
= to maltreat, cf. ofl'cjidere (l) meet with (2) hurt. 

Halle Fr. (asp.), whence It. alia; from 0. H. G. halla, A. S. 

heal, E. hall. 
Hallebarde — alabarda. 
Hallier Fr. (asp.), E. hallier, Pic. hallo a bush. L. L. hasla in 

hasla i. e. in ramo. 
Halot Fr. (asp.) a rabbit's hole; from 0. H. G. hoi, A. S. hal, 

E. hole. 
Halt 0. Fr. (asp.) abiding -place, Fr. halte, E. halt. It. Sp. alto; 

from G. halt, E. hold, O. H. G. fem. halta halt. 
Hamac hamaca — amaca. 
Hambre Sp. hunger; from fames G. faminis, cf. O. Sp. fame, 

Sard, famini, v. Kom. Gr. 1, 190. The Pg. has fome, Com. 

fom, Wal. foame. 
Hameau Fr. (asp.) hamlet, O. Fr. Pic. ham; E. ham, Goth. 

haimsy 0. H. G. heim, E. home. 
Haine9on — ancino. 
Hampa — vampo. 

Hampe Fr. (asp.) handle of a weapon; from O. H. G. hunt haba. 
Hanafat O. Fr. a vessel for honey; Du. honig-val, 0. S. hanig- 

fat, E. honey -vat. 
Hanap — anappo. 
Hanche — anca. 


Hanebane henebane Fr. (asp.), from E. henbane = Fr, mort 
aux ponies. 

Hangar — angar. 

Hanneton Fr. (asp.) a cockchafer; prob. a dim. of the G. liahn 
in iveiden-hahn (meadow -hen) a name of the insect in pro- 
vincial G., cf. Y^cock-. chafer. Eton is a double dim. et-on, cf. 
hanneton, caneton, clocheton, feuilleton, drocheton, moineton, 
ceilleton, sommeton. From its buzzing -noise it is called in 
Lorr. hurlat, Pic. hourlon, hruant, Champ, equergnot, Wall. 
biese-a-halowe. Genin refers it to ane a duck, from a sup- 
posed likeness. 

Hansaos O. Fr. a knife. From A. S. hand-seax a hand -knife. 
Hence Fr. hansart a garden knife. 

Hanse Fr. (asp.) a trading - company ; from 0. H. G. hansa a 

Hante hanste O. Fr. a spear -shaft; from ames amites (v. andas). 

Hanter Fr. (asp.), hantise O. Fr. hant, E. haunt, G. haniieren. 
From the O. N. heimta to long after (hei?n home), Dan. hente, 
Cf. its intrans. use: les seraines en la mer hanient Brut. 1, p. 37. 

Happe Fr. (asp.) a cramp-iron, happer to pack; from O. H. G. 
happa a sickle, G. happen to pack, Pro v. E. happ. 

Haquenee haquet — haca, 

Haraldo — araldo. 

Harangue — aringo. 

Harapo — arpa. 

Haras Fr. (asp.) a stud (of horses), L. L. haracium. From Arab. 
far as a horse (Sp. alfaras), the Arab, breed being famous, 
(farii equi Ducange). We should, however, have expected 
an O. Fr. far as , L. L. faracium. 

Harasser Fr. (asp.) = E. harass. 

Harceler — herse. 

Hard hart Fr. (f. asp.) string, harde vo^q, herd, pi. hardes 
articles of clothing &c. ; cf. Sp. Pg. fardas, Fr. fardeau, O. Fr. 

Hardi — ardire. 

Hardier O. Fr. (asp.) to provoke; from same G. root as hardi, 
L. L. anharden to incite. 

Hareng — aringa. 

Harer harier O. Fr., hence O. E. to hare and harie; from har 
haro a cry for help (halloo!), cf. O. H. G. hdren to cry out. 
Connected is the O. Fr. haraler to plague, sbst. harale uproar. 
Some refer harer harier and harasser to an 0. Fr. har withy, 
rod, scourge, but this is for hard or hart, and the dental could 
hardly be lost in derivatives. 

Hargne O.Fr. peevishness, surliness, adj. hergne, Lorr. haregne 
quarrel, Fr. hargneux (Ji asp.) quarrelsome, Norm, harigneux 


stubborn y vb. O. Fr. hargner to quarrel, Pic. to scoff, hergner 

to complain. Some suit the 0. H. Gr. harmjan (E. harm) 

Haricot Fr. {h asp.) small bean; Pic. haricotier a retailer. Genin 

shows that the orig. meaning was anything minced small, e.g. 

^^ haricot de mouton^K He refers it to aliquod (for haligote)! 
Haridelle Fr. (asp.) a jade, Rouchi hardele, E. harridan ^ cf. 

Wall, harott, Norm, harin. 
Harija Sp. mill- dust*, horn farricuhim ? 
Harlot — arlotto. 
Harnacher harnois — arnese. 
Haro (asp.) a loud cry. From O. S. herod (O. H. G. hera hard) 

= L. hue, whence also vb. haroder, and the compoimds har- 

loiip, harlevrier, and vb. harer harier, O. H. G. harm to cry 

out. The word was orig. used in such expressions as : harou 

haroul a Vors! 
Harouche — farouche. 
Harpe harper harpon — arpa, 
Harto Sp., O. Sp. Pg. farto satiated, adv. Sp. hario, O.Pg. farte 

enough, whence hartar fartar; irom. farcire fartus. 
Hasard — azzardo, 
Haseas fascas fasca 0. Sp. adv. = L. pwne; from Sp. hasta- 

Haschiere O. Fr. (asp.) (whence haschie, Pic. haskie) pain ; from 

O. H. G. harmseara smart, L. L. hasearia, O. Cat. aliseara. 
Hase Fr. (asp.) female hare; from 0. H. G. haso. Norm, heri is 

from 0. N. heri, 
Hasple — aspo, 
Hasta Sp., 0. Sp. 0. Pg. fasla = L. tenus; from hacia and ata? 

V. te. Or, from the Arab, ^hatta? Hence vb. hastar. 
Hastio — fastio. 
Hate Fr. (asp.) for haste, vb. hater, adj. hdtif, Pr. astiii, O. It. 

adv. astivamente; from 0. Fr. haste, N. hastr, E. haste, vb. N. 

hasta, M. H. G. hasten, E. haste. 
Haterel O. Fr. (asp.) nape, hasterel, Pic. hatereau, Wall, hatrai. 

From O. H. G. halsadara, M. H. G. halsadar, whence halsterel 

halterel haterel hasterel ; cf. contraindre, It. poltro (for polstro) 

for the loss of s between a liquid and a t. 
Hato Sp., Vg. fato clothes, effects, provisions, herd; from O. 

H. Q^.fazza or faz (n.) a bundle, 0. N. fat = garment, pocket, 

cf. Swed. fate -bur store -house. 
Haubans Fr. (asp.) shrouds, O. Fr. hobenes; from O. N. hofud- 

bendur (pi.); cf. M. Du. hobant for hoofdbant. It would be 

more correct to write hobans. From Du. raa-band is Fr. raban. 
Haubert — usbergo, 
Hausser — alzare. 


Haut Fr. (asp.), 0. Fr. halt hault; from altus, the aspirate from 

N. M or O. H. G. hoch, E. high. 
Have Fr. thin and pale; from A. S. hasva, M. H. G. heswe torri- 

dus pallidus. 
Haver O. Fr. (asp.) to draw to oneself; from O. H. G. hahen, 

E. have == hold. From same root is O. Fr. havet a hook, 

from haba or haft with Fr. suff. et, cf. Wall, haveter from 

Haveron havron averon Fr. wild oats; from O. H. G. haharo, 

or, since h is silent, for aveneron (avena). 

Havir Fr. (asp.) to singe; from O. H. G. heien to burn. 

Havre Fr. (m. asp.), O. Fr. havene havle hdble harbour; from 

A. S. hiiffen, E. haven, O. N. hofn. 
Havresae Fr. (asp.); from G. hahersack provision -bag. 
Haya — faggia. 
Haz — fascia. 

'B.Q.T. Sp. Pg. (f.) array of soldiers &c.; from acies. 
Haza aza Sp., O. Sp. faza a piece of garden or cultivated land; 

= Pr. faissa (fascia) a strip of land. 

He Sp. in he -me he-te he-lo &c. = L. ecce; for feme = veme = 
vide me, so helo = It. velto. For f:=v, cf. 0. Sp. femencia 
= vehemeniia, Sp. hisca = fisca from visciim, refer entia for 
reverentia, R. Gr. 2, 387. 

He Fr. in helas (h silent) = L. ai («/'); Pr. ailas, E. alas. Las 
= lassus. 

Heaume — elmo. 

Hebilla Sp. buckle, Galic. fehilla; dim. oi fibula, Pr. fivela. 

Hebra Sp. threiid, fibre; from L. It. fibra. 

Heehieero heehizo — fattizio. 

Hediondo Sp. fetid; = fcetebundus y Rom. Gr. 2, 310. 

Hedrar Sp. to dig twice; from iter are. 

Heingre O. Fr., Wall, hink slender, lank. Norm, haingre sickly; 
from ceger , n inserted. Hence Fr. mal-ingre sickly. Pied. 
Mil. malingher, O. Fr. Norm, mingrelin, It. mingherlino. From 
cegrotus O. Fr. engroty engrote. 

Helas — lasso. 

Helecho — felce. 

Hellequin O. Fr. (asp.) from G. helle, E. hell (with depreciative 
term, as in houquin, mannequin), dim. Du. helleken hellekin, 
a ghost, in the form of a wild hunter, v. Carpentier. Hence 
Dante's Alichino (name of a devil). Inf. 21 , 118. 

Helt heux — elsa. 

Henchir Sp., Pg. encher, 0. Pg. emprir to fill, stuff, sbst. 0. Sp. 
encha; from implere, It. empiere. For the /?, cf. R. Gr. 1, 264. 

Hendrija — rendija. 


Hendure 0. Fr. (asp.) handle of a dagger, he?ide -proyided with 

a handle; from O. N. henda, O. E. liend to seize. 
Henir Sp. to knead dough; horn, finger e. 
Heraut — araldo. 
Herde 0. Fr. (asp.), Pic. herde, O. Wall, hiet^de herd; from 0. 

H. G. herda, Goth, hairda, E. herd. O. Fr. herdier, Champ, 

hairdi, Du. herder, M. H. G. hertaere. 
Here Fr. (asp.) pauvre here = poor fellow. From G. herr, 
Herigaut 0. Fr. (asp.) an over - garment , also hergaut, L. L. 

herigaldus , of. harigola (Ducange). 
Herisser herisson — riccio. 
Hermano Sp., Pg. irmdo, Cat. germd, f. hermana, shortened Pg. 

mano mana; from germaniis in oldest L. L. = frater (fraile), 

which was used for a friar. Hence Sp. cormano, Pg. coirmdo 

step - brother = con - germanus. 
Hermine — armellino. 
Hermoso Sp., Pg. O. Sp. fermoso fremoso, Wal. frumos; from 

formosus (fuermoso fermoso). 
Heron — aghirone, 

Herpe Sp. Pg. Cat. a tetter, skin -eruption; from fQTtrjg a sore. 
Herpe Fr. (asp.); for harpe from harpe, Pr. arpa a claw. Cf. 

Norm, herper to seize. 
Herren — f err ana. 
Herrin Sp. rust ; from ferrugo ferruginis, Sp. herrumhre for fer- 

Herse Fr. (f. asp.) harrow, O. Fr. herce, L. L. hercia; from ////'- 

pex hirpiciSy it. erpice, N. Pr. erpi, Wal. ipre tpe; vb. Fr. her- 

ser, cf. E. hearse , A. S. hersta, O. H. G. harsta a gridiron. 

Hence harceler, O. Fr. herceler (asp.) to provoke, tease, cf. 

Herupe hurepe O. Fr. Norm, rough, shaggy. Perhaps from A. 

S. hriopan to pull, tear. 
Hervero Sp. throat; from Basque erhera, v. Larramendi. 
Hetaudeau hestaudeau O.Fr. (asp.) a young capon; a dim. from 

O. H. G. hagastalt cselebs , tiro , L. L. haistaldus. 
Hetre Fr. (m. asp.) beech; from Du. heester heisler a bush, L. G. 

hester a young beech , G. heister. 
Heur — augurio. 
Heurt heurter — urtare. 
Heux — elsa. 
Hibou Fr. (asp.) an owl; an onomatop., cf. 0. Fr. houpi, Sw. 

Hidalgo Sp. , O. Sp. Pg. fidalgo nobleman; also hijodalgo pi. 

hijosdalgo for hijo de algo (aliquod.) 
Hide hisde O. Fr. (f. asp.) fright, horror, hideur hisdeur, htdeux 

(Fr.) hisdeuXj E, hideous. Hispidosus (Catull.) ^rugged' would 

HIE — HOLGIN. 255 

hardly suit the O.Fr. hide which should be more primitive than 
hisde. Perhaps Jiide for hede is from O. H. G. egidi ^^ horror '\ 

Hie O. Fr. (asp.) power, stress; from Du. hijgen to strive, A. S. 
hige (hyge) zeal, vb. Mgan, E. hie. Fr. hie = a rammer, 

Hieble — ebbio. 

Hienda — /lente. 

Hier — ieri. 

Higado — fegato. 

Hijo Sp. son; from filius, Pg. Gal. filho , O. Sp. pjo. 

Hillot Fr. a servant (Marot) ; for filloi, Beam, hils = fits. 

Hilvan Sp. basting; from hilo vano useless stitches. 

Hincar — ficcare. 

Hinchar Sp., Pg. inchar to inflate; from inflare, It. enfiare^. 
Gr. 1, 210. Hence sbst. hincha incha hatred. 

Hiniesta Sp. Spanish broom; from genista. It. ginestra. 

Hinojo — /inocchio. 

Hinojo — ginocchio. 

Hipo Sp. hiccough, an onomatop. 

Hisca Sp. birdlime; from viscum, pi. visca, Pg. It. visco, v being 
changed first to /, then to h , v. he. 

Hisser — issare. 

Hit a hito — fitto. 

Hiver — inverno. 

Hober O. Fr. (obier) to stir, move away (neut.). Celt, ob de- 
parture ? 

Hobereau — hobin. 

Hobin 0. Fr. (asp.) a nag, whence It. ubino; from E. hobby 
(Dan. hoppe a mare), a small horse, also a small falcon. 
Hence O. E. hobcler one who rides a hobby, O. Fr. hobereau 
(asp.) a squire, also a small hawk, L. L. hobellarius hober a- 
rius, cf. Sp. tagarote a small falcon, and a poor nobleman. 

Hoe O. Fr. Pic, hoqiiet (h asp.), vb. hoquer, ahoquer'^ from A. S. 
hoc, E. hook J Du. hoek. Fr. f. hochc a notch; cf. broc broche, 
croc croche. Sp. hueca =■ hoche. 

Hoche — hoc. 

Hoche 0. Fr. (asp.) a long garaient; from M. Du. hoicke, Fries. 
hokke a mantle , W. hug. 

Hocher Fr. to shake ; Du. hotsen hutsen , Wall, hossi. 

Hogaza — focaccia. 

Hoge O. Fr. (asp.) a hill. Norm, hogue, L. L. hog a; from O. N. 
haug-r, O. H. G. hbha hohi. 

Holgar Sp., Pg. Cat. folgar to rest; from L. \j.follicare to breathe 
like bellows (foUis), to respire, rest, sbst. Pg. folego respira- 
tion. Cf. It. scialare. 

Holgin — jorgina. 


Hollar — foliar e, 

HoUejo Sp. peel 5 from folliciilus , It. follicolo. 

HoUin Sp. soot; from fuUgo fidiginis, It. fuliggine. 

Homard Fr. (asp.) crab ; from Swed. hummer. 

Hombre homenage honunage — uomo. 

Hondo — fondo. 

Honnir honte — onire. 

Hontem ontem Pg. adv. = L. lieri. From ante- diem ^ Sp. ante- 

dia = pridie, L. L. antedie, v. Ducange. 
Hopo — houppe. 
Hoquet Fr. (asp.) hiccough ; an onomatop. ; cf. Wall, hikett, Bret. 

hak, Mk, E. ^.Z^?- cough. 
Hoqueton — cotone. 

Horde O. Fr. a hoard; hoardings vb. Jiorder to protect, Fr. hourder 
to rough-cast; from O. H. G. hurt, G. hilrde, E. hoard hurdle. 
Horde — orda. 
Hore, vieille hore Norm. = an old woman; from 0. H. G. hora 

huora meretrix, E. whore. 
Horion Fr. (asp.) a hard blow (Norm, horgne), 0. Fr. Norm. 

pest, contagion (Norm, horique), vb. Lorr. horie to cudgel. 
Hormazo Sp. a dry wall; Pliny, H. N. 35; 14 parietes quos ap- 
pellant for mac cos. 
Hormis hors — fuora. 

Hornabeque Sp. hornwork ; from the G. hormverk. 
Horro Sp., Pg. forro free, alforria freedom, from Ar. 7/orr free, 

sbst. al-^horrtyah. 
Hose — uosa. 

Hostigar Sp. to molest, Pg. Pr. fustigar, ixom fiistis. 
Hote — oste. 

Hoto O. Sp., 0. Pg. foto safety, Pg. fouto afouto sure, vb. afou- 
tar, 0. Sp. ahotado, enhotado; from fotus nourished, sup- 
Hotte Fr. ; from Sw. hutte, G. hotze a cradle. 
Houblon Fr. (asp.). From O. Wall. hid)illon, from Du. hop. 
Houe hoyau Fr. (asp.) hoe, vb. hotter, Rou. hauwer; from O. H. 

G. houiva, houwan, Qi. hauen, E. hew, hoe. 
Houle 0. Fr. (asp.) a pot; from L. olla, Sp. olla. 
Houle O. Fr. brothel (en taverne ou en hoide Fabl. 3, 283), holier 
houlier a brothel -frequenter or = Bret, houlier a pander. 
Hence 0. E. holard a lewd fellow, 0. Fr. holerie. From O. 
H. G. holi fem., 0. N. hola, E. hole ^ G. hohlc. 
Houle — ola. 
Houpee Fr. (asp.) the rise of a wave; from A. S. hoppan, 0. H. 

G. hup fan, E. hop. 
Houppe Fr. (asp.) a tuft, Sp. hopo a tufted tail. From Du. hoppe. 
Houret Fr. (asp.) a poor hunting -dog; cf. A. S. horadr thin. 


Houseaux — uosa. 

Houspiller Fr. (asp.) to touse; connected with A. S. Iiosp injury. 

Housse Fr. (asp.) saddle- cJotli, housing; from O. H. G. huht, 

L. L. hulcia, hulcitum. 
Houssine houssoir — Jioux. 
Houx Fr. (asp.) holly; from O. H. G. hulis riiscum, L. G. hiilsc, 

Du. hulst, O.E. holme, hiilver (Chauc. hulfere). Hence houssoir 

a besom, housser to brush, houssine a switch. 
Hoy — oggi. 

Hoya hoyo Sp., Pg. fojo hole; from fovea, cf. foggia. 
Hoz Sp., Pg. fouce a sickle; ixoiuifalx, Fr. faux; hence O. Sp. 

vb. hozar to cut off. 

Hoz Sp., Vg. foz a narrow pass, mouth of a river; ivova. faux, 
It. foce. Hence Sp. hozar, Pg. focar to turn up the gi'ound 
(of pigs), hocico, rg. focinho snout. 

Hu O. Fr. a cry, E. hue (in hue and cry), vb. huer, huard, huette 
(owl). Norm, huant (all asp.). An onomatop. Bret, hu, W. hw, 
cf. 0. H. G. hiiivo owl. 

Huata — ovata, 

Huche Fr. (asp.) chest, Sp. 0. Pg. hucha, 0. Fr. huge, L. L. 
hutica as nache and nage =■ natica. From G. hiitte, E. hut? 
From huche or hutica comes E. hutch (or from A. S. hvdcca), 

Hueher O. Fr. (asp.), Pr. uchar to cry loudly. Hucher = hucar, 
cf. Pr. near, Pic. huquer, Pied, uche, cf. L. L. qui ad ipsos hue- 
cos ciicurreruni. From L. hue; M. Du. huuc, W. hivchw, Serv. 
uka. From hucher comes huchet a hunter's horn. Cf. Norm. 
houter, Ron. hutier, E. hoot. 

Hueia — fiucia. 

Huebos — uopo. 

Huebra Sp. (a form of obra) a day's work; from opera often 
used by Columella (a Spaniard) in this sense. 

Hueco Sp., Pg. ouco hollow, sbst. cavity, vb. ahuecar to ex- 
cavate from occare, though ouco points to Goth, halk-s empty, 
V. R. Gr. 1, 327. 

Huella — follare. 

Huer — hu. 

Huero Sp. empty, barren (of eggs), wind -egg; from ovqio(S^= 
ovQivog whence uiro, uero, huero also gi'iero (cf. huerto and 
giierto), whence Pg. goro, cf. enguerar = enhuerar. 

Huesped — oste (2). 

Hueste — oste (1). 

Huis huissier — uscio. 

Huitre Fr. (asp.) oyster; from ostrea, Sp. ostra, It. osirica. 

Huivar — urlare. 

Hulla — houille. 



Hulotte de lapin Fr. (asp.) a rabbit's burrow, from O. H. G. 

hulla, G. Mile, cf. W. Ml a covering. 
Hulotte — urlare. 

Humer Fr., Pic. heumer (asp.) to sup; an onomatop. 
Humilde Sp. humble; from Mmilis R. Gr. 1 , 266. 
Huna — Mne. 
Hune Fr. (asp.) scuttle of a mast; whence Sp. Jnma; from O. N. 

Mn (m.), M. Du. hiine. 
Huppe — upupa, 
Hura — Mre, 
Huracan — uracano, 

Huraco Sp. hole, horacar (horadar) to pierce; from for are. 
Hurano — furo. 
Hure Fr. (asp.) rough hair, wild boar's head, in O. Fr. = muzzle 

of the wolf, lion &c., whence O. Sp. Mra^ O. E. Mre. Hence 

Fr. aMrir to perplex. Norm. /iwr6^' rugged , Rou. Jmree rough 

earth. Sw. Mivel (0. H. G. hiiiwila) = a long- eared owl. 

Perhaps hure is for hide = huwel, as O. Fr. mwe from mule 

(mula), navire from navile. 
Hurepe — herupe. 
Hurgar — f rug are. 
Husmo — orma. 
Huta — MUe, 

Hutte Fr. (asp.), Sp. Mta; from O. H. G. Mtta, E. hut. 
Huvet O. Fr. mitra; from O. H. G. Miba, O. N. hiifa. 


Ici — qui. 

Iddio — dio. 

lefi It., Sp. ayer, Pr. her, Fr. hier, Wal. eri, from heri. Sp. a 

before y is euphonic, cf. ayantar ayuso for yantar yuso; Cat. 

ahir, Sic. ajeri. 
If — iva. 
Ijar Sp. (m.) flank, Pg. ilhal side, O. Fr. titers; from L. He ilia. 

Hence also Sp. ijada, Pg. ilharga. 
n lo la It., Sp. el lo la, 0. Sp. ello ella, Pg. oa, 0. Pg. el lo la, 

Pr. lo la (il), Fr. le la, O. Fr. // lo la, Wal. le (I) la (oa a) 

article, from ille ilium, R. Gr. 2, 14 &c. Sard, su sa from ipse. 
Ilhal — ijar. 
Iluee iloques 0. Fr. adv. of place, from illoc, Pic. Ho; hencf 

icilec cilec. 
Iman — diamante. 
Imbastare — hasto. 


Imbuto It.; Sp. emhudo, Cat. emhut a funnel; from hutis a vessel, 
of. Fr. entonnoir, It. imbottatojo from botia. 

Immantinente It., Pr. mantenen, Fr. maintenant, = L. illico, 
Fr. = nunc. From m manum tenens. Pr. also de manteneUy 
O. Fr. de maintenmit, Wald. atenent. 

Impaeciare — pacciare. 

Impeciare impegolare impiccare impiceiare — pegar. 

Imprenta impronta It., Sp. Pr. emprenta, Fr. empreinte, E. im- 
print; vb. It. imprentare , improntare , Sp. emprentar, whence 
Dw.printen, Ya. print. From the Fr. partic. empreint, rather 
than from a freq. form imprimitare , the verb not being found 
in Fr. and Pr. Such a corruption as impronta would more 
easily take place in a borrowed word. 

Im.prontare It., Fr. emprunter to borrow, sbst. emprnnt. The 
Wal. inprumut, vb. imprumuta point to the lu. promutiium , in- 
promuiuum , in-promutuare (improntare), 

Inaffiare — achar. 

Incalciare inealzare It., O. Sp. encalzar, Pr. encaumr, O. Yx.en- 
chmicer to pursue; whence sbst. O. Sp. encalzo, O-Pg* encalco, 
Pr. encaus, O. Fr. enchauce; from calx. 

Incanto It., O.y^^.encante, Pr. enquant encant, Fr. encan auction, 
M. H. G. gant; from in quantum; vb. It. incantare, Pr. enquan- 
tar, Fr. encanter. 

Incastrare — cassa. 

Inehar — hinchar. 

Inchiostro It., O. Mil. incostro ink; from encaustiim (syaavGrov) 
red ink , used by the Greek Emperors ; the It. and the Pr. 
encaut keep the Latin, the Fr. encre, enque, Wall, enclic the 
Gk. accent (syycavatov). Sic. inga, Du. inkt, E. ink. Atra?nen- 
tnm is found in Pr. airamen, O. Fr. errement. Tinta is used in 
Sp. Pg. Cat. Sard., O. H. G. tinctd, dinctd, G. tinte. The Wal. 
has borrowed from the Slav, cerneale = black. 

Ineiampare — tape (2). 

Ineinta It., Pr. encencha, Fr. enceinte pregnant; from incincta, 
i. e. sine cinctu, discincta. Fr. sbst. enceinte i^ from incinctns 
in its classical sense. 

Increscere rinerescere It. impers. vb. = L. tsedet, Rh. ancre- 
scher. From L. increscere, incresce = it grieves, prop. = is 
too much for me , M. H. G. mich bevilt. We find the word in 
O. Fr. mult li encroist Brut. 2, 215, and in 1^ L. ejus dissoluta 
conversatio omnibus increverat Act. SS. Oct. 1, 468. 

Ineude incudine, ancude ancudine It., Sp. ijunque ayunque, Pg. 
incude, Pr. encluget, Fr. enclume anvil; from incus incudis. 
Piedm. ancuso, Cat. enclusa from nom. incus. 

Inda ainda Pg. adv. for L. adhuc, from inde ad, abinde ad. 

Indaeo It., O. Sp. endico, Fr. E. indigo, Pr. indi endi; from L. 



indicum blue Indian pigment. Hence an 0. Sp. adj. yndio, Pr. 
indi, O. Fr. inde. 

Indarno It. = fnistra ; from the Slav. adv. darmo darom gratis^ 
Grimm 3, 107, cf. Wal. m dare, O. It. a dono. The Fr. also 
has: en dar or en dart , so that it is hardly necessary to have 
recourse to the Slav. 

Indi It., 0. It. ende enne, whence en and ne, 0. Sp. O. Pg. ende, 
Pr. en and ne, O. Fr. int, ent, Fr. en, Wal. inde. Nearer the 
orig. than the Fr. en is Rouchi end in endaler = en alter. O. 
It. ende = It. ne, whence nonde campo = non ne campo, nul- 
lande = nulla ne, peronde = pero ne. Sp. dende lor desde, 
O. Sp. dent, O. Pg. dende y O. Fr. den from de-inde. 

Infingardo — faint. 

Infino — fi7io. 

Infrigno — frignare. 

Inganno It., Sp. engano, Pg. engano, Pr. engan deceit; vb. in- 
gannare, engahar, enganar, O. Fr. enganer to deceive, Wal. 
ingena (from It.?) to mock. In L. L. we find gannat %lEvdt,BL, 
sbst. gannum scon, gannatura. Not from ingenium but prob. 
from O. H. G. gaman, A. S. gamen (E. game) ga?nn, cf. danno 
from damnum, Sp. daho, Pg. dano, Pr. dan. For the meaning 
cf. E. to make game of, It. giuoco game, trick. Com. gioeuch 
deceit, Fr. J oner quelqiHun to deceive. 

Ingegno It., O. Sp. engeno, Pr. engeinh gcinli engin, Fr. engin 
genius and engine; from ingenium; 0. Fr. engignier to outwit, 
Pr. engenhar to entrap. It. ingegnarsi , Fr. s^inge'nier to strive, 
use one's wits ; sbst. Pr. enginhaire, Fr. ingenieur, It. ingegnere, 
E. engineer, L. L. ingeniosus. 

Ingombro — colmo. 

Inguine It., Sp. engle (for egne), N. Pr. lengue (for engue), Fr. 
-aine flank *, from inguen. It. anguinaglia from inguinalia. 

Innanzi — anzL 

Innaverare — naverare. 

Innesto nesto It. a graft, innestare nest are to graft ; from insitus, 
whence It. insetare inestare (for ins' tare). 

Inse^na It., 0. Sp. ensena, Fr. enseigne, E. ensign; from L. in- 
signia pi. of insigne. From signum Sp. sena. 

Insegnare It., Sp. ensenar, Pg. ensinar, Fr. enseigner to teach. 
From insignare (signum segno sena senh), cf. Wal. insemna to 
inform, from semn == signum. 

Insembre insembra It., 0. Sp. ensemhra ensemble, O. Pg. ensem- 
bra, Fr. ensemble, also It. insieme, Pr. ensems , O. Wald. ew- 
se7np = L. una; from insimul, I being rejected or changed to 
v; Wal. aseamene from ad-simul. O. Fr. ,sm/?5 = simul. Cf. 

Insetare — infiesto. 


Insieme — insembre, 

Insino — sino. 

Inteiri9ar — intero. 

Intero It., Sp. entero, Pg. inteiro, Pr. enteir, Fr. eniier, E. entire; 
from integer integri, Lomb. Wall, intreg. Hence Pr. O.Fr. adj. 
enterin perfect, vb. 0. Fr. enteriner to approve. Intero also 
= straight; upright, whence vb. intirizzare , Pg. inteiricario 
benumb, adj. inteirico perfect (prop, rigid). Cf. G. steif, E. 
stiff used both in physical and moral sense. With a change 
of prefix we have 0. Pg. Sp. aterir aterecer, Sp. ateritar, 

Intirizzare — intero. 

Intrambo entrambi It., Sp. entrambos , Pr. entrambs both to- 
gether, a compound with inter O. Rom. for L. una, v. R. Gr. 
2, 405; 3, 374. 

Intridere It., from interere, cf. conquidere , from conquirere. 

Introcque — mentre. 

Intuzzare rintuzzare It. (l) to blunt (2) to quench, check. Prob. 
a participial verb tutiare, from tutus, its latter meaning cor- 
responding with that of at-tutare. 

Inverno verno It., Sp. invierno (ibierno 0. Sp.), Pr. ivern, Fr. 
liiver, Wal. earne; from hihernus hibernum. 

Investire It., Sp. embestir, Fr. investir, to invest a place ; from in- 
vestire (cf. focum investire Msecen., scrupeo investita saxo Enn.). 

lo It., Sp. yo, Pg. Wal. eu, Pr. Galic. ieu eu, O. Fr. eo ieojeo jo, 
¥r.Je; from ego by syncope eo, Fr. i added before short e as 
in dieu from deus. 

Iqui — qui. 

Irmao — hermano. 

Isard Langued., Cat. isart and sicart an izard; from Gr. l%alog 
(Salmasius) ? 

Ischio eschio It. from asculus. 

Isnel — snello. 

Issa — esso. 

Issare It., Sp. Pg. izar, Fr. hisser (asp.), from Swed. hissa, L. G. 
hissen (E. hoisf). 

Itant — cotanto. 

Itel — cotale. 

Iva Sp. Pg., Fr. if (m.) yew; from O. H. G. iwa, G. eibe, A. S. 
iv , E. yeiv, W. ijiv. Corn, hivin. 

Ivi vi It., O. It. ij O. Sp. O. Pg. Pr. hi y, Fr. y, Sp. Pg. ahi; 
from ibi. 

Ivoire — avorio. 

Ivraie — ebbriaco. 

Izaga Sp. a reedy place; from B. izaga (iza reed, aga fullness). 

Izquierdo esquerro Sp., Yg.esquerdo, Cat.Vr.esquer (f. esquerra) 
left. From the B. ezquerra ezquerdo, Sp. i for e when next 

262 IZZA — JARS. 

syllable has ie, cf. cimiento, hiniestra, ilnieblaj sintiese (sentir) 
miniiera (mentir), 
\7,7,9>, It. anger; from O. H. Gr. hiza, G. hilze. Ad-izzare a~izzare, 
Com. ezza, 0. Fr. hesser to incite (esp. dogs); G. hetzen, L. G. 
hitsen, as Ven. uzzare, Veron. uzzci from the prov. form hutzen. 


Jabali Sp., V^.javaU wild boar, Sip.Jabaima wild sow. Ar. Ahin- 

zlr gahali = Sp. puerco montes mountain- or wild -boar. 
Jabot Fr. crop of a bird, Jahoter to murmur. Perhaps for gibot 

(ci.jaloux for geloux), from gibba a bump, cf. G. kropf, E. 

crop = orig. a swelling, or, according to others, connected 

with Fr. Japper and E. jabber. 
Jacerina — ghiazzerino. 
Jaco — giaco. 

Jadis Fr. irom. Jamdiu as tandis from tamdiu, Pr. tandins. 
Jaez Sp. Pg. harness ; from Ar. gaMz implements. 
Jaillir Fr. to shoot forth; ior jailler irom Jaculari , cf. bondir. 
Jalde jalne — giallo. 
Jale Fr. a tub, measure; O.Ywjalon galon, E. gallon (L.L. qalo, 

galetus)y Rou. galot. Beside yrtr/6' 0. Fr. hfii^Jaille (Due. v. galo) 

= L. galea, dim. galeola vas vinarium Papias. 
Jalon — j auger. 
Jaloux — zelo, 

Jamba jamon, jambe jambon — gamba, 
Jangler 0. Fr., Pr. janglar to insult, scoff, N. Pr. jangla to 

whine, O. Fr. jangle, Pr. jangla mockery; from L. G. Du. 

jangelen janken (Ei, jangle) to scold, whine, a jangler, Chauc. 

Jante Fr. (f.) felloe of a wheel. Not from canthus (m.), but from 

L. L. cames camitis from root cam crooked, bent (v. gamba); 

2^'^ jambe from camba, ^o jante from camitem. Wall, chame = 

nom. cames. 
Japper Fr., Pr. japar to yelp ; an onomatop., cf. G. jappen. 
Jaque — giaco. 
Jardin — giardino. 
Jargon ■ — gergo. 
Jarra jarre — - giara. 
Jarret jarrete — garra. 
Jars Fr. gander. The orig. form is found in the Pic. gars, Bret. 

garz, Wall. gear. Probably from the 0. N. gassi = gander 

rvvhich is connected with the G. gans, E. gander, L. anser, 

Gk. I'qv , Sansk. hansa). Pictet, however, derives the Fr, 

from the Bret, garz which he gets from the Sansk. varata 

JASER — JUGE. 263 

(protector of geese from vri to protect) , cf. W. gwart (qui 
garde), vb. gwara gwared tegere (vri). 

Jaser Fr., 0. Fr. gaser, Pr. gasar to chatter, Vic.jaser. From 
O. N. gassi a gander, or chatterer , cf. Bav. gdnseln to babble. 
Hence , prob., gazouiller, O. Fr. gaziller to chirp , chatter. 

Jasmin — gesmino. 

Jasse — se, 

Jatte — gavetta, 

Jauger Fr., Y^ all. ganger, ^. gauge, Yv.jauge a gauging- rod. 
From a Eom. cequaUficare egalger (cf. O. Fr. niger from nidi/i- 
care) eg auger ganger (cf. s. mine). Rouchi cauque gauqne point 
to a form calc (calfc), cf. G. eiclien = Du. ikje?i from cequare. 
From cequalis also Fr. Jaion a gauging -rod, pole. 

Jaula — gabbia. 

Jaune — giallo. 

Javelina javelot — giavelotto. 

Javelle — gavela. 

Jauzion jauzir — godere. 

Jazerant — ghiazzerino. 

Je — io. 

Jeudi — giovedi. 

Jeune ■ — ginnare. 

Joglar — giocolare. 

Joie — godere. 

Joindre Fr., F.join; iroui jnngere , It. giugnere. 

Joli — ginlivo. 

Jongleur — giocolaro. 

Jorgina jorguina Sp. witch; from B. sorguina sorguina which 
from L. sors, Sp. suerte, B. zortea, and guina making. Hence 
enjorgninar to cover with soot, as witches coming down 
chimneys , Jor^wm soot; holgina holgin ivoTo. jorgina. 

Joubarbe — jnsbarba. 

Joue — gota. 

Jouer Fr. to play, from jocari; jeu from jocus. 

Jouir — godere. 

Jour — giorno. 

Joute j outer — giusta. 

Joya joy el joyau — godere. 

Joyo — gioglio. 

Jubon — giubba. 

Jue Fr., Wall, joe a perch, vb. Fr. jncher, Pic. jnqner. Wall. 
joqner, N.Pr. s'ajonca, E. iojnke, to roost, Berr. sbst. gnenche, 
vb. gueucher. The Norm, has hucher, which points to the Du. 
hukken, G. hocken to squat, cower. 

Jueves — giovedi. 

Juge Fr., Pr. Cat. jntge, whence 0. Sp. juge, B. yuyea. Not 


{rom judex which would give jus, but from juger (judicare), 
prob. the only example ^ in the Rom., of a personal noun 
derived from a verb without suffix. 

Juillet Fr. July. In 0. Fr. this month was called Jwm^/ or little 
June, cf. A.B.aerra lidha after a lidha (p'mild month, 2"'HTiild 
month) = June, July. From juinet came Juillet through L. 
Julius. Sic. (prob. through Norm.) giugne June, giugnetto July. 
In Neap, the former is called jon cerasiaro (cherry June), the 
latter Jw/o messoro (harvest July). In Sard. July is called mesi 
de treulas (threshing -month). Rh. zareladur (weed -month) 
== Jime, fenadur (hay -month) = July. In Pro v. Cat. they 
are called junh, jidiol , in B. gar ilia, gar agar ilia (barley- 

Jujube — giuggola. 

Julep julepe — giulebbe, 

Jumart Fr. ; prob. a corruption oijumentum, though the Langucd. 
gimere gimerou points to chimaera. 

Jumeau Fr. twin; from gemellus, Pr. gemel, cf. fumier from 
fimus. Hence E. gimmal (= annulus gemellus). 

Jupe — giuhha. 

Jusant Fr. ebb; from 0. Fr. adv.^M^ down, formed on the ana- 
logy of courant. 

Jusarme — guisarme. 

Jusbarba Sp. butcher's broom, Yr.joubarbe, Pr. barbajol a leek; 
= L. Jovis barba (Pliny), It. barba di Giove, Sp. chuharba 
stone- crop is prob. the same word, cf. chupe = Vr. jupe. 

Jusque Fr. from de- usque, O. Fr. usque dusque, Pr. diiesca, jus- 
cas, 0. Fr. ^\^o jesque hovn juesqiie (as tresque from irxiesque). 
Cf. devers = versus. Pr. truesca, O. Fr. trosqu'a = intro usque 
ad, Rh. troqua aniroqua. 

Jusquiame — giuschiamo. 

Justar — giustare. 


Kermesse Fr. a fair; a corruption of the G. kirch-messe (church- 
mess) orig. '-=^ a church -ale, wake, festal gathering, cf. fiera. 


La It., Sp. alia, O. Pg. aid, Pg. Id, Pr. la lai, Fr. la; from iliac. 
Labarda — alabarda. 

Labareda lavereda Pg. flame; from labarum a banner, cf. ori- 


Labaro It. Sp. Pg., Fr. laharum, L. Idbarum the banner of the 
Roman Empire from the time of Constantine. Laharnm = 
prop, the voice or oracle (Bret, invar, W. llafar, Ir. Gael. 
lablirad, Corn, lavar, Avhence Celtic name Labarus in Siliiis 
Ital.) sc. of God, alluding to the inscription on the standard 
of Constantine, tv tovxa vLxa V.Mahn, Etym. Unters. p. 65. 

Labech — liheccio. 

Labriego Sp.^ Pg. labrego a peasant; from labor = field-labour 

Lacayo Sp. Pg., Fr. laquais, whence It. lacclie , E. lackey pedis- 
sequus. 0. Pr. has lecai dainty, wanton (v. leccare), N. Pr. 
laccai a shoot (parasite) also = lackey, cf. Gk. aot,0(s, do0- 
6i]trJQ (Donaldson). 0. Pg. lecco = Pr. lee (whence lecai) the 
same as lacayo. Wedgw. makes it the same word as the 0. 
Fr. naqxiet, naquais (cf. livello, nivello Sic.) a ball -catcher at 

Lacca It., Sp. Pr. laca, Fr. laque, E. lake (whence laquer, 
lacquer) an Indian resin; Pers. Idk (Sansk. Idxdj root lakh 

Lacca It. a hole (Dante) ; from Gk. Idxxog. 

Lacchetta — racchetta. 

Laccia It., Sic. alaccia , N. Pr. Sp. alacha shad , Andal. lacha, 
G. alse; prob. corruptions of halec, according to Diefenbach 
= Celt, alausa. From halec we have It. dlice (f.), Sic. alcci 
anchovy, Sp. alece (m.) fish -ragout, Sp. haleche a sort of 

Laccio It., Sp. Pg. lazOy Pr. latz , Fr. lacs, Wal, latzu, E. lace; 
from laqueus; vb. It. lacciare allacciare &c,, Fr. lacer, E. lace. 

Lacerta It. lucerta lucertola (Sard, caluscerta calwcertuld) , Sp. 
Pg. lagarto, Fr. lezard, Burg, lezarde f., Rh. lusciard, E. 
lizard, Pg. lagarta caterpillar; from lacerta, with (in Sp. &c.) 
a change of ending to the suffix ard often found in names of 
animals. Hence It. alligatore, Sp. alegador, Fr. E. alligator 
(Sp. el lagarto), spelt as if from adligare adligator. 

Lache laeher — lasciare. 

Lacio Sp. faded, languid; from^/laccidus (also written Ihacio = 
llacio Berceo), cf. llama from flamma, Lainez from Flainiz. 

Lacra Sp. scar, fault, vb. lacrar to hurt; from M. Du. laecke, 

0. E. lake, E. lack. 
Lacs — laccio. 
Ladino — latino, 
Ladre — lazaro. 

Ladrillo Sp., Pg. ladrilho brick; from laterculus. 
Lagar Sp. Pg. wine -press; from lacus. 
Lagarta — lacerta. 


Lagnarsi It., O. Sp. laharse, Pr. se lanhar , O. Fr. laigner to 
lament; sbst. It. lagna, Pr. lanha; from laniare se prse dolore, 
cf. Pg. carpirse (= carpere se), \j. plangere , Gk. KOTtraGd'ai. 

Lagot Pr. flattery, Sp. lagotear to flatter; cf. Goth, hi-laigon 

to lick. 
Lague 0. Fr. law ; from A. S. lag, E. laiv, hence utlague ullage 

outlaw, A. S. ut-lag, E. out -law, cf. ex -lex. 
Lai lais O. Fr., Pr. lais lay, E. lay, It. plur. lai. From 0. N. /«^ 

law, melody (cf. i/dftog), or from W. llais melody, Fr. Gael. 

laoith song. 
Laiclie — lisca. 
Laido It. 0. Sp. O. Pg., Pr. lait, Fr. laid ugly; from 0. H. G. 

leid odious, O.N. leidhr, A. S. Iddli. O. Ir. sbst. lait. Ph. 

laid, B. laidoa. Vb. It. laidare, O. Sp. laizar, O. Pg. laidar, 

Pr. laizar, O. Fr. laider to vex, injure; from leidon, leiden; 

also It. laidire, Pr. O. Fr. /«Mr from leidjan, A. S. Iddhjan. 

O.Yr.laidenge (vh.laidengier), Vr.ledena for I aidenha vexation, 

cf. 0. H. G. leidunga accusation, 

Laie Fr. 0. Pg. lada? a way through a wood, vb. lager un lois; 

from 0. N. leid, A. S. lad, M. Du. leie, L. L. /t'^^j. Hence 

S. Germain en laye, 
Laisse lesse Fr. = E. leash, It, lascio, E. lasso; from laxus 

laxare, cf. O. H. G. Idz from Idzan, G. lassen, cf. L. L. /«a;«- 

;w?>?flj habence. 
Laisser — lasciare. 
Laiton — ottone. 

Laivo Pg. spot, stain; from lahes, whence an adj. labeus? 
Iiam Pr. lame, one-armed; O. H. G. lam, G. lahm, E. lame. 

Piedm. lam = slack. 
Lama It. Sp. Pg., Dauph. lamma marsh, bog, mire; from L. 

lama Hor. Festus : aquce collectio quce lamam dicunt; found in 

Dante in the same sense. 

Lama It. Pr., Fr. lame plate, blade, O. Sp. lana a slice, a band; 
from lamina. Hence 0. Fr. lame grave -stone, and O. Fr. 
lemele alemele (from / 'alemelle for la lemele), Fr. alumelle. 

Lamaneur — locman. 

Lambeau Fr. shred or tatter. Com. lampel, Sp. lambel, Berr, 
lamhriche fringe, L. L. Idblellus^ O. Fr. laheau, E. label; Fr. 
vb. deldbrer for delabler. The m is prob. inserted, so delabrer 
from labrum (levre cf. cabrer, chevre), label from labellum. The 
Com. form, however, approaches the G.lappen (shred), which 
is found also in Celtic, Gael, leab, W. llabed (E. lappet), 
Bret, labasken. Fr. lambrequin = Du. dim. lamperkin from 
tamper lamfer a veil, cf. mannequin = Du. mannekm. 

Lambel — lambeau. 


Lambicco limbicco It., Sp. alainhique, Pg. lamhiquey Pr. elamhic, 
Fr. alamhic, E. alemlnc; from Ar. al-anbiq. 

Lambre O. Fr. wainscot, from lamina a board, cf. marhre from 
marinr. Hence Fr. lanihrh (m.). 

Lambrequin — lamheau. 

Lambrija Sp., Pg. lombriga a worm ; from lumbricus, It. lomhrico, 
Sp. also lomhriz. 

Lambris — lamhre. 

Lambrusca It. Sp., Fr. lambruche, from lahrusca. 

Lamicare It. to drizzle: perhaps for lamhicare to lick, cf. Sp. 
latner from lamhere. B. lambroa drizzling -rain. 

Lampione lampone It. raspberry, Pied, ampola, Com. ampoi, 
Eh. ompchia; it is the Sw. omheer (homheere Mmpel-heere). 

Lampo It. Sp. Pg., Pr. lamp lam, N. Pr. Ian blaze; from root 
lamp in lamp -as, cf. capo frow cap-ut. Hence Cat. llampcg, 
Sp. Pg. re -lamp -ago flash. 

Lampreda It., Sp. Pg. lamprea, Fr. lamproie (Ei.lamprey) ; usually 
derived from L. L. lam-petra (lick -stone), because this fish 
clings to stones with its mouth. The Bret., however, islamprezj 
which Legonidec derives from lampr slippery, shining. 

Lance — lancia. 

Lancha — lasca. 

Lancia It., Sp. lanza, E. lance, from L. lancea, according to 
Varro (Gellius) a Spanish, according to others, a Gallic or 
German word; vb. It. lanciare and E. launch, L. lanceare (Ter- 
tullian); hence It. lancio, Sp. lance, Pg. lanco, Pr. lans throAV, 
cast; It. slanciare, Vweslansar, Yr.elancer to spring; Fr. sbst. 
elan for elans. 

Landa It. Pr., Fr. lande plain, heath, 0. Fr. lande saltus, B. 
landa field. Not from Goth. E. land, but from Bret, la^in a 
thorny bush, pi. lannou a heath, cf. Fr. brande bush, pi. hran- 
des heath. Lann (land) is pure Celtic, v. Zeiiss 1, 168. 

Landier Fr., 0. Fr. andier, B. landera, E. andiron, Wall, andi, 
L. L. andena. Wedgw. makes andiron the same as Flem. 
wendijser (wenden to turn) prop, a rack for the spit; vcruten- 
ium, idem hoc andena v. Ducange. Landier for V andier, cf. 
loriot, lendemain, lierre. 

Landit Fr. fair of St. Denis; for Vendit from indicium, the day 
being openly proclaimed, cf. feriae indictivae. 

Landra slandra It., Dauph. landra prostitute; N. Pr. landrin * 
landraire a loiterer; Com. slandron a vagabond. Yen. si a fidro?ia 
a prostitute; vb. Vr. landra to walk the streets. Hence 
landrino, Sp. N. Pr. malandrin, Rou. Lim. mandrin a pick- 
pocket, vagabond, for mal-landrino &c.. Com. f. malandra 
meretrix, Occ. mandro (f.) a fox, mandrouno a bawd, Sp. mo- 
londro a mean fellow; adj. Pr. vilandrier for vil-landrier a 


vagabond. From It. slandra is W?i\.suleandre. From 0. H. G. 
lantderi (for 1j. I atr 6) = a land -plague. 

Lange Fr. m. a blanket, O. Fr. a woollen garment; from laneus, 

Laniere It., Pr. Fr. lanier, E. lanner, a small falcon, a merlin-, 
c= laniarius, a laniandis avihus. Adj. lanier greedy. 

Lanquan Pr. = Fr. lorsque, for /Vm quan, an used as in ogan, 

Lanza — lancia. 

Lanzieheneceo It. (shortened lanzo), Sp. lasquenete, Fr. lans- 
quenet a German foot soldier; from G. landsknecht; it also 
means a game at cards played by these soldiers, lansquenet. 

Lanzo — Umzichenecco. 

Lana — lama, 

Lapa Pg. an excavation ; from Gk. Xditad^ov a hole. 

Lapa Sp. scum; from Gk. Xditri Xd^Ttrj. B. lapa lees. 

Lapin Fr. a rabbit, dim. lapereaii, cf. Du. lampreel. The p of 
lepus would require a i^ in Fr. (cf. leveret); lapin is prob. for 
clapin, from root clap, whence se clapir to hide (of rabbits), 
clapiere a rabbit - burrow (q. v.), cf. loir for gloir. 

Lapo Sp. blow with a flat instrument; from 0. H. G. lappa, G. 
lappen, cf. G. E. flap. Hence also Com. lapina a box on the 
ear, Berr. lapigne a rag, Idpeau a lazy fellow, Rh. lapi a sim- 
pleton = G. lappa slack. Sp. solapar to button one lappet 
over another, then to conceal. 

Lappare It., Fr. taper, Pr. lepar. Cat. llepar = G. lappen, E. lap, 
O. N. lepia, W. llepio, Gk. Xditteiv &c. 

Laquais — lac ago. 

Lar Sp. Pg. Occ, Cat. liar hearth; the L. Lar, found also in It. 
alare andiron, Sp. Hares pot- hangers. 

Laranja — arancio, 

Larein Fr., E. larceny; from latrocinium, Pr. laironici, Sp. ladro- 
nicio. It. ladroneccio. From latro we have ladrone, ladro, 

Larigot Fr. a pipe or flute. The form arigot might come from the 
Gallic arinca (Pliny) =rye, cf.L. avena. Arinca becomes riguet 
in Dauph. Frisch derives larigo from largo (musical term). 

Larme Fr. from lacrima. In O.Fr. lairme (lerme) the g is vocal- 
ized into i. 

Larris O. Fr. Pic. an untilled field, L. L. larricium, from Du. 
laer laar an open place in a wood, v. Dief. Goth. Wb. 2, 129. 

Lasca It. a fish, barbel; from Gk. levmCaog. 

Lasca Sp. a plate, thin flat stone, strip of leather; a corruption 
of laxiis laxa (which is also found in Sp./«a:« or laja = lasca). 
Pg. lasca de presunto = slice of ham. Sp. lancha = laxa. 

Lasciare lassare It., O. Sp. lexar leixar, Pg. leixar, Pr. laissar, 
Fr. laisser, Wal. lesa (E. lease in release); from laxare (Sp. 


laxar), influenced by the G. lassen = E. lei, v. Max Miiller 
(ilber deutsche Schattirung romanischer Worte). Hence Pr. 
s'eslaissar, 0. Fr. s'eslaisser to rush in, sbst. eslais fall, rush, 
It. slascio; It. adj. lasco, Pr. lasc lasch, Fr. I ache , Kou. lake 
indolent, vb. Sp. lascar, O. Pg. laiscar, Pr. lascar laschar, Fr. 
Idcher, O. Fr. lasquer, from lascus for laxus, cf. Gael. /^«s^, Ir. 
/m^, W. //^5^ := L. laxus, Gael, assail, Corn. «s<:/^ =:=-- L. 
axella. Champ, fisquer for ^a;^r, lusque for /wa;e. 

Lascio — lame. 

Lasco — lasciare. 

Lasso It. Pg., Sp. laso, Fr. /«5, It. «7«2 lasso, f. «/^2 M55«, Pr. at 
las, 0. Fr. /?« las (E. rt/«5), Fr. /«6"7r/s (v. he), from lassiis; vb. 
It. lassare &c., from lassare. Hence also O.Fr. sbst. /^s/^, laste, 
O. Sp. laseclad weariness. 

Lastar Sp. Pg. to pay for another, sbst. lasio. From O. H. G. 
leisten, G. leisten to bail. 

Laste — lasso. 

Lastima — hiasimo. 

Lasto It., Fr. laste lest a ship's burden; from 0. H. G. Mast , O. 
Fris. hlestj N. lest, G. last , A. S. last (E. last = boat -load). 
Fr. halast, Du. G. E. ballast is a compound of last and Z^«/, Ir. 
heal sand (garhheal = gravel), W. ^«/ in halasarn ballast, Bret. 
ft^V? caillou rond, plat et poli que la mer pousse sur quelques 
rivages, L. sa-hiil-um {saburra ballast), Sk. hdlukd sand, v. 
Bopp, Glossary. For Sp. lastre, Pg. lastro, which are con- 
founded with this word, v. astre. 

Lastra lastre — astre. 

Latino It., Sp. latin, Pg. latim (1) Latin (2) knowledge (3) cun- 
ning: Sp. saber mucho latino to be cunning, Sp. Pg. adj. ladino 
cunning. What the Latin was to the learned , that their mo- 
ther tongue was to laymen ; hence latino was used for any 
dialect , even Arabic and the language of birds , cf . Dante : 
gli augelli ciascufio in suo latino, next it came to mean com- 
prehensible, accessible, easy, convenient, Dante, Par. 3, 63: 
SI che m' e piu ladino; ladino delta mano promptus, Rh. ladin 
swift. From latin is Pr. 0. Fr. latinier linguist, interpreter, 
0. E. latynere , latymer (Latimer). 

Latir — ghiattire. 

Laton — ottone. 

Latta It., Sp. Pr. lata, Fr. latte; from 0. H. G. latta, A. S. Idtta, 
E. lath, W. lldth (f.). Wal. has m. latz. 

Lattovaro lattuaro It., Sp. electuario, O. Sp. lectuario, Pr. lacto- 
ari lectoari, Fr. electuaire, O. Fr lectuaire, E. electuary, 0. E. 
lectuary letuary; from L. elect arium electuarium (elingo). 

Laud — liuto. 

Laudemio — lusinga. 


Launa Sp. a metal-plate &c. ; not from lamina but from laganum, 
g changed to w , as in sagma salma sauma (soma). 

Lava It. E.; Fr. lave; = Neap, lava a torrent , from lavare. 
Lavagna It. slate, for la-agna, from G. leie (ei := R. a), O. S. 
leia, Du. lei, W. llech, Gael. leac. 

Lavaneo Sp. Pg. wild duck; from lavare, cf. E. duck (-— diver). 

Lavanda lavendola It., Sp. lavandida, Fr. lavande, E. lavender, 
G. lavendel; from its being used in washing (lavare, It. /«- 
vanda = washing, whence Sp. lavandera. It. lavandaia, Fr. 
lavandiere (E. laundress), lavanderia = E. laundry, 

Lavange — avalange, 

Laveggio It. a pan ; = lebetium from lehes. 

Lavello — avello. 

Laya Sp. Pg. (1) two-pronged fork for digging (2) kind, nature, 
vb. layar to dig. From B. laya spade; the soil in Biscay being 
very hard requires a peculiar two -pronged instrument to 
work it. This is called laya, and the labour lay aria. The 
word was so commonly used as to pass into proverbs : son de 
una misma laya = they are of the same sort; hence mean- 
ing (2). 

Layette Fr. chest; from Du. laeye, G. lade. 

Lazaro Sp. beggar. Mil. lazzer dirty, Vic.lazaire poor, Pr. O.Fr. 
ladre, lazer (also O. E.) a leper; hence O. Sp. lace'ria poverty; 
It. lazzer etto, Sp. lazareto, E. lazarelto; It. lazzer one. From 
the Lazarus of St. Luke ch. 16. Ladre for lazer, as madre from 
masar, S. Ludre from S. Lusor. 

Lazo — laccio. 

Lazzo It. sour; from laciduus for acididus, cf. B. latzd, lachd. 

Le — il. 

Leans — ens. 

Leardo — Hart. 

Lebeehe — liheccio. 

Lebrel — levriere. 

Lebrillo Sp. an earthenware tub , pan ; from lahrum. 

Leccare It., Pr. liquar lichar lechar, Fr. lecher, Rh. licliiar, Wal. 
licei to lick; besides It. leccatore, O. Fr. leclieor a glutton, 
parasite (E. lecher), we find Pr. Lomb. Pied, lee. Sic. liccu, 
it. leccone; Pr. adj. lecai licai (sbst. licai-aria) and licaitz (sbst. 
licaz-aria). We have L. L. lecator leno, lecacitas lenocinium, 
cf. Pr. lecaitz (lecax). From O. II. G. leccJwn, A. S. liccon 
leccon, A. S. liccian, E. lick; lee leccone = an O. H. G. sbst. 
lecco. Fr. relecher gives E. relish. 

Leeeio — elce. 

Leche — lisca. 

Lecher — leccare. 


LecMno Sp.; Pg. lichino a tent of lint; lint; from Ucinium (from 
licium) Vegetius de arte vet. 

Lechon Sp. a sucking-pick, from leche milk. Hence also lechuzo 
a suckling (colt &c.). 

Lecliuzo — lechon, 

Lega It. Pr., Pr. Sp. legua, Fr. lieue, Pg. legoa, L.L. leuca, leuga, 
leg a, lewa, E. league. Gloss. Isid. mensw^as viarum nos miUiaria 
dicimus, Galli leucas. A word of Celtic origin, prop. =: a stone 
(mile -stone, L. lapis), Ir. Gael, leac, W. llech a flat stone, 
slate. Gr. Mag, Atvg, L. lap -id may be connected, v. Pott, 
Forsch. 1, 218- 0. Fr. loe'e = a league's distance. 

Lega It., Sp. leg, Fr. loi aloi standard of metals, allog; vb. It. 
allegare, Sp. alear, Fr. aloijer; from lex, ad legem, cf. Pr. 
alegalar to justify. 

Legamo Sp. slime, mud; from uligo uliginis, not from B. lega- 
jnia = Fr. levain, E. leaven. 

Lege leger — lieve. 

Lege Fr. not laden (of a ship); from Du. leeg for G. ledig empty. 

Leggiadro It. sprightly, pretty; for leggiardo from levis; so bugi- 
adro hugiardo, linguadro linguardo. 

Leggiero — lieve. 

Leggio It. a reading-desk, L. L. legivum; from legere, cf. Xo- 
ysLOv from Xoyog. 

Legs Fr. legacy ; from lego , the s added to form a sbst. Cf. It. 
lascio from lasciare, 0. Fr. Urn, 

Leixar — lasciare. 

Leila — enola. 

Lelo Sp. ignorant, stupid. From the B. lelo, leloa = insulsus. 
Lelo was the name of a Biscayan, notable as a cuckold and 
famous in the ballads of the country, one of which begins : 
Lelo! il Lelo, Lelo! il Lelo, Leloa! v. Mahn, Unters. p. 58. 

Lembrar — membrare. 

Leme Sp. Pg. tiller (naut^. Cf. Sp. Fr. limon shaft of a cart; 
from 0. N. A. S. lim, E. limb. Wall, limon = Fr. solive, is 
prob. the L. limen. 

Lendemain — mane. 

Lendine It., Sp. liendre , Pg. lendea, Pr. lende, Fr. lente a nit; 
from lens lendis (lendinis); Fr. lente from lendine (Wall. Undine) 
as page from pagina. Cat. llemena is a corruption of llenema 
for llendema , m, being from the ace. case. 

Lendore Fr. (m. f.) an idle drowsy fellow, vb. Norm, lendorer. 
A purer form is the Bret, landar idle, vb. landrca, landreant 
a sluggard, whence O. Fr. landreux, Fr. lendore, which took 
its form from il endort. From Du. lenteren to loiter, sbst. len- 
terer = G. schlendern, schlenderer, 

Lente — lendine. 


Lenza It. a linen band, S^. h'enzo a handkerchief; from linlea 
lintewn. Hence It. lenzuolo, Sp. lenzueJo, Pg. lancol, Pr. len- 
sol, Fr. linceul a sheet &c., L. linteolnm. 

Lercio It. dirty, gua-lercio giialerchio (1) dirty (2) squinting; the 
latter senss points to the M. H. G. lerz left {gua = guatd), but 
whence the sense of ^^ dirty''? 

Lerdo — lordo. 

Leri Pr. gay, sprightly, N. Pr. leri (f. lend) pretty, wanton. 
From hilarius (hilaris), which was used as a Christian name. 

Lero — ervo. 

Les O. Fr., Pr. latz for L. juxta; from latus, It. allato; still 
found in names of places, e. g. Passy -les- Paris j Plessis-les- 

Lesina It., Sp. lesna, better O. Sp. alesna, Pr. alena, Lim. lerno, 
Fr. alene an owl; from 0. H. Gr. alansa, alasna, Sw. alasme. 
It. lesina (whence Fr Je'sine) also = parsimony. "Lesine^\ says 
Menage, ^^du livre Italien, intitule Delia lamosissima Com- 
pagnia della Lesina ; Fauteur feint que cette Compagnie fut 
ainsi appelee di certi Taccagnoni, i quali, per marcia, miseria, 
et avarizia, si mettevano a rattacconar le scarpette colla le- 
sina, onde presono questo nome della Lesina J^ 

Lessare It. to boil; L. L. lixare to steep, lix lie. Hence his- 

lessare to boil. 
Tjessive — lisciva. 
Lesto It. Pg., Fr. leste, Sp. lislo active. It. also clever; vb. It. 

allestare; from Goth, listeigs, O. H. G. listlc clever, G. listig 

artful, suffix dropped as in It. chiasso from classicum, O. Fr. 

ruste from rusticus. Sbst. Kh. list (m.). 
Lest — lasto. 
Letame It. 0. Sp. dung; from Icetamen (Pliny), L. L. Icetare to 

make fruitful (cf. Virg. quid Iwtas segetes). 

Lettiera It. bedstead, Sp. liter a, Pr. leitiera, Fr. litiere, E. litter; 

L. L. lectaria, from lectus. 
Leu — leve. 
Leude 0. Fr., Pr, leuda leida ledda lesda, O. Sp. lezda , Arag. 

leuda a tax or toll on goods or on carriages ; Lang, ledo = Fr. 

havage. From levitus partic. of levare (as cubitus of cub are) 

in such phrases as levare tributum = lever des impots. V. 

Leudo — lievito. 
Leur — egli. 
Leurre — log or o. 
Levain Fr., Pr. levam, E. leaven; from levare, whence E. lever 

{== Fr. levier) levy, v. lievito. 
Levantar Sp. to raise; a participial verb from levare. 


Levante It. Sp. Pg., Fr. E. levant; ove il sole si leva, cf. Pg. 

nascente, Cat. sol-ixent, participles like oriens, occidens, cf. s. 

Leve Pg., Pr. leu, Rh. lev, Pr. levada lights; from levis, cf. E. 

Levistioo libistico It., Fr. liveche (levesse Menage), E. lavage a 

plant; from ligusticum, Veget. de re voter, levisticum. 
Levriere It., Sp. lehrel, Fr. levrier a greyhound ; from leporarius. 
Lexos Sp. (lejos) adv. for L. longe, also adj. lexo. From laxus. 
Lezard — lacerta. 

Lezia lezio It. affectation; from delicice, cf. delicias facer e. 
Lezzo It. stink, lezzare to stink; the form olezzare shows the 

der. from olere; lezzo is from the root ol, with term, as in 

rezzo for orezzo from ora aura. 
Li It., Sp. alii, Pg. alii adv. ; from illic. 
Lia Sp. misk of grapes, Pg. lia, Pr. Ihia, Fr. lie (E. pi. lees)', 

Bret, ly (Ven. lea mud), Papias: lia '^ amurca^\ Lix licis lye, 

would require a Sp. liga (cf. N. Pr. ligo, B. liga), though Fr. 

lie may = licem, as her-lue from lucem. Dief. derives it from 

lev are as G. /^^/b from hehen, hdrme (harm) from her an, cf. 

Liaison Fr., Pr. //flfzo, from ligatio (Scribonius Largus). 

Liart O. Fr. (f. liarde), Pr. liar tear (hence It. leardo) of horses 

white ^ light -grey; from W. llai dark -grey, or from tortus, cf. 

It. gajo, Fr. gai, Gk. q)ai8Q6g. Fr. Hard a coin is the S. Fr. 

li Jiardi, Sp. ardite, q. v. 
Libeeeio It., Sp. leheche, Pr. lahech (ahech), O. Fr. leheche lehecli 

South - west wind ; from kii\) h^og , Alban. live. 
Libello It., Pg. Pr. livel nivel, Sp. nivel , Fr. niveau, Bret, live, 

Wall, livai, E. level; vb. Sp. nivelar, Fr. niveler to level; from 

//^^^//a, R. Gr. 1, 241. 
Liccia lizza It., Sp. liza, Pr. /255«, Fr. lice, E. //5^5 (lista?), a 

course, a place for combat &c. ; from licia pi. oilicium = girdle 

in the phrase: i^er lancem et licium. There may also be some 

reference to the M. H. G. letze a fence (letzen to keep off, let). 
Lice Fr., 0. Fr. leisse, Pic. liche, Pr. leissa a hunting -bitch for 

breeding; from the name Lycisca or rather Lycisce (multutn 

lair ante Lycisca Virg.). 
Licorno alicorno It., Pg. alicornio, Fr. licorne f. ; a corruption 

of unicoiiiis, Sp. unicornio, unicorn. 
Licou Fr. a halfer; from lie-cou. 
Lie Fr. gay, in the phrase faire chere lie; from Icetus, O. Fr. lie 

f. liee and lie. It. //t^^o. 
Liege Fr. cork ; from leger (Pr. leuge), 
Liendre — lendine. 
Lienzo — lenza. 



Lierre — edera, 

Lieue — lega. 

Lieve It.^ Sp. Pg. leve, Pr. leu light; from levis; Fr. instead of 
lief has lege empty (of ships), cf. neige = Pr. neu. It. leggiero, 
Pr. leugier, Fr. leger, from a form leviarius; vb. Pr. leujar = 
L. L. leviare for levare, also aleujar aleviar. It. alleggiare, Sp. 
Olivier (sbst. alivio), Fr. alleger, 0. E. allegge (= alleviate, cf. 
abridge = abbreviate, agredge aggravate). 

Lievito It., Romag. /^wtf?, Sp. /^Wo (liebdo), Pg. levedo risen, 
fermented (of dough) ; vb. It. levitare, Sp. leudar lleudar, aleu- 
dar alevadar, Pg. levedar to femient dough with leaven. From 
levitus a partic. for levatus (levare), cf. cubitus from cubare, do- 
mare domitus, and unclass. dolitus for dolatus Varro, vocitus 
for vocatus, provitus for probatus, rogitus for rogatus, cf. also s. 
fegato. So levitare is not a frequentative from levare. Another 
form is Pr. /^z;«^, Cat. llevat, Wal. ^/wflt^ leaven; Neap, levato, 
Piedm. Mil. /et;« = It. lievito. Rh. levont from the pros, par- 

Lige Fr., Pr. Z//^^, whence It. %/o^ E. //^^e, L. L. ligius, sbst. 
0. Fr. ligee , ligesse. The fundamental meaning seems to be 
unlimited , perfect. The homme lige had to render unrestricted 
service to the lige seigneur, who, in return, was bound to 
afford unconditional protection. Hence ligia potestas, ligia vo- 
luntas unbounded. Three derivations are given: (l) from the 
Rom. liga bond, but we cannot have a non- Latin adj. formed 
with -ius or -ens; (2) 0. N. lidi a companion, whence lidi-us, 
lige, but here the sense scarcely suits ; (3) from G. ledig free : 
ligius homo, quod Teutonice dicitur ledigman Document of 13^*^ 

Ligio — lige. 

Lilac It. Sp. E., Pg. Hid, Fr. lilas; from the Pers. lilac. 

Limaca limace limacon — lumaccia. 

Limande Fr. a plaice ; from lima a file , by reason of its rough 
skin. It is called lima in It. 

Limier Fr. a hunting -dog, E. lime-hound, 0. Fr. liemier loiemier 
loiemer, Bret, liamer; from Fr. lien, O. Fr. Men, L. ligamen, 
so prop. -=: a leash -hound. 

Limon — leme. 

Limone It., Sp. Pr. limon, Pg. limdo, Fr. limon, E. lemon, also 
It. Sp. Pg. lima, It. lomia. Sic. lumiuni; from Pers. limii or limun 
= tree and fruit, which is from YvA.nimbuka, Beng.nimbu niba; 
hence also Ar. laimun. 

Limosina It., 0. Sp. Pr. almosna, Sp. limosna, Pg. esmola (for 
elmosd), Fr. aumone, E. alms; from eleemosyna; hence Fr. 
aumonerie, E. awmery, almonry. 

Linceuil — lenza. 


Linde Sp. O. Pg. (m. f.), Pg. liiida a boundary; from limes limi- 
tis, Pr. li?nU &c. ; vb. lindar from limitare; Pr. lindar lintel, 
from limitaris. Hence also Sp. lintel dintel, E. lintel. 

Lindo It. Sp. Pg., N. Pr. linde neat, line, pretty, from limpidus 
clear, whence in Piedm. = sincere. It. also lifupido, Sp. lim- 

■ pio, cf. nitido and netto, torbido and torho. 

Linea It. Sp. line, lineage, O. Val. linia, B. leinua, L. L. linea 
sanguinis. Hence Fr. lignee, 0. Pg. linhada, O. Fr. lignage, 
E. lineage, Pr. linh (m.) from lineus, cf. Sp. lino row; O. Fr. 
tin is L. linum thread. 

Linge Fr. m., Pr. tinge, B. linea; from lineus, as lange from 

Lingot Fr. (whence itigot, the / being taken for the article) ; from 
lingua, cf. lingula. Or E. ingot may be the original word; 
ill -got (Chauc. === a mould), = G. ein-guss anything poured 
into a mould [giessen to pour). 

Linot linotte Fr., E. linnet; from linum, cf. G. leinfinke flachs- 
finke (flax -finch). 

Lippe Fr. underlip, 0. Fr. lepe, Eou. liper to eat delicacies; 
from L. G. lippe, A. S. lippa, E. lip (Gael, lip Hop f.); Com. 
leffXv^y liffia mouth, from O. H. G. lefs, leffur. 

Lira It. a coin; from libra (Fr. livre)^ cf. here from hihere, 

Lirio — giglio. 

Liron — ghiro. 

Lis — giglio. 

Lisea It. stalk, festuca, Piedm. lesca. Mil. lisca, Fr. laiche (for 
/tW?^) fish-bone; O. H. G. lisca fern, reed, Du. lisch. li. lisca, 
Piedm. lesca. Cat. llesca, N. Pr. lisco lescOj Fr. /^(?/ie (not laiche) 
a small piece of anything; vb. Cat. llescar to cut in pieces. 
An old L. G. glossary has: lesc scirpus, papirus. 

Liscio It., Sp. Pg. liso, Pr. lis, Fr. lisse smooth, with numerous 
derivatives, v. It. lisciare ligiare, Sp. alisar, Fr. lisser to polish 
(perhaps^ connected with glisser q. v.). The Gk. has liaaog 
smooth, the 0. H. G. lisi, G. leise soft. Hence Sp. deslizar to 
slip. Cat. lliscar. From 0. H. G. leisanon to follow a track, 
is 0. Sp. deleznar to glide, adj. lizne smooth, and perhaps 
Rh. laischnar. 

Lisciva It., Wal. teste, Sp. lexia, Fr. lessive, Pr. lissiu (m.) lye, 
W. lisiu; from lixivia lixivium, L. L. leciva (Vocab. S. Gall.). 

Lisera lisiere — lista. 

Lisiar Sp. to lame, maim. Cat. lesiar, Pg. lesar; from Icedere 
Icesus, O. Sp. lision = L. Icesio. 

Liso — liscio. 

Lista It. Sp. Pr., Pg. lista listra, Fr. liste slip, stripe, border, 
E. list; from O.H.Gc. lista, G. leiste. Hence Fr. lisiere (whence 
Sp. lisera) hem, for listiere, 



Listo — lesto. 

Litera litiere — leitiera. 

Iiiuto leiito liiido It., Sp. laud, Pg. dlaude, Pr. lauty lalmt, O. Fr. 
lent, Fr. luth, Wal. Idute aleiite, N. Gr. laov%-o, G. laute, E. 
lute. From the Ar. ^iid with article al-^ud. The Sp. laud (a for 
the Ar. ain) gave rise to the other Rom. forms. 

Liveche — levistico. 

Liverare livrare It., Pr. liurar, Fr. livrer to deliver, Sp. lihrar, 
Pg. livrar = dar or entregar, L. L. liherare (e. g. dona); also 
Fr. livree, It. livrea, Sp. librea, E. //i^^ry (prop, something 
furnished or given, orig. something given as a livelihood), 
L. L. liherata, liheratio; hence Fr. delivrer, E. deliver, L. L. 
deliberare; from liherare to free, let go, give up, cf. Sp. soliar. 
The L. meaning is found in It. liherare, Sp. lihrar, Pr. liurar, 
Fr. delivrer, E. deliver. 

Liza — liccia. 

Lizne — Z/^c^o. 

Llamar — chiamare. 

LlantenSp. plantain; ivom. plantago, li. piantaggine, Ya. plantain. 

Llares — lar. 

Iilegar Sp., Vg.chegar (l) to bring near (2) intrans. to approach, 
hence Sic. ghicari. From plicare, cf. It. piegare come il vento 
a noi gli piega Dante Inf. 5, 79. The O. Sp. was plegar, and 
the meaning arose orig., perhaps , from the use of applicare 
(navem &c.). 

Loba Sp. Pg. surplice; from Fr. Vauhe. 

Lobe 0. Fr. scoff, vb. loher; from G. loh praise, vb. lohen, cf. 
Pr. gahar to jeer, Pg. to praise. 

Lobrego Sp. Pg. sad, gloomy; from luguhris, It. luguhre. 

Log O. Fr., whence O. Fr. loquei, It. lucchetto; from A. S. loc, 
E. lock, O. H. G. hi-loh (hlocli) bar, hlock , Goth, ga-lukan 
to shut. 

Locco It. (Neap. Sicil. Crem. louccli) fool, Sp. adj. loco, Pg. 
louco, N. Pr. locou mad, foolish. Servius (ad Virg. Ec. 8, 55) 
mentions a L. alucus or ulucus = ulula, hence It. alocco (Com. 
Piedm. oloch) = owl and. blockhead, as Parm. cio; this was 
shortened into locco &c. 

Loche Fr., Sp. loja, E. loach. 

Locher Fr. to shake; eslochier to loosen (e. g. les dents), s^eslocliier 

to rise up; Rou. harlocher to agitate. Perhaps from O. H. G. 

loc, O. N. lockr, hdrlockr (lock, hairlock), cf. froncer from 

Loeman Fr. a pilot; from Du. loods-manj E. loadsman, O. E. 

lodeman lodesman (cf. lodestar). Hence, by corruption, Fr. 

lamaneur, formed after gouverneur helmsman. 


Loco O. It. for L. hie (adv.); Sp. luego, Pg. logo, Pr. luec luecxj 
O. Fr. lues, Wal. de loc = L. statim; from locus loco. 

Lodier Fr. blanket; cf. O. H. G. lodo over -garment, O. N. lod, 
L. lodix. 0. Fr. lodier loudier a sluggard, f. lodier e, N. lod- 
dari (M.. Du. lodder, G. loiter -bube) are from the same root, 
cf. poltro. 

Lodola ■ — allodola, 

Loendro — oleandro. 

Lof Fr. wind -side of a ship; from E. loof, Du. loef. Hence vb. 
louvoyer to tack, G. lavieren, cf. bordayer = Sp. bordear, It. 
bordeggiare from bord. 

Loge loger logis — loggia. 

Loggia It., Pg. loja, Pr. lotja, Fr. loge, Sp. lonjcc, E. lodge &c.; 
from 0. H. G. laubja, L. L. laubia, G. /«w&e bower, shed, 
whence also O. Fr. loge a tent, hut. Laubja from laub folium, 
as O. Fr. foillie from feuille. Nearer to the G. orig. is the Rh. 
laupia, Lomb. Pied, lobia a church -gallery. Hence Fr. loger, 
It. alloggiare, E. lodge; Fr. logis &c. 

Logoro It. (for logro?), Pr. loire (whence Fr. lorimier a saddler, 
E. lorimer), O. Fr. loitre, Fr. leurre (m.), E. /wr^, prop, a bit 
of leather used by falconers to lure back hawks ; from M. H. 
G. luoder (G. leder, leather^ lure. It. g for d as in ragunare 
from radunare. Vb. Pr. loirar, Fr. leurrer, E. /wr^, allure; It. 
logorare to feast, revel = M. H. G. luodern. 

Logro Sp. Pg. gain, usury, Pr. /o^r^, Sp. Pr. lograr to gain, 
Sp. logrear to lend on interest, logrero usurer; from lucrum 
lucrari. Hence, with malo, Sp, malogro, Pg. maliogro failure, 
disappointment, vb. malograr, mallograr. 

Loir — ghiro. 

Loisir Fr., E. leisure; from licere, cf. plaisir from, placer e. 

Loja It. mud; perhaps from alluvies, cf. Bojano from Bovianum. 
But the B. has /o?/« in same sense. 

LoUa — loppa. 

Lombard Fr. a pawn-shop, a lombard (whence lumber), Du. 
lombaerd, O.Fr. adj. insurious, cL^ieil. lumbardu an innkeeper; 
from the Lombards (= Italians, cf. Dante Purg. 16, 125: che 
me' si noma francescamente il semplice Lombardo = Italiano), 
who were noted in France and other countries as merchants 
and usurers , cf. Lombard Street. 

Lomia — limone, 

Lomo Sp., Pr. lo?n loin, chine; from lumbus, It. lombo. 

Lona Pr. a lake , marsh ; from lacuna la' una , N. Ion. 

Longa — loggia. 

Longaniza Sp. a sort of long sausage; from L. longano (Cselius 
Aurel. and Veget. de re vet.), gut, longanum Yarro, longabo 
(Apicius) a sausage. 

278 LONGE — LORO. 

Longe Fr. loin, O. Fr. Wall, logne, E. loin, Sp. lonja a slice of 

ham; from an adj. lumbea (lumbiis). 
Longe Fr. f. rope of a halter; = alonge a lengthening, Valonge 

= la longe, 
Lonja — longe (1). 
Lontano It., Pr. lonlidd, Fr. lointain; from a L. longitanus, cf. 

forms with t, longiter, longitudo, longitrorsus (Festus, whence 

0. Miiller conjectures an adj. longiterus). 

Lontra It. Pg., Sp. lutria nutria, Pr. loiria luiria luria^ Fr. loidre 
an otter (cf. hierre, ingot , ottone &c.); from Intra Gk. evvdQtg 
(Sp. nutria^ 

Lonza It., Sp. Pg. onza, Fr. once, E. ounce. From ^vy^^ o for 
u as in horsa, tomha, torso from ^vgOog, tv^pog. d-vQiSog. From 
the L. Ignx we have It. lince, Sp. lince, Fr. Ignx (m.). Others 
from Xsovnog lion -like. 

Lonza It. fleshy parts of an animal; from O. H. G. luntussa fat. 

Lonzo It. slack; cf.M.H.G./im^ drowsiness, Bav. lunzet drowsy, 
M. Du. lompsch lazy, G. luntsch. 

Loppa It., Lomb. lop (m.) husk, dim. lolla for loppola\ from 

Loque Fr. shred , not directly from G. locke (v. locher) but from 
N. lokr a lock of hair or any appendage. Hence, perhaps, Fr. 
hreloque, Eou. herloque, N. Pr. harlocco f., an appendage, 
charm, Rh. hargliocca a lock of hair, cf. Rou. herloquer, Rh. 
halucar to dangle, cf. also It. hadalucco. Hence also Yr.pende- 
loque, Hon. pendreloque an earring, ivovn pendulus , r = I. 

Loquet — loc. 

Lordo It. also lurido filthy; from luridus, lurdus lordo, R. Gr. 

1, 113. Hence also Fr. lourd, Pr. lot for lort (E. lout), cf. 
Bernat for Bernart, Sp. Pg. lerdo for luerdo as f rente for 
fruente, slow, dull, stupid (O. It. lordo). For the transition 
from ^^ dirty" to ^'stupid", cf. Fr. joowm rotten , Wall. /;owrn 
sluggish, O. H. G. fid putridus, Du. vuil = E. foul, G. faul 
lazy. The der. from horridus It. ordo with prefixed article, 
is unsupported by analogy v. lazzo. Hence Fr. halourd dolt, 
whence It. &^//or^o, Wi\.halurd, '^^. palurdo vilordo, ^rt from 
haer beer, so halourd = gaping blockhead; cf. hadaud. 

Lorgner Fr., Norm, loriner to spy, view, lorgnette a spying- 
glass; from G. lauern to lurk, watch, Sw. loren luren. 

Loriot Fr. a yellow-hammer, E. oriole, 0. Fr. oriouz. Pic. uriot, 
Pr. auriol, Sp. oriol, from aureolus, with article loriol, cor- 
rupted O.Fr./ono^, Yv. loriot. Qi. lendemain, landier, lierre &Q,. 

Loro Sp., Pg. louro tawny. Perhaps from aureolus, though there 
seems to be no instance of the article prefixed to an adj., cf. 
lazzo, Irodo. 

Loro — egli. 


Lors — or a (2). 

Losa Piedm. Sp., Pg. lousa, Pr. lausa, 0. Fr. lauze, B. arlauza 
{arri stone) a gravestone, flat stone, prop, an epitaph, from 
L. laudes, cf. Sp. lauda tombstone. For the form cf. lusinga. 

Losenge — lusinga. 

Lot — lotto. 

Lotto It. lottery, Pg. lote m. kind, sort, number (lot), Fr. lot 
share (lot), Pg. lotar to fix the number, tax (allot), Fr. lotir 
to share; loterie, E. lottery , cf. Fr. E. lot, Sp. lote; from the 
G., Goth, hlauts, 0. N. /?/w/r, O. H. G. ^/oz, G. loofs KXrjgog 
sors , 0. H. G. hliiz something gained by lot, 0. N. hint share. 

Louange — lusinga. 

Louer Fr. to praise ; from laudare. 

Louer Fr. to hire, from locare; loyer rent, pay, from locariurrtj 
Pr. loguier. 

Loupe Fr. a round swelling, a wen, also a lens; from lupa a she- 
wolf, cf . Sp. lupia lohanillo a wen, Rh. luppa, G. wolfsgescliwulst, 
O. Fr. lope = grimace, prop, thick lip. 

Loup-garou Fr. a man who could assume a wolfs form, a were- 
wolf, G. wdhrwolf prop. = man -wolf, Ivxdvd'QCJTtog , Pg. 
lohis-homem, L. L. gerulphus (from A. S. verewolf). From 
gerulphus came 0. Fr. garoul gar on, cf. Raoul Raou from ^«- 
dulphus, in Marie de Fr. 1, 178, garwall. So loup-garou is a 
pleonasm, like the Bret, hleiz-garo (bleiz =^ loup), cf. cor- 
moran, It. Mongibello (gibello from Ar. = It. mowj. We have 
also O. Fr. loup-beroux, Pr. leheroun leberou, Berr. marloup, 
louara, hirette, Norm, lubin, O. Fr. also millegroux and /ew- 
waste; It. Zwjoo mannaro. From garou is Norm, varouage nightly 
flitting about. Pic. garou = sorcerer. 

Loura Pg. a burrow ; from laurex a young rabbit , whence also 
lousa (s from c in lauricem). 

Lourd — lordo. 

Loure 0. Fr. bag-pipe, Fr. a dance; from 0. N. liidr, Dan. luur 
a shepherd's pipe. 

Loutre — lontra. 

Loyer — louer. 

Loza Sp. an earthen vessel; from luteus lutea, whence also Rh. 
Com. lozza, Romag. lozz clay. 

Lozano Sp., Pg. louzao luxuriant; from Goth, laus, 0. H. G. Ids 
empty, light (G. los, E. loose). Pic. Wall. /o55 = jocular. 

Lua Sp., Val. luga, Pg. luva a glove; from Goth, lofa m., O. N. 
lofi the flat hand, A. S. glofa m., E. glove. 

Lucarne Fr. a dormer-window; from lucerna, cf. Goth, lucarn, 
Ir. luacharn, W. llygorn. 

Lucchetto — loc. 

Lucerta — lacerta. 


Luehera — luquer. 

Lucherino It., Ven. lugarin; from L. Ugnrinus, 

Iiuchina Mod. a false tale; from 0. H. G. lugina a lie, G. luge. 

Lucillo Sp. tomb, sarcophagus, 0. Fr. luseau; from locelhis dim. 
of loculus = coffin in L. L. 

Luego — loco. 

Luette Fr. uvula; a dim. of L. tiva, with article prefixed; It. 
ugola for uvola, Com. uga for uva. Lang, nivonleto. 

Lueur Fr., Pr. lugor, 0. It. lucore; from lucere, with the hard c 
of lucanus, luculentus, or the 0. L. lucus = lux; from lucere 
we have Pr. luzor, It. luciore (as cuciore from cuocere). The 
same root in Pr. lug -ana light, alucar, O. Fr. alucher to light. 

Luganega Mil. Ven. a sort of sausage. Pied, luganigliin; from 
L. lucanica (Lucanian). B. lukhainca. 

Luglio It. July; from Julius, altered in form so as to distinguish 
it better from giugno June, cf. Pied, giugn, liign, and v. Juillet. 

Lui It. a wren; perhaps so called from the cry. 

Lui — eglL 

LuUa It. stave at the bottom of a cask, in the shape of a half- 
moon ; from lunula. 

Lumaceia It., Sp. limaza, Pg. lesma, Fr. Ii7nace, limacon, It. lii- 
maca, Rh. limaga, Ven. limega, Cat. lUmac a snail ; from Umax. 

Lunedi It., Fr. lundi, Pr. dilus, Cat. dilluns Monday, Lunw dies; 
Sp. lunes, Pr. luns (cf. martes)^ Wal. luni, Ven. luni, Romag. 
Ion. The Pg. has instead segunda feira, cf. N. Gr. devrsQa. 

Lunes ■ — lunedi. 

Lunette Fr. eye-glass; It. lunetta aperture in a vault for light, 
from luna. 

Luquer Norm., louquiWs^W., Fr. reluquer to ogle, leer; prob. 
from 0. H. G. luogen, luoken, A. S. loldan, E. look. Do the 
It. luehera look, lucherare to look awry, belong here? The 
Lomb. lughera spark is from O. H. G. loug flame. 

Luseau — lucillo. 

Lusinga It., Sp. lisonja, Pr. lauzenga lauzenja, O. Fr. losenge 
flattery (0. Fr. Sp. E. lozenge, Sp. also losange orig. an 
heraldic term), B. lausengua; vb. I using are, lisonjar, lauzengar^ 
losenger; sbst. lusinghiere, lisongero (losengero), lauzengador 
lauzengier, losengeor. Pr. lauz-enga from lauzar = laudare with 
same suffix as in 0. Fr. laid-enge, cost-enge, Fr. vid-ange. The 
s of losenge is radical, cf. los (m.) praise, ace. los, from laudes 
(used as sing. = hymn), aloser to praise. The Sp. and It. are 
from the Fr. and Pr.; the It. has also Genev. loso, Ven. lox 
= los. The Fr. louange, louanger, loua?igeur are regularly 
formed from laudare, which in its peculiar Rom. sense = to 
consent, arbitrari, has given rise to laudemiumlaudemia (which 
Pott compares to vindemia and makes to mean the purchasing 

LUTH — MACCO. 281 

Ictus or permission from a feudal lord, cf. E. allow, allowance) 
from which juristic word come Pr. laudeme lauzimi lauzisme, 
It. Sp. laudemio dues paid to a feudal lord. O. Fr. los is found 
in the juristic formula los et venies v. Ducange, laudare. 

Luth — Unto. 

Lutin Fr. a hobgoblin, vb. lutiner; 0. Fr. luiton, Belg. nuiton, 
AVall. miton. Grimm Myth. p. 475, derives it from luctus, so 
= a wailing ghost, which the luthi is not; Grandgagnage 
from Flem. luttil, E. little, as being dwarfish. Perhaps it is 
best to take nuiton as the orig. form, and derive it from nuit. 

Lutrin Fr. a lectern, reading-desk, for letrin, lectrinum, from 
L. L. lectrum '•^analogium, super quo legitur^^ Gloss. Isid. Gen. 
has letterin for It. leggio; E. lectern. 


Ma — - mai. 

Maca — amaca. 

Macabre, danse Macabre Fr. death's dance; from (1) S. Maca- 
rius (2) chorea Macdbceorum (3) Ar. maqdhir grave -yards? 
Cf. Lorr. maicaihre Si grotto. 

Macari magari magara It. interj. for L. titinam; from ^axccQiog 
(N. Gr. ^aKccQi), voc. ^axccQis. In 0. It. it was used as a con- 
cessive particle, since; so Wal, niacdr ce , Serv. makar. Alb. 
mdcar; perhaps also 0. Sp. maguar maguer maguera := thougli, 
0. Pg. maguer (which are by some derived from Fr. malgre 

Maccherone It., Ven. macarone (commonly used only in the 
plur.), maccaroni. Partly from macco or maccare (q. v.), partly 
from ^KTcaQta (Hesychius)'/3^cofi« S7c ^co^ov xal alcpCtav, prop. 
= happiness, hence delicious food. The Gk. word was known 
to the It., cf. macari; to give maccherone macco would require 
an intermediate form maccaria, which is found in Neap., though 
in a different sense, v. macco. 

Macchialt., ^^^.Y^.mancha (for macho) stain &c., bushy ground 
(La Mancha), Wall, megiire a woody hill, cf. G. flecken, E. 
spot (of land &c.) ; also It. maglia, Sp. Pg. Pr. malla, Fr. 
maille, E. mail (coat - of - mail) ; from macula; also Pg. mdgoa 
spot, vb. magoar. Hence Sp. mancilla spot, sore, ill ior ul; 
Fr. maillot swadling clothes. From macchiare, Sp. macaf or 
manchar, com.eii¥r. mar queter (formed ^fter ?nar que r) to stipple, 
put in the lights and shades of a picture, whence marqueterie 
checquered inlaid work. 

Macco It. bruising (whence It. ammaccare to pound), a mash of 
bean food, Com. mach bruised barley, Sp. maca bruise on 


fruit, stain (perhaps an old Lat. word, whence macula), 0. Fr. 
maque a hemp -bruiser, Rou. maca a large hammer, maquet 
a sort of bolt. Wall, maclott a club, E. mace; vb. It. maccare 
macare, am-maccare , s-maccare, Rh. smaccar, Sp. Cat. macar, 
Pr. macar machar, O. Fr. maquer to bruise, press ; sbst. Neap. 
maccaria, O.Fr. macheure butchery. The Bret, mcicha to press 
is from the same root. Some derive it from the Heb. maccah 
to slay, but the root is widely spread; cf. Gk. iid(j0eiVy L. 
mac-ula, mac-ellum. It. macco macca plenty, 0. Fr. maquet 
a heap. Wall, a make in plenty, perhaps orig. = something 
pressed down, and heaped up. 

Maceu Sard, simpleton; from maccus (Apuleius) the fool in the 

Machacar macliucar machar — macho, 

Macher — masticare. 

Macho Sp. Pg. man, male. Not from mascuius which gives in 
O. Sp. masclo maslo muslo, but, prob., the same word as macho 
a hammer (whence machar machacar machucar to hammer, 
pound, machado a hatchet, machete a chopping -knife), cf. It. 
marcone a husband. Macho from marcus (marculus) malleus 
major Isid. Gloss., 0. It. marco (Lat. proper name Marcus), 

Machurer — maschera. 

Macigno — mdcina, 

Macina macine mill -stone, macinare, Wal. macina to grind; 
from machina, whence a form machineus gives It. macigno 
quarry- stone. 

Macio Pg. malleable , pliant ; Sousa derives it from Ar. masih, 
but why not from the same root as Sp. macho? 

MaciuUa It. a mace for bruising hemp , O. Fr. maque (v. macco) 
which = an It. macca, dim. macchi-ciulla, maciulla, cf. f anti- 
cello fanciullo, 

Ma9on Fr., Pr. masso, E. mason, Isid. machio, perhaps for marcio 
from marcus a hammer (v. macho), cf. iahellio from tahella. 
Sp. has an old verb mazonar, Macon = machio, as hracel-et 
= hrachiale. Or is the Avord from the root mac, v. macco? 

Madera madero Sp., Pg. madeira timber (hence Madeira); from 

Madexa — matassa. 

Madia It. kneading-trough; from L. magis magidis, magida, Fr. 
(Jura) maid, Norm, met, Wall, mai. Pic. maie. Neap, matra. 
Mil. mama, N. Pr. mastra are from ^ccTctQUj vb. Wall. ?nairt 
to knead. 

Madio madios — dio, 

Madraeo — materasso. 

Madre Fr. spotted, sbst. Norm, maire spot (on the skin), O. Fr. 
mazre madre a spotted kind of wood, L. L. scyphi maserini, 


O. Fr. adj. mazelin, madelin maderin a drinking- vessel; from 
O. H. G. masar, G. maser speck , speckled wood. 

Madrigale It., Sp. Fr. E. madrigal , O. It. mandriale, Sp. man- 
drial; from mandria, L. mandra a flock, herd; so = a herds- 
man's song, a pastoral. 

Madrugar Sp. Pg. to rise early, 0. Sp. madurgar = a L. matu- 
ricare, from maturus. 

Maestro mastro It., Sp. maestro maestre, O.Sp. maese, Pg. mestre^ 
Fr. maitre (from the O. Fr. ma'istre), Wal. mester, E. master; 
from magister. Hence It. maestrale, Sp. maestral, Cat. mestral, 
Fr. mistral North-west wind, Pr. maestre, so called from its 

Magagna It., O. Fr. Wall, mehaing m., Crem. Mil. Pied, man- 
gagna a defect, bodily failing, maim; vb. It. magagnare, Pr. 
maganhar, O. Fr. mehaigner to maim. L. L. has mahamium 
mahamiare (E. maim?). Perhaps from a Germ, man-hamjan 
(man -maim) formed like man-slag o (manslayer). In Com. we 
find besides magagn also mdga which would point to a root 
mag (=zmacY. macco?). Muratori derives magagno from man- 
gamim a catapult. 

Magazzino It., Sp. magacen almagacen almacen, Pg. armazem., 
Fr. magasin, E. magazine; from Ar. makhan al-mazan a 

Maggese It. fallow ; from maggio May, in which month the fields 
were ploughed up. Mil. maggenh. 

Magione It., Pr. 0. Sp. may son, 0. Pg. meisom, Fr. maison 
(whence Sp. meson); from mansio (mansion). Hence It. mas- 
nada, Sp. mesnada manada, Pr. mainada, O. Fr. mesgnee mes- 
nie, E. meiny (whence It. menial), household, retinue, body 
of armed men &c., from a form mansionata (It. manata, Sp. 
Pr. manada a handful, from manus); from masnada (masna- 
dino) is It. mastino, Sp. Pr. mastin, Pg. masiim, Fr. matin, 
E. mastiff a house-dog, prop. = a member of the household 
(0. Fr. mastin). Further, from manere we have manoir, E. 
manor, Fr. masure (mansura), mas mes, E. manse (mansus), Fr. 
E. messuage (L. L. man~suagium), 

Maglia — macchia. 

Maglio It., Sp. Pg. mallo, Fr. mail, Wal. main, E. mall; from 
malleus; magliare, Sp. majar, Vg.'Pr.malharj Fr. mailler 
to hammer; from malleare (malleatus). 

Magnano — maha. 

Magoa — macchia. 

Magone Mod. crop; = 0. H. G. mago, G. magen, E. maw , Eh. 
magun; Ven. Pied, magon, Gen. magun= grudge, ill-will, 
of. stomachus.' 


Magrana emigrania It.^ Sp. migraha, Fr. migraine; from ri^i- 
TCQavia ache on one side of the head. 

Maguer — macari. 

Mai ma It., O. Sp. Pg. Pr. mais, Sp. Pg. Pr. mas, Fr. mats; from 
7nagis, It. m«; Sp. Pg. m^fs, Fr. mais used for L. sed, cf. Goth. 
/??<z/5 for magis Rndpotius, L.L. 5^^ ?/i^^/5 = sed potiiis. Hence 
Sp. demas cseterus, L. de magis in Festus (but = minus); adj. 
Sp. demasiado nimius. 

Maidieu — dio. 

Mail — maglio. 

Maille — macchia. 

Maille — medaglia. 

Main Fr. in main menue poor folk ; from manus. 

Main adv. — mane. 

Mainada ■ — magione. 

Mainbour mambourg O. Fr. guardian (Pr. manbor)j vb. main- 
hourniTy whence sbst. mainhournie. From 0. H. G. mimthorOj 
A. S. munhhoray Du. momhoovy L. L. mundiburdus tutor, patro- 
nus; L. L. mundihurdis mundiburdumy O. H. G. munthnrti = 
tutela ; from munt hand and heran (hear)y cf. main-tenir. Munt 
is altered to Rom. main (cf. manovaldd), hurt to hoiirnir. For 
similar adaptations cf. hattifredo, guiderdone, candelarhrCy 
orange &c. 

Maint Fr., Pr. maint mani (N. Pr. mant-un)y hence It. manto for 
L. multus. Three derivations are proposed: (1) W. maint 
multitude , cf . iroppo from truppus (2) O. H. G. managoti, Du. 
menigte a multitude (3) O. H. G. adj. manag , G. manch , in 
which case we should have to suppose a neut. from managaz 
managat. Froissart has ta-maint (= Sp. tamaho), whence It. 

Maintenant — immantinente, 

Maintenir — mantenere. 

Maire Fr., E. mayor; for major, O. Fr. maire, G. meter, cf. major 

Mais — mat. 

Maison — magione. 

Maitre — maestro. 

Maiz Sp., E. maize; an American (Haitian) word. 

Majada Sp., Pg. malhada sheep-cote, inn; from magalia (maga- 
liata magliata). Cf. naguela. 

Majar — maglia. 

Majo It., Sp. mayo, Fr. mai, Pr. f. maia a sort of birch, May- tree, 
so called because it flourishes in May; also any green tree, 
or branch of a tree, such as on May -night it was the custom 
for lovers to plant before the doors of their mistresses. Rh. 
maig a bunch of flowers. 


Majolica It. counterfeit porcelain; from the island Majorca, 
where it was made. 

Majorana maggiorana It.; S^.mayorana, ¥g. ?nawrana mange- 
rona, Fr. marjolaine, E. marjoram, G. major an; corrupted 
from amaracus. Sp. almoradux , Cat. moradux are from Arab. 
mardaqiisch which is from the Persian murda-gosh. Major ana 
may have been assimilated to major. 

Mai — ora (1). 

Mala Sp. Pg. Pr.; Fr. malle, E. maid trunk; Gael, mala, 0. H. G. 
malaha sack, Du. maal maale. 

Malade — malato. 

Malaise — agio. 

Malandrin malandrino — landra. 

Malart Fr. male of the duck, Pic. maillard, E. mallard; from 
male (masculus). 

Malato It. O. Sp., Fr. malade, Pr. malapte malaut, Cat. malalt; 
It. malaitia, Fr. maladie, E. malady, Pr. malapiia malautia ma- 
laiia. Cat. malaitia. The Pr. forms point to the der. from 
male aptus, cf. G. unpdsslich from passen aptare, and E. in- 
disposed; Cat. malalt, as galta from gauta. The Fr. and It. 
(which, from aptus, should have been m«/r//^, malatto) \i\^Y 
have taken their form from a part, malatus from malum, as 
harhatus from harha, or from ammalato (ammalare). 

Malavez — avieso. 

Malgre — grado. 

Malheur — augurio. 

Malia It. sorcery, maliardo sorcery; from mains magical, Virg. 
Ec. 7, 28. ne vati noceat mala lingua futuro. 

Malingre — lieingre. 

Mall -public O. Fr. public justice; L. L. mallum puhlicuni, Goth. 
mathl, O. H. G. mahal '^w^iicQ. 

Malla — macchia. 

Malle — mala. 

Mallevare It. to bail, Sp. Pr. 7nanlevar, 0. Pg. malevar to bail, 
to borrow; from manum levare to lift the hand, promise so- 
lemnly, cf. malluvium for manluvium. 

Mallo It. the green husk covering nuts &c. ; = Fr. mnlle {maul 
chest) a repository? 

Malogro — ogro. 

Malotru — astro. 

Malsin Sp., Pg. malsim tale-bearer, makebate, vb. malsinar. 
The verb might come from male signare; since, however, 
names of agents are rarely, if ever, derived from verbs with- 
out suffix, it may be better to derive the verb from the noun, 
and to make this a contraction of mal-vecino (bad neighbour), 
cf. It. O. Fr. malvicino malvoisin. 


Malt Fr. m.; from E. malt, O. H. G. 7nalz. 

Malta It. mud ; = L. maltha cement , Rh. maulta molta. 

Maltote Fr. f. extortion; from O. Fr. tonte tolte (partic. of tollir 

from tollere) a levying of taxes, with mal, cf. It. maltolto mala- 

tolta: guar da hen la mal tolta moneta Inf. 19, 98 ; O. Pg. malla- 

iosta mal tost a duty on wine. V. Due. v. tolta. 
Malvagio It., Pr. malvais j Fr. mauvais; It. malvagita, Pr. mal- 

vastat malvestat, O. Fr. mauvestie, O. Sp. malvestad. Goth, has 

a sbst. balvavesei badness, adj. balvavesi-s bad = an O. H. G. 

halvdsij hence halvais, altered, to malvais so as to connect it 

with mal; for similar instances cf. guiderdone , mainhour, P. 

Gr. 2, 229 note. But is it unconnected with malvar? 
Malvar O. Sp. to deprave, Sp. malvado, Pr. malvat wicked, 7nal- 

vadesa wickedness. From mal-levar (cf. malograr for mal- 

lograr), and so = prop, to bring up baaly. 
Malvavisehio It., Sp. malvavisco (Fr. mauvisqiie) marsh- mallow; 

from malva ibiscum {tpL6}iog)]l^.l^.bismalva from ibiscwn malva, 

Fr, It. guimauve for vimauve ^ v = b. 
Malvis — mauvis. 
Mamma It., S^.mama, ¥y. mamarij Wal. mame =^Yj. mamma, 

Gen. &c. = nurse; from L. mamma (1) breast (so It. Sp. Pg.) 

(2) mother (Varro). Maman has an accusative form, which 

differs, however, from other forms such as non nain, Evain &c., 

probably in order to make it less unlike papa, Sp. mamar is 

to suck (L.L. mammare). The G. memme coward corresponds 

to Neap, mammamia (m.). V. H. Stephani lex. Grsec. v. TcaTt- 

Mammone It. prop, gattomammone a baboon; r= Gk. fit^o', M. 

Gr. N. Gr. /iat'ifioi), Yfdl.moime memuce'y Alban. Turk, maimun, 

Hung, majom ape. 
Mamparar Sp.Pg. to shelter, defend ; from manu parare to guard 

with the hand , v. parare. 
Manada — magione. 
Manaier O. Fr. to protect, save, sbst. manaie^ Pr. manaya, from 

manu adjutare, hence also a form with d, manaide^ menaide: 

cf. mantenere, mallevare, mamparar. 
Manant Fr. a native, a peasant; partic. pres. from O.Fr. manoir 

maindre = manere L. L. to dwell; adj. O. Fr. manant, Pr. 

manen wealthy, manantie wealth; Gen. manente ploughman. 
Mancebo Sp,, Pr. 0. Fr. mancip massip young man, f. manceba 

mancipa; from L. mancipium, L. L. mancipiu^. 
Mancha manehilla — macchia. 
Manehe — manico. 
Mancia It. drink -money, gratuity. Yvom.' manicia pi. of 

manicium (manica) a sleeve, glove. Cf. guanto, paraguanto, 

Sp. guantes, Fr. gants, Pg. luvas = mancia. Cf. also Sp. 


mangas perquisites, from manga a sleeve, costly sleeves having 
been used as presents. From mancia manciata handfuU. 

Mancip — mancebo. 

Manco It. Sp. Pg'., Pr. O. Fr. mane maimed defective; from 
mancus. Hence Fr. manchot = It. manco ctuna mano, also Sp. 
manca the left hand, cf. gauche; vb. It. mancare, Sp. Pr. man- 
car, Fr. manquer to fail. It. moneo, vb. moneare (cf. Eh. mun- 
car=manear) seems to borrow the o of i\\Ql^omb.mock blunt, 
broken off (0. H. Gr. far-muckit hebetudo, M. H. G. mocke 
mass, 0. E. mock blunt), cf. It. moncone = Komag. mueon. 

Mandil Sp. Pg. apron, saddle-cloth; from maniile, Av.mandU 
a towel. 

Mandola mandore — pandura. 

Mandorla It. (mandola), Sp. almendra, Pg. amendoa, Pr. aman- 
dola, Fr. amande, E. almond, Du. amandel, G. mandel; cor- 
rupted from amygdala (d^vyddlri), Wal. migdale as well as 
mandule. Contracted forms are Pr. mella, l^.Vv,amello (Lang. 

Mandragola It., Lat. mandragoras ; by corruption, Fr. main-de- 
gloire, E. mandrake. 

Mandria Sp. m. a coward; from B. emandrea a weak woman, 
cf. Pg. mandriao a woman's house -dress. 

Mane It., 0. Sp. man f., Pr. man, O. Fr. main, Wal. mene morn- 
ing ; from mane, cf . Pr. lo he md = hene mane. Hence It. adv. 
dimani domani, Pr. deman, Fr. demain, Wal. de mene, for 
which Sp. has manana, Pg. a manhaa. Hence Fr. lendemain, 
Pr. lendeman, for le en demain, cf. 0. Cat. l-en-de-mig mean- 
while. From matutinum is It. mattino , Pr. mati, Fr. E. matin. 
For domani Sic. and other dialects have crai = eras. 

Manege Fr. (m.) ; from It. maneggio which is from maneggiare to 
manage, v. R. Gr. 2, 327. 

Manevir in amanevir O. Fr., Pr. amano'ir amanavir amarvir, mar- 
vir, to be ready, willing, hence 0. Fr. partic. manevis ama- 
nevis, Pr. amano'itz amarvitz ready, fervid, Lang, amarhit 
lively. From Goth, manvjan = manoir (v ^= o). So Pr. adv. 
marves without hesitation, adj. marvier ready = Goth. adj. 

Mingano It. a sling; hence manganello a cross-bow, 
ganel, 0. Fr. mangoneau a sling for stones, Wal. mengeleu a 
mangle; from. ^dyyavov, O.H.ijr. mango, Gc. mangel, ^.mangle. 
Hence also Sp. manganilla sleight of hand. 

Manger — mangiare. 

Mangiare It., 0. Pg. Pr. manjar, Fr. manger, It. also manucare 
manicare, 0. Fr. manner , Wal. menca menenca to eat, Pr. 
O. Fr. menjar menjiar, Lim. mindzd; from manducare used in 
late Lat. = edere: manducat et bibit = icd'LSi, ical nCvsL Vulg. 


Matt. 11, 19; Pr. manjuiar, O. Fr. manjuer (pres. conjunct. 
manjuce) from mandcuare; Norm, moujuer manjusser. Fr. de- 
manger, Pied, smange to itch, cf. Sp. comer (comedere). 

Mangil manehil Pg. a butcher's cleaver; from Ar. menjal a 
sickle y which meaning is also given to the Pg. word by Con- 

Mangla 0. Sp., Pg. mangra mildew; from melligera honey-dew? 

Mangual Sp., Pg. mangoal a flail, also a warlike instrument; 
from manucdis; for the inserted g, v. menovarc. 

Manieo It., Sp. Pg. mango, Pr. margue, Fr. manclie (m.) handle. 
The suffix ic forms only feminines (v. oca), so it is best to 
make manieo not directly from matins , but a variation of 7na- 
nica a sleeve (It. manica = also handle). In Lomb. Ven. 
mdnega, Sp. Pg. 7nanga troop, body of men, we have a mean- 
ing of the L. manus. 

Manieordion — monocordo. 

Manier — menear. 

Maniero It., Sp. manero, Pr. manier handled, tame; from mana- 
rius for manuarius, cf. mannaja. Hence sbst. It. manier a, Sp. 
manera, Pg. Pr. maneira, Fr. maniere , E. manner, prop, 

Manigance Fr. trick, knack; from manica (manicare), jugglers 
making use of their sleeves in performing tricks. Cf. Papias: 
maniculare dolum, 

Maniglia smaniglia It., Sp. manilla a bracelet, Fr. manille; from 
monilia (monile), a for o coming O ,Yi.Qi ,mdnili a moon-shaped 

Manigoldo It. a hangman (Sp. manigoldo). The same word as 
the O. H. G. proper name Manogald Managolt (whence G. E. 
mangold a plant), which is probably, through the Rom., from 
mano-wald one who administers (walten) the halter (mennl 
plur.. Com. men. Gen. menu); G. marigold is Com. menegold, 
Mil. meregold. Pied, manigot lettuce. 

Maniqui — mannequin. 

Manir Sp. to keep meat to make it tender; from manere used in 
trans, sense, to let remain. 

Manlevar — mallevare. 

Manna — mana. 

Mannaja It. an executioner's axe, Lomb. manara, Rh. manera; 
from adj. manuaria, because two-handed. 

Manne Fr. a basket. Pic. mande; from Du. mand mande (f.), 
K.^.mond, E. maund; so also manne-quin fromDu. mande-km. 

Mannequin — manne. 

Mannequin Fr., hence Sp. maniqui mannikin; from M.Du. man- 
nekln, E. mannikin. Wall, maniket dwarf. 

Mano — hermano. 


Manoir — mas. 

Manojo Sp., Pg. manolho molho a handfull; from mamipulus for 
manipidus, It. manipolo &c. 

Manopola It., Sp. Pg. manopla a gauntlet ; from manipulus (ma- 
mipulus), cf. L. manipula a towel. 

Manovaldo — mondualdo. 

Manovra It., Sp. maniohra, Fr. manoeuvre; from ?nanus opera, 

Manser Sp. son of a prostitute; from the rabbinical mamser 
Buxtorf p. 1184. 

Manso It. Sp. Pg. tame; shortened from mansuetus (v. fino). 
Hence Sp. manso an ox or sheep that guides the herd, it. 
manzo ox. 

Mantaeo mantice bellows, Papias: follis vulgo mantacum fabri; 
from mantica wallet. Cat. has mancha = Sp. fuelle. 

Manteea Sp., Pg. manteiga, Cat. mantega butter, hence Neap. 
manteca butter from sheep's milk, Sicil. fat of cheese. It. 
pomade. Y^c^m. mantica, or, perhaps, a very old word , con- 
nected with the Sanskrit manthaja (root math, manth agitare) 

Mantenere It., Sp. Pr. mantener, Pg. manter, Fr. mainienir, S. 
maintain; from manu tenere, cf. G. hand-haben; cf. mallevare 
and L. manstutor. Cf. Pr. cap-tener, 0. Sp. cab-tener, from 
caput tenere; Wall, men-tui from manu-tueri. 

Manto It. Sp. Pg., It. also ammanto mantle, f. Sp. Pr. manta, 
Fr. mante a covering, contracted from mantelum; It. mantello, 
Fr. manteau, Sp. mantilla, E. mantle from mantellum; It. man- 
tile, ^T^,manteltYOV[imantile mantele. Isid. has: mantum Hispani 

Manto — maint. 

Manzana Sp., O. Sp. mazana, Pg. mazaa apple; L. malum Ma- 
tianum a peculiar kind of apple named after a person of the 
Matian gens. Cf. Col. 5, 10, 19; Suet. Dom. 21. 

Mana Sp., Tg.manha readiness, handiness ; from macliina maclhia 
= craft. Hence also It. magnano (Cat. many a, Fr. magnan 
magnier, ^SkW.jnignon) a lock-smith, prop, artifex. It. manna, 
Sp. mana a bundle (It. ammannare ammannire to tie into 
bundles, to bring together, set in order) is the Gael, mam a 
handfull (pi. maim). Com. man. 

Mariana — mane. 

Maquereau Fr. for maclereau from macula, prop, spotted fish, 
hence E. mackerel ^ Du. makreel, W. macrell; Champ, maquet. 

Maquereau Fr. a pander; probably the same word as the pre- 
ceding, cf. Donatus: leno (sc. in comoediis) 7M///0 varii col oris 
utitur. It is, however, difficult to suppose that a word derived 
from the Roman stage would have been preserved only in the 
Fr.; so Diez derives it from Du. maker, from maken to nego- 



tiate, go between, O. H. G. malihari from mahhdn machinari, 
huor - malihari leno . 

Maquila Sp., Y^.maquia miller's fee; from Kv.miktjdl a measure. 

Mar Fr. adv. — ora (1). 

Marais — mare. 

Marangone It. a diver, Lomb. margon; from mergus maragone 
marangone f cf. fagotto fang otto. 

Marasca It. wild cherry, amarasca, from amarus; also amarina. 

Maraud Fr. a beggar, scamp, maraiide dissolute woman, marau- 
der to plunder ; hence maraudeummarander, pkmdering soldier, 
vb. mar Oder y sbst. marode (through Sp. merode marodear^. 
Several derivations have been given, (l) Ar. marada audax 
esse, (2) male ruptus, = Sp. mal-roto, Pg. maroto, vb. 7nal- 
rotar marlotar, (3) maraudeur from morator (Malm), (4 and 
best) from marrir (q. v.) to stray, trouble, sbst. marance, ma- 
rison grief, with the depreciative ending and as in hadaud, 
cldbaud (cldbauder clahaudeur), nigaud, riband, richaiid. 

Maravedi Sp. Pg., Pr. mardbotin a Sp. coin; from Ar. mnrdhiHt 
belonging to (coined by) the Almoravides (al-inurdbiHin) an 
Arab, dynasty in Spain. 

Maraviglia It., Sp. maravilla, Pg. maravilhay It. Pr. (better) me- 
raviglia, Fr. merveille, E. marvel; from pi. mirabilia. 

Marazzo — mare. 

Mare Fr. husks, grounds; Pic. mere; from emercum (amurca) 
found in Pliny and Columella , cf. mina from liemina. 

Marca It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. marque marche (0. E. march), bound, 
limit. It. Sp. Pg. marco, Pr. Fr. marc, O. Fr. also mere mark, 
measure; vb. It. marcare marchiare, Sp. Pg. Pr. marcar, Fr. 
marquer merker to mark ; sbst. It. marchese, Sp. Pr. marques, 
Fr. marquis, E. marquis, L. L. marchio. From Goth, marka 
boundary (Sk. mdrga a road, mdrg quserere), O.H. G. marcha, 
- A. S. mearc, E. O. N. mark, M. H. G. marc, vb. 0. H. G. mar- 
koHf G. merken, E. mark. 

Marcassita It., Sp. marcasita marquesita , Fr. marcassite, marca- 
site a sort of stone; from Ar. marqashdtd (Freytag). 

Marehant — marche. 

Marchar — marcher. 

Marelie — marca. 

Marche Fr. market, from mercatus; marchand {^.merchant) from 
0. Fr. marcheant (marchedant) = It. mercatante , partic. from 
mercatare, Pr. mercadar, L. L. mercadantes ; also O. Fr. 7nar- 
chant markant = It. mercante from mercari. 

Marcher Fr., sbst. marche, hence It. marciare, Sp. marchar, E. 
march. From marche = bound (v. marcci); marcher ■= O. Fr. 
oiler de marche en marche. Cf. Sk. ?ndrg quserere, qusesitum ire. 

Marchese — marca. 


Marchito Sp. withered; prob. a dim. of a lost adj. marcho = It. 
marcio, Pr. mar-cit, -ida, from marcidus. Pg. is murcho q. v. 

Maroiare — marcher. 

Marcotte — margotta. 

Mardi — martedi. 

Mare O. Fr. f. any collection of water ; a pond, = Du. maarj 
E. mere. From maar come Du. maerasch maersche, L. Gr. 
marsch, A. S. mersc, E. marsh, whence O. Fr. mar esq, Pr. 
marex (for marsex), O. Fr. marescat, maresquel, marescage, Fr. 
marecage &c. ; Fr. marais. It. marese, E. marish may also come 
from marasch, or through mare; Fr. marage. It. marazzo are 
pure Rom. derivatives. V. Dief. Goth. Wb. 2, 44. 

Marecage — ;wfl?re. 

Marechal — mariscalco. 

Maremma It. a maritime province ; 0. Fr. maremme; from mari- 

Marese — mare. 

Marfll Sp. Fr., Pg. marfim ivory; from Ar. ndl) tooth, fil ele- 

Margolato — margotta. 

Margotta It., Champ. Rou. margotte, Fr. marcotte a shoot, layer; 
from mergus. Hence also It. margolato, 

Margue — manico. 

Marguillier Fr. churchwarden, O. Fr. marreglier ; from matricu- 
larius one who keeps a list of the poor {matricula, whence Fr. 
matricule, immatriculer, E. matriculate to register, enrol). 

Marionnette Fr. a puppet , dim. of Marion (dim. of Marie') = a 
little girl. Hence Fr. marotte (for mariotte). 

Mariposa Sp. a butterfly, Pg. an ornament in the shape of a 
butterfly, Sp. also a rushlight. Prob. from the flickering 
motion, like the rise and fall of the sea mar i posa sea and 
calm (Mahn), which is almost too poetical, though mar is 
often used metaphorically in Spanish. The Sp. name is hor- 
holeta (q. v.). 

Mariscalco maniscalco maliscalco It., Sp. Pg. mariscal, Pr. ma- 
nescalc, Fr. marechal a smith, farrier; from 0. H. G. marah- 
scalc (horse -attendant) a groom, G. marschall , E. mar'shal. 
Cf. siniscalco, 

Marjolaine — major ana. 

Marlotar — maraud, 

Marmaglia — merme, 

Marmelo Pg. a quince, whence marmelada, E. marmalade; from 
melimelum, Gk. ^aXcfirjlov a sweet apple, apple grafted on a 
quince. The Sp. is membrillo. 

Marmita It. Sp. Cat., Fr. marmite a pot, saucepan; hence It. 
marmitone, Sp. Fr. marmiton a scullion; marmiteux poor, 



hungry; wretched. Perhaps an onomatop. from boiling water, 
cf. marmotter to hum , sing. Some derive it from Ar. marmfd 
a hole dug in the ground for cooking. 

Marmotta marmotto It., Sp. Pg. marmota, Fr. marmotte, E. mar- 
mot. In lih. it is montanella and murmont, O. H. G. muremunto 
murmenti, Sw. murmet, which are from mus montanus, by 
gradual corruption, marmotta, 

Marmotter Fr., Com. marmota to murmur, hum; an onomatop. 

Marne Fr., 0. Fr. marie merle, Pic. marie ^ E. marl, vb. marner 
marler to marl; from marga, according to Pliny a Gallic word: 
quod genus terrce vocant margam (Galli et Britanni), whence 
margula; 0. H. G. mergil, contr. marie matiie as posterle po- 
terne. The orig. form is found in It. Sp. marga , Bret, marg 
m., the derivative word only being found in the other Celtic 
tongues: W. marl, Ir. Gael, merla, 

Maronier O.Fr. a seaman; from marinier as chardonal hom. car- 
dinal, vilonie from vilenie &c., prob. through mar on, a der, of 
mare SiS pion of pes, whence maronnel pirate. 

Maroto - — maraud. 

Marotte — marionnette. 

Marque marquis marques — marca. 

Marra — mar r on. 

Marraine Fr. godmother; Vr.mairma, It. Sp. mad?ina; Fr. is for 
marrine, being assimilated to parr am. 

Marrano Sp. (It.) cursed; espec. of baptized but suspected Jews. 
From marrar to deviate, go wrong (mar); marrana a sow, 
= accursed (sc. by Jews) animal ? May it not be connected 
with the N. Test, maranatha (Chaldee mdran athd = our Lord 
is come), Sp. maranata? 

Marrir Pr. 0. Fr. to lose one's way, to err, hence esmarrir, It. 
smarrire to confuse, perplex, Rh. smarir to lose; from Goth. 
marzjan, O.H. G. marran, A. S. mearrian (mar) to scandalize, 
hinder; L. L. legem, hannum, vel pneceptum marrire (L. marra 
a clod-breaker?). In 1^^ conj. Sp. marrar to go astray, partic. 
marrido amarrido cast-down, melancholy = Pr. marrit, Pied. 
mart, Pic. amain. From same root Sp. maraha maze, marahar 
to entangle. 

Marritto — ritto. 

Marroehino It., Sp. marroqui, Fr. marroquin, E. morocco, from 
Marrocco, Morocco. 

Marron Sp. a ram. Cat. marra, Lang, marra mar-mouton, B. mar- 
roa; vb. Pg. marrar to butt. According to Diez from mas 
maris, cf. Sard, masca ram. Of the same origin he says is 
marra a hammer (cf. macho). But marra = a pick -axe and 
= L. marra y cf. marrir. May not marron rather come from 
this? V. macho. Morueco ram may be for maruecOy the o being 


to distinguish it from the name Marruecos, or it may be for 
murueco (in O. Sp. = battering-ram) from murus, cf. marueca 
a heap of loose stones. 

Marrone It., Fr. marron a chestnut^ Eiistat. ^ccQaov. Prob. an 
old Latin word the same as the L. name Maro. 

Marsouin Fr. (in Belgium) a porpoise (porkpisce=^porcus piscis) ; 
quasi maris sus, O. H. G. merisuin, G. meerschweiUf O.E. mere- 
sivine, Champ, marsotmi =■ a dirty fellow. 

Marteau — martello. 

Martedi marti It., Fr. mardi, Pr. Cat. dimars; from Martis dies, 
dies Martis; Sp. martes, Pr. mars (from gen. Martis), Wal. 
mdrtzi, Ven. marti, Romag. mert. Pg. uses terza feira, N. Gr. 

Martello It. Pg., Sp. martillo, Fr. marteau a hammer; from mar- 
tulus (mar cuius), martellus (in Carolus Martellus). 

Martes — martedi. 

Martin pescatore It. a sea-fish, Sp. martin pescador, Sind paxaro 
de San Martin, Sard, puzone de Santu Martinu, Fr. martinet 
pecheur kingfisher, Sp. martinete a small white heron, Fr. mar- 
tinet a kind of swallow (E. martinet), a martin, also a lamp 
with a handle like a martin's tail, It. Tuartinetto a cross-bow 
windlass; all from the name Martinus, v. Grimm, Mythol. 
1083, 1233. 

Martora It., Sp. Pg. marta, Pr. mart, Fr. marte martre, E. 
marten; from L. martes (Martial), martora martre taking a G. 
form (marder). 

Marza It. a graft, scion; from Martius, the operation of grafting 
being chiefly performed in that month. 

Marzapane It., Sp. mazapan, Pg. mazapao, Fr. massepain, E. 
marchpane, L. L. marcipanis panis ?nartius , Neap, marzapane, 
Sic. marzapanu a little box (prob. from the shape). March- 
pane ~~ sweet-bread, macaroon. Some derive it from a man's 
name Marci panis (v. Mahn). The forms without r are prob. 
orig., the r being found first in the E. (Sydney 1554 — 1586, 
Shakspere &c.). Perhaps from maza (panis) Gr. ^aga (prop, 
what is kneaded, from ^cc66siv) barley-bread. Maza accord- 
ing to Forcellini = farina hordeacea, vel panis lacte, sero, 
aut aqua subactus. Ducange: maza ex farina oleo et aqua. 
Or is it connected with Sp. mazar to churn, knead? 

Mas Pr., O. Fr. mas mes house, farm. Cat. mas; from L. L. 
mansus mansum, from manere, whence Pr. maner, 0. Fr. ma- 
noir, E. manor; Pr. manen, 0. Fr. manant opulent, L. L. 
manens colonus. Hence also Sp. masa, Mil. massa, 0. Fr. 
mase farm, L. L. mansa massa; It. massaro massaio, 0. Fr. 
mansiaire housekeeper, with several more derivatives. 

Mas — mai. 

294 MASA — MATA. 

Masa — mas. 

Mascar — masticare. 

Mascarra — maschera. 

Maschera It.^ Pied, mascra, Sp. Pg. mascara, Fr. masque , E. 
mask (l) a mask (persona) (2) a masked person. From the 
Arab, maskharah jeer, laugh, laugher, object of laughter, 
buffoon, a man in masquerade , from the root sakhir a irrisit 
(v. Mahn). From the same come Wal. mescdreh\oiy disgrace, 
Pg. mascarra dark spot, .vb. Pg. mascarrar , Fr. mascurer, 
macJiurer to blacken. The L. L. mascus masca, Fr. masque^ E. 
mask are shortened forms. Diez, however, considers them the 
orig. forms, and mentions 2 derivations (l) from masticare^ 
Sp. mascar (Neap. Gen. masca a cheek), cf. L. manducus, (2) 
O. H. G. mascd a net, G. masche (E. mesh), cf. Plin. 12, 14: 
persona adjicitur capiti densusve retwuhis. 

Masnada — magione. 

Masque — maschera. 

Massacrer Fr., O. Fr. maschacler, sbst. massacre, E. massacre, 
L. L. massacrium mazacrium. From G. metzgern to butcher, 
metzger a butcher (O. Fr. massecrier, cf. Piedm. massacra a 
maimer), this from metzen to hew, connected with meizan to 
cut, Goth, meitan = L. meter e. Sk. md, mdd. L. L. mazac- 
cara = salsutim factce de iritis carnibus intestinorum ; It. maz- 
zacara = the entrails of poultry, mazzachera = an eel-spear. 
V. Mahn. 

Massaro — mas. 
Masse massue — mazza. 

Massima It., Sp. maxima, Fr. maxime, E. maxim (prop, prin- 
ciple) . from maxima sc. sententia. 

Masso It. a huge stone *, from massa. 

Masticare It., Wal. mestecd, Sp. Pg. masticar mastigar mascar, 
Pr. mastegar maschar, Fr. mdcher, Rh. mastiar, B. mascatu to 
chew, masticate; from masticare (Apuleius &c. = ^aOtd^SLv). 
Neap. Gen. masca = cheek. 

Mastin mastino — magione. 

Masto mastro Pg., Pr. mast, Fr. mdt, Sp. mastil maste mast; 
from 0. H. G. E. mast, 0. N. mastr, A. S. mast. 

Mastranto mastranzo Sp. wild mint; a corruption of L. men- 
tastrum (wild mint , from menta), It. mentastro. 

Mastuerzo — nasturzio. 

Mat — masto. 

Mata Sp. (1) copse, thicket, (2) bush; Pg. mata mato = (l). 
Perhaps from Goth, maitan to hew, so orig. a cleared place in 
a forest. Ducange: ipsum forest vet ipsam matam. But mata 
also = lock of tangled hair; so from matassa? 


Matar Sp. Pr. Pg. to kill; from mactare. Hence rematar to end, 

remate an end. 
Matar — matto. 
Matassa It., Sp. madexa, Pr. madaisa, O.Fr. madaise hank, lock 

of hair &c., Wal. metase silk; from mataxa raw -silk, also 

thread ; from L. Gk. fidta^a fi6Tah,a. ■ 
Matelas — materasso. 
Matelot Fr. sailor ; from matta a mat , maitariiis one who sleeps 

on mats, matelot for mater ot, as matelas for mater as; or from 

Du. maat, E. mate^ but this is doubtful as the simple word is 

not found in Fr. 
Materasso It., Fr. materas matelas (E. mattrass), Pr. almatrac, 

Sp. Pg. almadraque. From Ar. al-ma^tra^h. Hence Pg. ma- 
draco a sluggard? cf. poltro. 
Matin — mane. 
Matin — magione. 
Matiz Sp. m. shading, shade (of colours), vb. matizar to shade; 

from mata a bush, cf. It. macchia (1) bush (2) shading. 
Matois Fr. sly, cunning. Cf. enfant de la mate, the mate being a 

place in Paris , where thieves used to congregate. 
Matraea Sp. Pg., hence It. matracca rattle ; from Ar. mftraqah, 

hammer, rattle. 
Matras O. Fr., Pr. matratz matrat a missile weapon, O. Fr. ma- 

trasser, Tr.matrasseiar to crush; from GsiWich.matara (Caesar), 

{mataris Livy), with suffix as, v. Zeuss 1, 97. 
Mattino — mane, 
Matto It., Sp. Pg. mate, Fr. maty E. mate, Pr. O. Fr. also = 

sad, cast-down, Gr. matt languid; shortened from scaccomatto, 

Sp. xaquimate, Fr. echec et mat, E. check-mate; from the Pers. 

sJidh mat "the king is dead'\ Cf. It. mattare, Pr. matar, Fr. 

mater to mate, to make feeble ;, humble, O. Fr. amatir. 
Matto It. silly. From L. mattus or matus (Petron. plane matiis 

sum, vinum mihi in cerebrum abiit) = Sansk.m^^^a drunk, from 

mad Isetari, inebriari, cf. Gk. ^axav ^idtaiog, E. mad &c. 
Matto It. boy, matta girl, espec. in Northern Italy and Rhsetia; 

from 0. H. G. magat, M. H. G. maget f. (G. magd), 
Mattone It., Fr. (prov.) maton brick. Cat. mato cream -cheese. 

From G. matz matte curds, cheese. Pic. matte , a brick being 

shaped like a cream - cheese , cf. O. Fr. maton (1) brick (2) 

Mauca Pr., Cat. moca belly; ^^.mauck a fat person, J)\x,moocke 

Maufe O. Fr. a name of the devil; from male f actus. It. mal- 

fatto, cf. Neap, hruttofatto (ugly) = demonic. Wal. cowe = 

Maussade — sade. 


Mauvais — malvagio. 

Mauvis Fr. (m. O. Fr. f.) a beccafico, turdus iliacus^ E. mavis. 
Sometimes derived from malum vitis, cf. Fr. grive de vendange, 
(j(. weingartsvogel, loeindrossel. It is of Celtic origin^ like so 
many other names of birds (v. allodold), Bret, miljid milvid, 
mildhouid; Corn, mel-huez =- lark (niel huez sweet breath). 
From mauvis comes maiiviette a lark, Ron. mauviard turdus 

Mayota Sp. strawberry; prop. May -fruit from majus; cf. Mil. 
magiostra, Lang, majoufo, 

Mazette Fr. a poor mare, a jade; from G. matz awkward. 

Mazmorra Sp. Pg. a dungeon; from Ar. ma^tmiirah a pit, cave. 

Mazza It., Sp. Pg. maza, Pr. massa, Fr. masse, E. mace; It. 
mazzo, Sp. mazo a mallet, bundle; vb. It. mazzare (in mazza- 
sette &c., Com. maza), Rh. Sp. mazar, Pr. inassar to cudgel, 
knock down, It. ammazzare; 0. Pg. massuca massua, Fr. 
massue, Pic. inachuque a club, N. Gr. ^aT^ovKa^ Wal. meciuce, 
Mazza is from a L. maiea (cf. piazza from plated)^ whence 
mateola a mallet in Cato de Re Rust., It. mazzuola, Pr. mas- 
sola. For similar lost L. primitives, cf. huhone, claie. 

Mear Sp., Pg. mijar, from meiere , changed to 1^' conjugation. 

Mecer Sp. to stir, rock; from miscere, Pg. mexer, It. mescere. 

Mecha meche — miccia. 

Mechant Fr., O. Fr. mes-cheajit, partic. from mes-clieoir (minus 
cadere), sbst. O. Fr. mesclieance, E. mischance. Cf. O.Sp. mal- 
caido unfortunate. 

M^chef — menoscabo. 

Meda megano — meta. 

Medaglia It., Sp. metalla, Fr. me'daille, E. medal; augm. meda- 
glione &c. L. L. medalia = half a denarius , the same word 
as O. Pg. mealha, O. Sp. meaja, Pr. mealha, Fr. maille. Like 
so many Rom. substantives, from an adj. in-eus, metalleus 
metallea, Sp. metalla gold-leaf, cf. also Fr. metail for metal, 
Pr. metalh. 

Medes 0. Pg. Galic, Pr. medeis meteis medeps; from met -ipse 
met-ipsum. Hence a superlative form, Pr. smetessme, medesme, 
O. Fr. me'isme, Fr. meme, O. Sp. meismo, Sp. mismo, Pg. mesmo, 
It. medesimo, Rh. medem, Wald. mesey7ne, from a Lat. semet- 
ipsimus for semetipsissimus ^ v. R. Gr. 2, 421. 

Media Sp., Pg. meia a stocking; prop, media calza. 

Medrar Sp. Pg. to improve; for meldrar from meliorare. 

Mege menge O. Sp., O. Pg. mege, Pr. metge , O. Fr. mege (Lim. 
medze) a physician; from medicus. Hence O. Sp. mengia me- 

Megie Fr., megissier (which supposes a form tnegis megisse, cf. 
tnpissier from tapis, saucissier from saucisse) leather - dressing, 

MEGO — MENNO. 297 

leather-dresser. The Dii. meuk softening would give Fr. me- 

guie , cf. Pic. meguichier = Fr. megissier, 
Mego Sp., Pg. meigo soft, mild. From 0. N. makr quiet, calm, 

E. 7neek, O. H. G. gi-mahj or, better, from mitigatus, cf. san- 

tiguar from sanciificare, and cuerdo from cordatus. 
Megue Fr. (f.) whey (Pic. megre); from maigre, or from the 

Celtic, Gael, meogy W. maidh. L. L. has mesga, N. Pr. mergue 

whey. Wall, mesge soft. 
Mehaing — magagna. 
Meiminho — mimo. 
Melange meler — mischiare. 
Melarancia — arancio. 

Meliaca muliaea It. apricot; from armeniaca, 
Mellizo Sp. twin ; from a form gemellicius (gemellus). 
Melma It. mud; from O. H. G. melm dust, Goth, malma. 
Melo It. apple-tree; from malus, the e being to distinguish it 

from malum (bad), cf. Gk. ^ijXov. 

Melsa — melza. 

Membrare It., 0. Sp. Pr. memhrar, O. Fr. memhrer, O. Sp. Pg. 
Pr. nemhrar, Pg. lembrar, Lang, lembrci (E. re -member); from 
?nemorare , whence also adj. memhrado, membrat, memhre 
prudent, learned. 

Meme — medes. 
Mena — menare. 
Menace — minaccia. 

Menage Fr., vb. menager; for mesnage, L. L. mansionqticum j v. 

Menare It., O. Sp. Pr. Cat. menar^ Fr. mener to lead, sbst. It. 
Pr. mena. Diez derives it from a L. L. minare to drive with 
threats (minari) Apuleius: asinos minantes baculis; agasones 
equos agentes i. e. minantes Paulus ex Festo ; cf. Wal. mena to 
drive, Papias : minare = ducere de loco ad locum, so prominare 
(Apuleius) = 0. Fr. se pourmener, Fr. se promener, whence 
the Italianized promenade for O. Fr. pourmenoir. Others point 
to the O.Fr. mainer and derive from manus^ cf. menottes hand- 
cuffs; hence Fr. demener to move about, conduct, E. demean, 
demeanour, cf. sq. 

Menear Sp. Pg. to move from place to place, manage; from 
manus (for matiear) It. maneggiare , Fr. manier, E. manage. 

Menester menestral menetrier — - mestiero. 

Menguar — menovare. 

Menil Fr. a farm-house; iov maisnil (mansionile). 

Menino — mina. 

Menno It. castratus; from minimus? 


Menoscabo Sp. Pg., O. Pg. mazcaho , Pr. mescap, Fr. mechef, 
E. mischief; from c«Z>o end, caput; vb. menoscdbary mescdbar, 
O. Fr. meschever (mescaver), E. mischieve. 

Menotte Fr. handcuff; from /;?rtm (manus), cf. It. manettdj v. »?e- 

Menovare It., ^^.menguar, Vg.mingoar, Vv.minuar, Csit.minvar, 
Fr. di-minuer to diminish; KSp. mengiia, Pg. mingoa decay. 
From minuere altered to the 1^' conjug., L.L. minuare. In Sp. 
menguar, ua becomes gua as if it had been a G. ^^«^ cf. maii- 
gnal from manualis, 

Mensonge — menzogna, 

Mentar Sp.. Pg., O. Fr. menter to mention (orig. a sbst.); It. am- 
mcntare rammentare , 0. Pg. amentar; from mens^ ammentare 
being, probably, the oldest derivative. Pr. mentawe amen- 
taver, O.Fr. mentoivre mentevoir, amentoivre amentevoir, ramcn- 
tevoir (Moliere), from mente, ad mentem habere, It. avei^e a 
mente, the orig. meaning ^^to think of" having passed into a 
factitive one "to mention" cf. R. Gr. 3, 103. From mentevoir 
comes, probably, the It. mentovarc. Hence also It. dcmentare, 
Sp. dementar to make mad, demented^ O. Fr. de?nenter to rant, 
dementare (Lactantius) ; It. dimenticare to forget. 

Mente It. Sp. Pg. (0. Sp. mientre), Pr. men, Fr. ment adverbial 
suffix added to the feminine adjective, v.R. Gr. 2, 382. From 
the Lat. mente, cf. bond, placidd, devotd, celeri mente, hence 
gradually assuming a wider meaning, hreve- mente, perfetta- 
mente, altra-mente, cf. M. H. G. ahte (1) mind, intention 
(2) kind, manner. In Sp. we find such expressions as hella y 
sutilmente, in Pr. sanctament e devota, 0. Cat. fellonament et 

Mentira — menzogna. 

Mentoivre — mentar, 

Mentovare — mentar. 

Mentre It. Pr. O. Fr., Sp. mientras, O. Sp. mientre, 0. Pg. ?nen- 
tres = L. dum, interim or intra; 0. It. domentre, Sp. demien- 
tras, Pr. domentre dementre, 0. Fr. dementre de?nentres, ende- 
mentres, 0. Pg. emmentres &c. Muratori considers do7Jientre 
the orig. form and derives it from dum interim, the interchange 
of do and de being also found in domani domandare. Others, 
from the O. Ven. domente, Gen. demente take the derivation 
dum mente. The O. Fr. dementiers dementieres seems to be from 
dum inter ea, O. Fr. entremente from inter ea mente, but Piedm. 
tramantre reproduces the r. Pott Forsch. 2, 100 makes mentre 
from in inter, cf. Ven. mintro (= infino). O. It. introcque Inf. 
20, 1 30 = inter hoc with euphonic suffix. 

Menu menuet — minuzzare. 

Menuiser — minuzzare. 


Menzogna It., Pr. mensonga mensonja, Fr. mensonge. From men- 
titio, Pr. mentizOy formed on the analogy of the word which it 
replaced, calogna calonja clidlongc (calumnia) . The Pr. menso- 
nega is from mentitionica. The Sp. Pg. mentira is for mentida 
(Catal.), cf. lampara for lampada. 

Merce It., Sp. merccd, Pg. Pr. merce, Fr. 7nerci = E. mercy and 
thanks. From merces = merce in L. L. Hence Pr. merceiar, 
O. Fr. mercier, Fr. remercier. 

Mercoledi mercordi It., Fr. merer edi, Pr. dimercres, Cat. dime- 
cres; from Mereurii dies, dies Mercurii; Sp. mier coles, Pr. 
merer es like martes (martedt), It. also mercore, Wal. miercuri. 
It. (prov.) mez-edima = media hebdomas, Rh. mez-eamda, cf. 
G. mittivocli. Pg. has quarta feira = N. Gr. tstQccdrj. 

Mereorella marcorella a herb , mercury, from mercurialis, Sp. 
mercurial (Fr. mercoret). 

Mercredi — mercoledi. 

Merino Sp.;, Pg. meirinho a circuit -judge, inspector of sheep- 
walks (hence adj. merino moving from pasture to pasture, 
whence the name of the merino sheep); from majorinus, v. 

Merir to pay, recompense; L. L. suum servitium vult illi merere 
Cap. Car. Calv., v. Ducange. In O. Fr. diex le vos mire, mire 
= miere (conjuctive, as /iere from ferir). 

Merlan Fr. a whiting, O.Fr. merlenc mellenc, Rou. merlen merlin, 
Bret, marlouan, Du. molenaar. 

Merlin Fr. == Du. marlijn, meerling, E. marline, vb. Du. marlen, 
E. marl, 

Merlo merla It., whence Sp. merlin, Pg. merlao, Fr. E. merlon; 
vb. It. merlare, Pr. merlar. Bolza derives it from a L. mcerus 
(for murus), whence mcernlus merlo, but the open e does not 
represent the L. oe. Menage refers it to the L. mitia (minula 
mirida). The Sic. has mergula a merlon (from merga a fork), 
whence merla may be contracted, cf. G. gdbel a fork = E. 

Merluzzo It., Pr. merlus, Sp. merluza, Fr. merluche (f.) a cod; 
from maris lucius a sea-pike, cf. Cat. llus = merlus. 

Merme O.Fr. little; from minimus, like arme from anima. Hence 
Sp. merma, Pr. mermaria a lessening. Com. marmaria. It. mar- 
maglia poor folk. Com. marmel, Crem. marmeleen little finger ; 
vb. Sp. Pr. mermar to lessen , decrease. 

Merode — maraud, 

Merrain Fr., Pr. mairam staves; from materiamen, L. materia, 

Merveille — maraviglia. 

Mesange Fr. (f.) a titmouse. A G. word with a Rom. suffix as 
in louange, laidenge &c., and a corruption of the L. G. dim. 
meeseke. Pic. maisaingue. 


Mesar Sp. to pull out the hair; from meter e messus, cf. barbam 
meter e forcipe (Juvenal). 

Meschino It., Sp. mezquino, Pr. Fr. mesquin, 0. Fr. also meschin 
poor, wretched. From Ar. miskin, which is from a vb. sakana 
Freyt. 2, 335. In Pr. O. Fr. also = feeble, meschin = boy, 
meschine girl. It. meschina, Wall, meskene, 

Mesel O.Fr. leprous, O.Sp. mesyllo leper; from misellus, in L.L. 
= a leper; hence also G. miselsuclit. 

Mesle 0. Fr. medlar, meslier medlar- tree; from mespilus. Hence 
E. medlar, cf. s. miscMare. 

Messa It., Sp. misa, Fr. messe, E. mass; from the words missa est 
concio, with which the congregation was dismissed. 

Mest Pr. prep, for L. inter; from mixtum, cf. Dan. i-hlandt from 
hlande (blending), E. a-mong. 

Mestiero mestiere It., Sp. O.Pg. menester, Pg. mister, Pr. menes- 
tier mestier , Fr. rnetier business _, trade, craft (E. mystery, but 
V. Marsh, Lectures); from ministerium. Hence Sp. Pr. me- 
nestral, Pg. menestrel, 0. Fr. menestrel, menestrier menetrier 
artisan, workman, minstrel, L. L. ministerialis a house- servant 
(so in 0. Fr.). As mestiere = opus, so It. e or fa mestiere, Sp. 
es menester = opus est. 

Mestizo Sp., Pr. mestis, Fr. ?ne'tis a mongrel; from mixticius. 

Meta It. a heap of dung, Lonib. meda a hay- cock &c., Sard, a 
heap, Sp. Pg. meda a stack of corn, 0. Fr. moie a heap, E. 
moiv; from L. meta. Hence Pg. meddo a heap, Pg. medaho me- 
dano a sand-hill (also megano cf. s. camozzd); Sp. al-mear (for 
al-medar) a hay stack. 

Meta — mezzo. 

Met air ie — mezzo. 

Metal — medaglia. 

Metayer — mezzo. \ 

Meteil Fr. meslin, mixed corn; = mixtuctdum (mixtum). 

Metier — mestiero. 

Metis — mestizo. 

Metralla — mitraille. 

Mets Fr. (O.^Y.mes^, Yi.mess; from missura that which is served 
up. It. messo; cf. minestra. Mets has taken the t of mettere. 

Mettere It. &c. to put. From mittere to send, in later L. = 
ponere, cf. Seneca manus ad arma mittere, Lactantius /w;?^«- 
menta mittere. The L. sense is preserved in derivatives. 

Meugler — mugghiare. 

Meule Fr. (prov. mule) a heap of hay, corn, or dung, hence 
mulon, L. L. mullo, Rou. vb. muter. From metula dim. of 
meta, cf. O. Fr. seule from saeculum, reule rule from regula. 
Pic. moie = meta. 

Meunier — molino. 


Meurtre Fr., O. Fr. meurdre mordre, murder, vb. meuririr to 
crush, 0.¥r. mordrir lo murder; h^om. Goth. maurthr, G,mord, 
E. murder, vb. Goth, maurthrjan , O. H. Gr. murdjan. Com. 
mordar = wicked, O. H. Gr. murdreo thief, mord crime, Kh. 
morder = Gr. morder a murderer. 

Meute O. Fr. = motus, rising, insurrection, Fr. G. meute = a 
pack of hounds. From mover e (cf. emeute from emouvoir) 
through an old partic. movitiis, cf. Sard, movida = It. mossa. 
From meute come mutin a mutineer , Sp. motin mutiny, Fr. mu- 
tiner, Sp. amotinar, It. ammutinare to cause to mutiny. 

Mezclar — mischiare. 

Mezzo It., Wal. mez, Sp. medio, Pg. meio, Pr. mieg, from medius; 
Fr. parmi = It. ^^r mezzo, Pr. enmiei, 0. Fr. ^;z/;?/ = It. m 
mezzo. Hence It. mezzano, Sp. mediano, Pr. ;??^/«n (E. mean), 
Fr. moyen from medianus, whence also O. Fr. menel, Fr. w^- 
we«w, 0. E. monial, moynal, moynel, monion, munion, mullion 
prop. = qui est au milieu, the slender pier which forms the 
division between the lights of windows; It. meta, Sp. mitad, 
Pr. meitad, Fr. moitie, E. moiety from medietas (Cicero), hence 
Fr. metayer, N.Pr. meytadier a farmer who gives half the pro- 
duce of his farm (metairie) to the owner, L. L. medietarius. 
The 0. Fr. mitan a tenant-farmer, Fr. mitaine, E. mitten 
(half-glove) are rather from the G. mitte (0. H. G. mittamo). 
From It. mezzana come Fr. misaine, E. mizen (because amid- 

Mezzo It. (with close e and sharp zz) soft, decayed, withered; 
from mitis through a form mitius mitjus, v. fujo. Crem. mizz, 
Neap. Gen. nizzo, Mil. nizz. 

Mica xniga It. Pr., Fr. mie a particle used with negatives ; from 
mica a crumb; whence also Wal. ni-mic = mhily Fr. miche 
= a piece of bread. 

Mieeia It., Sp. Pg. Pr. media, Pr. also meca (cf. coca cocha), Fr. 
meche (E. match) a wick. From myxa myxus, Gk. ^iv^a a lamp- 
nozzle, also = a wick. The Fr. word was the original one 
(cf. laxus Idche), whence the other forms were derived. 

Micio mieia It., Sp. micho mizo miza miz, Wal. metzu metze, 
0. Fr. mite cat ; an onomatop. like G. mieze. Hence Fr. mitou 
matou a male cat, Wal. metoe; Fr. chatte-mite a flatterer, cf. 
proverb: siVune est chate, V autre est mite to denote perfect 
similarity. It. has also ?nuci mucia muscia. 

Miche — mica. 

Micmae Fr. trick, roguery; from G. mischmasch, E. mishmash, 

Mielga Sp. a plant, lucern; irommedica, cf.juiffarhomjudicare. 

Mien, tien, sien Fr. pronouns. From mi, ti, si with suffix en 
= L. anus as ancien from anz, cf. G. meinig from mein. 

Miercoles — mercoledl. 

302 MIES — MINA. 

Mies miez O. Fr., L. L. mezium = O.H.G. A.S. medo, E. mead, 
G. ?neth, Gr. ^sd'v^ Sk. madhu &c. 

Miglio It., Fr. miile (m. from the It.), Sp. Pr. f. ?mlla = O. H. G. 
mila, G. meile, E. mile; from m/iiia (passum), It. pi. miglia, 
whence the sing, miglio, 

Mignard — mignon. 

Mignatta — miniare. 

Mignon Fr. neat^ delicate^ as sbst. darling, whence It. mignone, 
E. minion, hence Fr. mignard, mignoter &c. From 0. H. G. 
minni or minnia (= minja) love, so from the Gael, min, v. mina. 

Migraine migrana — magrana. 

Milagro Sp., Pg. milagre a wonder; a corruption of miraculum, 

Milano Sp., Pg. milhano, Fr. Pr. milan kite; from miluanus, a 
derivative from miluiis (later milviis), B'. mirua, Vb. Sp. ami- 
lanar, v. astore. 

Milano and vilano Sp. thistle-down, from villus, cf. mimhre. 

Milgrana mingrana 0. Sp. pomegranate (thousand- grains). 

Milieu Fr. from medius locus, cf. It. miluogo, Wal. mijloc, 

Mille — miglio, 

Milsoudor missoudor 0. Fr., Pr. milsoldor = caval misoldor a 
valuable war horse; from caballus mille solidorum, cf. a poor 
horse = hidet de quatre-vingt sous. For a similar formation 
cf. O. Fr. quartenor = quatuor annorum. 

Milza It., Sp. melsa, N. Pr. melso, Dauph. milza. Burg, misse; 
from 0. H. G. 7mlzi (n.), G. milz, E. ?nilt, cf. Alb. meltzi 
liver. Mil. nilza, Rh. snieulza, N. Pr. 7nelco melfo. Hence It. 
smilzo empty. 

Mimar Sp. Pg. to coax, caress, mi?no caress, adj. mimoso; per- 
haps from minimus little ^ darling, whence It. mimma a doll, 
Pg. meiminho little iinger. 

Mimbre Sp. also vimbre osier -twig; from vimen, cf. milano, 

Mimma — mimar, 

Mina It. Sp. Pg., Pr. miria meina, Fr. E. mine. Wall, wmw; vb. 
It. minare, Sp. Pg. Pr. ;wmar^ Fr. Wall./wm^r, l^,mine. Hence 
O. Sp. minera, Pr. meniera, Fr. ??iiniere a mine, whence It. 
?ninerale, Sp. Pr. E. mineral, Fr. ?nine'raL From L. minare 
Rom. meriare to lead, conduct, prepare, L. L. minare consiliuin 
to prepare a plan, minas parare to lay an ambush. Hence 
mina a passage under the walls of a town, passage, 7nine, cf. 
doccia a canal from ducere. The i for e was perhaps to dis- 
tinguish the meanings. ¥y, mine r=l^, mien, G. miene, also 
comes from menare (Pr. mend), like gestus from gerere; Pr. se 
menar = to behave oneself. But v. s. menare, 

Mina O. Lim., Gasc. menina, Pg. minino menino, f. minina me- 
nina, Sp. menino menina boy, girl, N. Pr. menig little, Berr. 
menit a child. Norm, mine I minette; also Fr. minon minette a 


cat , Rou. minette a girl , Cat. mimjo a little boy (cf., however, 
Fr. mignon). From Gael, niin little. 

lilinaecia It., Sp. a-menaza, Pr. menassa, Fr. E, menace; from 
minacice for mince (Plautus). 

Mince Fr. small, fine (whence E. mince). From 0. H. G. super- 
lative minnisto = G. mindeste, mince for mime, as rincer for 

Minchia It., L. mentula; hence minchione a dolt, as pincone from 
pinco , coglione from coglia. 

Mine Fr., Pr. mi7ia a measure; from hemina, whence Pr. emina, 
O. Fr. emine, Sp. hemina. 

Mineral — mina (]). 

Minestra It. soup, pottage, minestrare to prepare soup &c. ; from 
ministrare to serve, so ^?m^si?ra = something served up. Ci.mets. 

Minette minon — mina (2). 

Mingherlino — heingre. 

Miniare It. to paint with vermilion (minium) illuminate ma- 
nuscripts &c., hence to paint in miniature, miniate. Hence It. 
miniatura, Fr. E. miniature. Menage also derives mignatta a 
leech, from minium. 

Minugia minugio It. intestines ; prop. == anything chopped small 
(Sp. menudo); from minutia, L. L. minutia porcorum. 

Minute minute — ?ninuzzare. 

Minuzzare It., Pr. menuzar, O. Fr. inenuiser to make small, mi- 
nish; from a form minutiare, from minutus, Fr. menu, Sp. me- 
nudo, Pg. miudo &c., whence It. Sp. minuto , Fr. E. minute, 
prop, minuto primo first division; minuto secondo, Fr. seconde, 
E. second =^ second division; minuto terzo, Fr. tierce (f.) the 
60^'^ part of a second. Hence Fr. menuisier a joiner, and (from 
Fr. menu) menuet, E. minuet a dance with short steps. 

Mirabella It., Sp. mirdbel, Fr. mirabelle a kind of plum; a cor- 
ruption of myrobalanum ^vQopdlavog the ben -nut; It. also 
?niraholano , Fr. myrohalan. 

Mire 0. Fr. Norm, a doctor, surgeon: qui court apres le miere, 
court apres la Mere (Dumeril), vb. mirer to heal. Perhaps from 
medicarius (medicus), which would not be so strange a word 
as medic-ianus (whence O.Fr. medecien, Fr. medecin), cf. gram- 
maire from grammatic-arius (grammaticus) . Veneroni gives It. 
medicaria = medecina. 

Miroir Fr., O.Fr. mireor, E. mirror, Pr. mirador; for miratorium, 
^^.7nirador a spectator, watch-tower. It. miradore a mirror. 
Another form is found in Pr. miralh, It. miraglio, Basq. mi- 
raila =: L. miraculum. 

Mis It., Fr. mes me, Pr. mes mens, Sp. Pg. menos in comp. = L. 
male or, better, G. E. 7nis, from which, however, it is not 
derived, but, as shown by the Sp. Pg. from minus; e. g. mis- 

304 MISA — MOHO. 

pregiare, mens-, mes-prezar, mepriser, menos-preciar, E. mis- 

prize. The E. mis haS; thus, a double origin. 
Misa — messa. 
Misehiare It., Sp. Pg. Pr. mezclar mesclar, 0. Fr. mesler medler, 

E. meddle, Fr. meter = L. L. misculare, sbst. It. mischia &c. ; 

from miscere. Hence sbst. Fr. melee, E. mellay (Tennyson), 

ef. volley from volee; Fr. melange f. (0. Fr. m.), Pr. mesclanha, 

cf. loiiange, laidange. 
Mismo — medes. 
Mistral — maestro. 

Mita Sp.; Fr. mite; from O. H. G. miza, A. S. mite, E. mite, 
Mitad — mezzo. 
Mitaine — mezzo. 

Mitraille Fr. (whence Sp. metralUi), small pieces of metal, grape- 
shot; from O. Fr. mite, E. mite a small coin, so for mitaille. 
Mo It., Neap, mone, Com. ammo , Sard, moi immoi (cf. immo?), 

Wal. amii = even now, from modo; Ven. ;;/C(;V/ == modo jam. 
Moceio It. from mucceus an adj . from mucus (jivxog) ; hence moc- 

ceca and moccicone a driveller, simpleton; from mucus muccus 

also smoccare, Fr. mouclier , It. moccolo candle-end, prop. 

candle - snuff (moccolaja). Sp. wo<70 = mucus and snutf, 

Piedm. moch, N. Pr. mouc mouquet snuff. 
Mochin mocho — mozzo. 
Modano modine It., Sp. Pg. molde , Pr. mollc, Fr. moule, moidd 

pattern; from modulus, whence also It. modello, Fr. modele. 
Modele • — modano. 
Moderno It. Sp., ¥v.?noderne, 1^. modern; horn. ??iodernus (Priscian 

and Cassiodorus) from modo, on analogy of hesternus, ho- 

diernus, sempiternus. 
Modorra Sp. Pg. drowsiness, adj. modorro drowsy, vb. modorrar 

to make drowsy, sbst. modurria folly; from Basque modorra 

== stump of a tree; so O. Pg. modorra a heap. 
Moelle Fr. marrow; iovmeolle, Pr. meola, It. midolla, L. medidla, 

Cf. Fg.Joelho for Jeolho. 
Mofa Sp. Pg. Cat., vb. mofar to mock; 0. H. G. mupfen to 

Avrinkle the nose, jeer = Du. moppen, E. mop. 
Mofletes — muff are. 
Mofo mofino — muffo. 
Moggio It., Sp. moyo, Pr. muei, 0. Fr. moi (= O. H. G. mutti 

Gloss. Cass.), Fr. muid a bushel; from modius. 
Mogio — murrio. 
Mogo O. Pg. a boundary -stone, Sp. mogote an insulated rock; 

from 13. muga a boundary, or is this from Sp. huega? Larra- 

mendi derives mogotes tops of deer's horns, from B. mocoa 

a point. 
Moho mohino — muffo. 

MOIE — MOMER. 305 

Moie — meta. 

Moignon — munon. 

Moineau Fr. sparrow. Not from moine (in allusion to the 
6tQov%-Cov ^ovd^ov of Psalm 101), though we have It. nlonaco, 
Sp. fraile, Fr. nonnette, G. dompfaffe used as names of birds. 
The Norm, is moisson, Wall, mohon, Cat. moxo from L. musca 
(muscioj, cf. G. gras7nucke, Rou. monchon, N. Pr. mousquet a 
small bird, Norm, moisseron a finch; Pr. moizeta. Cat. moxeta 
a bird of prey. From moison came moisonel moisnel Fr. moi- 

Moire Fr. (f.), O. Fr. mohere mouaire; from E. mohair, v. Wei- 
gand 2, 184. 

Mois — moscio. 

Moisir Fr., Pr. to become mouldy; from mucere or mucescere. 

Moison O. Fr. measure; from mensio. 

Moisson Fr., Pr. meisso; from messio. 

Moite Fr., O. Fr. moisie, E. moist. Not from madidus, but from 
humectus, cf. Pr. mec and Isid. Gloss. : mactum est, humectum 
est, or from musteus fresh, new, cf. udus, vy^og^ molle, for the 
connexion between tender, soft and moist. V. also s. moscio. 

Moitie — mezzo. 

Moja It., Fr. muire brine, Sp. murria an ointment; from muria. 
Hence It. sala-moja, Sp. sal-muera , Pg. sal-moura, Fr. sau- 
mure, like ccl^vgcg. 

Mojar moje — molla. 

Mojon Sp., 0. Pg. moiom, Sard, mullone heap, landmark: from 

Molde — modano. 

Molho — manojo. 

Molino — muUno. 

Molla It., Pg. mola, Sp. muelle (m.) spring, in plur. tongs, Sp. 
molla crumb, calf of the leg; hence It. molletta, Sp. molleta 
snuffers, molledo, Fr. mollet fleshy part of a limb, Sp. molleja 
sweet bread. It. mollica crumb &c.; from mollis soft, pliant. 
Also It. adj. molle moist, from mollis soft, vb. mollare to yield, 
ammollare to soak, Pg. Pr. molhar, Cat. mulyar, Fr. mouiller, 
Sp. mojar =z=: moUiare (cf. leviare, graviare); sbst. Pg. molho, 
Sp. moje sauce. Hence also Sp. mollera, Pg. molleira crown of 
the head. 

Mollet — molla. 

Molo It., Sp. muelle, Fr. E. mole a dam; from moles. For Sp. // 
= /, cf. R. Gr. 1, 241. 

Molondro — landra. 

Momer 0. Fr. vb., sbst. momerie; from G. mummer mummerei, 
E. mummery mummer. The word is derived from the name of 
a ghost mumel, v. Grimm's Mythol. p. 473. 


304 MIS A — MOHO. 

pregiare, mens-^ mes-prezar, mepriser, menos-preciar, E. mis- 

prize. The E. mis haS; thus, a double origin. 
Misa ■ — messa. 
Misehiare It., Sp. Pg. Pr. mezclar mesclar, 0. Fr. mesler medler, 

E. meddle, Fr. meter = L. L. misculare, sbst. It. miscliia &c. ; 

from miscere. Hence sbst. Fr. melee, E. mellay (Tennyson), 

cf. volley from volee; Fr. melange f. (0. Fr. m.), Pr. mesclanha, 

cf. loiiange, laidange. 
Mismo — medes. 
Mistral — maestro. 

Mita Sp., Fr. mite; from O. H. G. miza, A. S. mite, E. mite. 
Mitad — mezzo. 
Mitaine — mezzo. 

Mitraille Fr. (whence Sp. metrallci), small pieces of metal, grape- 
shot; from 0. Fr. mite, E. mite a small coin, so for mitaille. 
Mo It., Neap, mone, Com. ammo , Sard, moi immoi (cf. immo?), 

Wal. amii = even now, from modo; Ven. ;//o;V/ = modo jam. 
Moccio It. from mucceus an adj . from mucus {jivxog) ; hence moc- 

ceca and moccicone a driveller, simpleton; from mucus muccus 

also smoccare, Fr. moucher , It. moccolo candle-end, prop. 

candle - snuff (moccolaja). Sp. woco = mucus and snutf, 

Piedm. moch, N. Pr. mouc mouquet snuff. 
Moehin mocho — mozzo. 
Modano modine It., Sp. Pg. molde , Pr. molle, Fr. moule, mould 

pattern; from modulus, whence also It. modello, Fr. modele. 
Modele • — modano. 
Moderno It. Sp., Fr.?noderfie, lEi. modern; houi ?nodernus (Priscian 

and Cassiodorus) from i?iodo, on analogy of hesternus, ho- 

diernus, sempiternus. 
Modorra Sp. Pg. drowsiness, adj. modorro drowsy, vb. modorrar 

to make drowsy, sbst. modurria folly; from Basque modorra 

== stump of a tree; so O. Pg. modorra a heap. 
Moelle Fr. marrow; iormeolle, Pr. meola, It. midolla, L. medidla, 

Cf. Vg.Joel/w ioYJeolho. 
Mofa Sp. Pg. Cat., vb. mofar to mock; 0. II. G. mupfen to 

wrinkle the nose, jeer = Du. moppen, E. mop. 
Mofletes — muff are. 
Mofo moflno — ?nuffo. 
Moggio It., Sp. moyo, Pr. muei, O. Fr. moi (= 0. H. G. mutti 

Gloss. Cass.), Fr. muid a bushel; from ?nodius. 
Mogio — murrio. 
Mogo O. Pg. a boundary -stone, Sp. mogote an insulated rock; 

from B. muga a boundary, or is this from Sp. huega? Larra- 

mendi derives tnogotes tops of deer's horns, from B. mocoa 

a point. 
Moho mohino — muffo. 

MOIE — MOMER. 305 

Moie — meta. 

Moignon — munon. 

Moineau Fr. sparrow. Not from 7nome (in allusion to the 
GTQovd-Lov ^ovd^ov of Psalm 101), though we have It. nlonaco, 
Sp. fraiUy Fr. nonneite, G. dompfaffe used as names of birds. 
The Norm, is moisson, Wall, mohon, Cat. moxo from L. musca 
(muscio), cf. G. grastniicke, Rou. mouchon, N. Pr. mousquet a 
small bird, Norm, moisseron a finch; Pr. moizetay Cat. moxeta 
a bird of prey. From moison came moisonel moisnel Fr. moi- 

Moire Fr. (f.), O. Fr. mohere mouaire; from E. mohair, v. Wei- 
gand 2; 184. 

Mois — moscio. 

Moisir Fr., Pr. to become mouldy, from mucere or mucescere. 

Moison O. Fr. measure; from mensio. 

Moisson Fr., Pr. meisso; from messio. 

Moite Fr., O. Fr. moisie, E. moist. Not from madidus, but from 
humectus, cf. Pr. mec and Isid. Gloss. : mactum est, humectum 
est, or from musteus fresh, new, cf . udus, vyQog^ molle, for the 
connexion between tender, soft and moist. V. also s. moscio. 

Moitie — mezzo. 

Moja It., Fr. muire brine, Sp. murria an ointment; from muria. 
Hence It. sala-moja, Sp. sal-muera , Pg. sal-moura, Fr. sau- 
mure, like ccl^vgcg. 

Mojar moje — molla. 

Mojon Sp., 0. Pg. moiom, Sard, mullone heap, landmark: from 

Molde — modano. 

Molho — manojo. 

Molino — mulino. 

Molla It., Pg. mola, Sp. muelle (m.) spring, in plur. tongs, Sp. 
molla crumb, calf of the leg; hence It. molletta, Sp. molleta 
snuffers, molledo, Fr. mollet fleshy part of a limb, Sp. molleja 
sweet bread. It. mollica crumb &c.; from mollis soft, pliant. 
Also It. adj. molle moist, from mollis soft, vb. mollare to yield, 
ammollare to soak, Pg. Pr. molhar, Cat. mulyar, Fr. mouiller, 
Sp. mojar ^= moUiare (cf. leviare, graviare); sbst. Pg. molho, 
Sp. moje sauce. Hence also Sp. mollera, Pg. molleira crown of 
the head. 

Mollet • — molla. 

Molo It., Sp. muelle, Fr. E. mole a dam; from moles. For Sp. // 
= /, cf. R. Gr. 1, 241. 

Molondro ■ — landra. 

Momer O. Fr. vb., sbst. momerie; from G. mummer mummerei, 
E. mummery mummer. The word is derived from the name of 
a ghost mumel, v. Grimm's Mythol. p. 473. 


308 ^ MOSCIO — MOULE. 

moucheter to speckle (Diez). But the A. S. is mushafoCy and 
the origin is more probably Du. mossche mussche a sparrow 
(E. tit -mouse). 
Moscio It., Sp. mustio, Cat. mox faded, withered, gloomy, Pr. 
mois sullen, O. Fr. mois, Wall, muss dejected. From mucidus 
(mucdius mustius) ? Qi.muffo. Perhaps from the same root come 
Cat. mustig lax, Lim. mousii, Rh. moust, Lomb. moisCy E. 
moist (but V. moite), It. vb. ammoscire, Pr. amosir. 

Moscione It., Ven. musson, Romag. musslen, Lim. moustic a 
gnat; not from musca, but from mustum (musca cellaris Linn.), 
cf. moscione also == a winebibber. Isiaor has: bibiones sunt 
qui in vino nascuntur quos vulgo mustiones a musto appellant. 

Mostaecio It., Sp. mostacho, Fr. E. moustache; from ^v6xa^^ 

Alb an. mustdke, 
Mostarda It. Pg. Pr., Fr. moutarde, E. mustard, Sp. mostaza; 

from mustum, It. mosto, must being originally used in prepar- 
ing it. 
Mostrenco mostrenea Sp. unowned goods, waifs |and strays; 

from mostrar, as the owner, in order to claim them, must 

point them out. 
Motin — meute. 
Motta It. a sloping bank of earth, Sp. Pg. mota, Fr. motte clod, 

0. Fr. mote, 0. Pg. mota raised earthwork for defence, E. 

moat. Of G. origin, Bav. mott , Sw. mutte a peat -stack, Du. 

mot turf, Fr. mote tan. Sp. mota knot, loose thread on cloth, 

from B. motea = Du. moet, mot spot = E. mote; Pg. mouta 

bush , cf . It. macchia. It. mota = malta q. v. 

Motto It., Sp. Pg. mote, Pr. Fr. mot; from mutire (E. mutter), 
L. L. muttum (Cornutus ad Persium). 

Mou Fr. lung (of animals); from mollis, opp. heart and liver, 

~ called in Norm, le dur. O. Fr. mol = mollet calf of the leg. 

Moueher Fr., L. L. muccare to wipe the nose ; from mucus muc- 
cus. Hence mouchoir &c. 

Moue Fr., E. mow, mowe. If from the E., it will, prob., be con- 
nected with mouth, mund. But D. derives the E. from the Fr. 
and refers it to the Du. mouwe, 0. H. G. mauwe pulpa, then 
used of a protruding underlip, cf. faire la moue r= faire la 

Mouette Fr., Pic. mautve a mew, sea-gull. Fr. G. mowe meive, 
O. H. G. meh, A. S. maev, 0. E. mow, E. mew. It. mugnajo 
is from the Sax. form meum. 

Moufette — muffo. 

Moufle moufler — muff are. 

Mouiller — molla. 

Moule Fr. muscle. Occ. muscle. Cat. musclo, O. H. G. muscla; 


A. S. muscel, E, muscle. The form moule lies between musculus 

and mutilus. V. nicchio. 
Moule — modano, 
Moulin — molino. 
Mousquet — moschetto. 
Mousse Fr., Pr. mossa; from O. H. G. mos, G. moos, E. moss 

(It. Sp. musco, Wal. muschiu from muscus). Hence vb. mousser, 

emousser, sbst. mousseron (whence mushroom) j so called because 

grown in moss. 

Mousse — • mozzo. 

Mousse — mozo, 

Mousseline ■'— mussolo. 

Mousser mousseron — mousse. 

Moustache — mostaccio. 

Moutarde — mostarda. 

Moutier Fr. church, monastery, O. Fr. moustier; from monaste- 
rium. Lorr. mote = eglise/ 

Mouton — monione. 

Moyen — mezzo. 

Moyeu Fr., Pr. muiol nave of a wheel; from modiolus, cf. mozzo. 

Moyeu Fr., Pr. muiol mugol moiol, Gasc. mujou yolk of an eg^. 
FYoramedium ovi, Fr. moyeu/"? Or irom. mt/tilus, mutulus a muscle 
(mutolus cf. scandula echandole) which resembles the yolk of an 
eg^ in size and colour and is, like it, enclosed in a shell. From 
mutolus would come Pr. muiol, Fr. moyeul, cf. crayon for 
creton. The L. is vitellus, It. tuorlo (muscle), Sp. yema (bud), 
O. N. eggia-hlomi (flower). E. ijolk, yelk, G. ei-gelb are from 
the colour. 

Moyo — moggio, 

Mozo Sp. Pg. young (hence It. mozzo, Fr. mousse); from mustus 
young, fresh, sbst. mozo == mustum. 

Mozzetta — almussa. 

Mozzo It., Sp. mocho, Pr. mos (f. mossa), Fr. mousse maimed, 
lopped; from Du. mots, Sw. mutz, Du. vb. motsen mutsen, G. 
mutzen. From Fr. mousse comes It. smussare, smusso. Hence 
Sp. mochin. The root is the same as in mut-ilus if, indeed, the 
Sp. mocho be not immediately thence, as cachorro from catuius. 
Cf. B. mutila = a boy. 

Mozzo It. nave of a wheel ; from modius for modiolus L. L. mo- 

zolus, Cf. moyeu. 
Mucehio It. a heap. Usually derived from monticulus (monti- 

cellus gives Fr. monceau a heap), cf. cochiglia from conchylium. 

But a L. L. mutulus is found and cf. Sp. mojon. 
Muceta — almussa. 
Muchacho Sp. a boy ; for mochacho from mocho (mozzo)m 


Mucho Sp., Pg. mhilo, Beam, mucky E. much; from multus, It. 
moltOy cf. R. Gr. 1, 245. Shortened mmj. 

Huci — micio. 

Mueca — moquer. 

Muella — molla, 

Muelle — molo, 

Muer Fr., E. mew to moult; O. Fr. to change, sbst. mue, E. 
mew mue moulting, also = cage, prison; from mutarCj Pr. mu- 
dar &c. Fr. remuer, Pr. remudar from re-mutare. 

Muffare It. in camuffare for capo -muff are to muffle the head; 

from Gr. E. muff, from mou mouioe ermine. Hence Fr. moufle, 

L. L. muffula, Du. moffel a muff, G. vb. muffeln, E. muffle; 

Pr. adj. mofletf Pic. mouflu, Wall, mofnes soft, elastic; Fr. 

moufler to puff out the cheeks, Sp. mofletes fat cheeks, Rouch. 

Mufifo It. musty. Com. Romagn. ;«o;f pale; sbst. It. muff a, Pg. 

/wo/b, Sp. molio mould, moss, Fr. moufetic damp vapour, 

mephitis; from Du. muf musty, G. ;ww^ mould, vb. miiffen. 

Hence also in moral sense Sp. molio laziness, moMno, Ven. 

muffo peevish, Pg. mofino niggardly, cf. G. /Vzw/ = putridus, 

piger , in Sw. malus. 
Mufle Fr. snout, muzzle. Cf. G. muff el dog with hanging lips, 

miiffeln to pout, mumble (muffle?), Norm, moufler to pout. 

V. also muffare, 

Mugavero It., Sp. almogarave, Pg. ahnogaure, O. Cat. almtigaver, 
O. Val. almugdber , almugavar predatory soldier, partisan; 
from Ar. al-muglidvir a combatant. It. mugavero also = a 
weapon, cf. partigiana, 

Mugghiare It., Fr. mugler meugler to low; L. L. mugulare from 

Muggine It., Sp. mujol mugil, Pg. inugem^ Fr. muge a mullet; 
from mugiL Fr. mulct, E. mullet from mullus, 

Mughetto — mugue, 

Mugnajo — mouette. 

Mugnajo — • molino. 

Mugre Sp. grime, dirt, grease; from mucor? 

Mugron Sp. shoot of a vine ; from mucro cf . pua = point and 
shoot. Cat. mugro = stalk. 

Mugue N. Pr. hyacinth, Fr. muguet lily of the valley. It. mu- 
ghetto y mugherino v£i2^y-^o^Qv y 0,Yy. musguet. From musctis 
musk, so = sweet- smelling. Hence also Fr. muguette, noix 
muguette, G. muscat nuss, E. nutmeg, v. Wedgwood. 

Muid — moggio. 

Muir — mungere. 

Muito —r mucho. 


Mula It., Fr. mule, Sp. mulilla a slipper; from mtdleus? 
Muladar Sp., Sp. Pg. mnradal a dust -heap; so called because 

rubbish was thrown just outside the walls (mtiri). 
Mulato Sp. Pg., Fr. muldtre, E. mulatto orig. = a youngw??^/^ (dim.). 

Engelmann derives it from the Ar. muwallad a half-breed. 
Mulet — muggine, 

Muleta Sp. Pg. a crutch , prop, a mule ; v. hordone, 
Mulilla — mula. 
Mulino It., Sp. molino, Pg. moinho, Fr. moulin mill; from molina 

for mola Ammiamis Marcell. Hence mulinaro mugnajo ^ Sp. 

molinero , Fr. meunier; It. rimolinare, Sp. remoUnar, Pg. re- 

moinhar, O. Fr. remouliner to whirl round. It. Sp. remolino, 

Tg. redomoinho (retro) whirlwind, Sp. remolmo, O. Fr. re- 

moulin a lock of hair in form of a star on a horse's forehead; 

It. muUnello whirlwind. From re-molere, re-moudre comes Fr. 

remous (m.) remote (f.) a whirlpool. 
Mulot Fr. a large fieldmouse; from Du. mul, A. S. myl {== E. 

mould) dust. Cf. Du. mot, E. mole, perhaps shortened from 

G. maulwurf (maul = mul), E. mouldiwarp. Meal is perhaps 

Mumiar Moden. = Gr. mummeln, E. mumble. 
Mummla It., Sp. momia, Fr. momie mumie (E. mummy); from 

Pers. mom, mum wax, v. Pott in Lassen's Zeitschrift 4, 279. 

Sp. adj. momio lean. The Pers. and Ar. have also mumiyd as 

the name of a mineral substance. 
Muneca ■ — munon. 
Mungere mugnere It., Sp. (Arag.) muir, Pg. mungir , N. Pr. 

mouzer, Wal. mulge to milk; from mulgere. The usual Sp. 

word is ordenar, Fr. traire, but 0. Fr. mulger, Pic. moudre. 

Other forms are Lomb. molg. Pied, mouse, Sard, mulliri, Rh. 

mulger, Cat. munir. From mungere comes It. adj. munto smunto 

emaciated, not from emunctus. 
Munir Sp. to summon; from monere, Pg. monir. 
Munpn Sp., Cat. munyo. Sic. mugnuni, Fr. moignon muscle of 

the arm, brawn, stump of an arm &c. ; vb. Com. mugna to 

mutilate. From Bret, mon moun maimed , B. muh yolk of an 

egg (cf. torulus. It. tuorlo). Hence Sip. muneca wrist, doll (also 

muneco), Romag. mugnac block, stump. 
Mur O. Sp. O. Pg. (m.), Rh. mieur (f.) mouse. From mus muris. 

Hence Pr. murena or mureca (better), N.Pr. murga formed like 

oca from avis; Pg. murganho, Sp. musgano a shrew-mouse. Sp. 

morcillo murecillo muscle , is like musculus from mus, M. Gk. 

jtovtiKog (from ^vg Ttovnocog). 
Mur Fr., O.Fr. meurmaur ripe; from maturus, Pr. madur. Hence 

E. demure, cf. Fr. = discreet (de mure conduite). 
Murcho Pg. weak. From murcidus. 


Muroiego O. Sp., vSp. murciegalo , Pg. morcego a bat ; from mus 
ccecus, mus cceculus. 

Murgauho musgano — mur, 

Murria — moja. 

Murrio Sp. melancholy, sbst. murria; from morns stupid. It. mo- 
gio may be from murrio morjo mojo , cf . pejus peggio &c. 

Musaico It., Sp. Pg. mosaico, Pr. mozaic, Fr. mosaique (E. mo- 
saic); a corruption of musivum (^ov6stov), Pr. also musec. 

Musarana Sp. Pg. Pr. , Fr. musaragne (museraigne Rabelais), 
Rh. misiroign, Com. mus-de-ragn shrew-mouse; from mus 

Musco amusco Sp. brown; twwsX:- colour, from muscus. 

Musco muscliio It., Sp. musco, Pr. Fr. muse, L. L. muscus, E. 
musk; from Pers. muschk, Ar. al-misk whence the more usual 
Sp. al-mizcle, Pg. almiscar, Cat. almesc. 

Museau musel — muso. 

Muso It. 0. Sp., Pr. mus, Fr. museau, Pr. mursel (E. muzzle, 
Gael, muiseat); vb. It. musare, O. Sp. Pr. musar, O.Fr. muser, 
E. muse to gape, Fr. amuser, E. amuse to make to muse, divert. 
Muso is from morsus (mouth for bite) as giuso from deorsum 
deosum; cf. Pr. from mursel. For the sense (to make a mouth, 
stand with open mouth) cf. G. maulaffe and s. hadare. 

Musser Fr. to hide , also mucer =^ Pic. mucker, whence Sic. am- 
mucciare; Gris. micciar. From the M. G. sich muzen, G. sich 
maussen to hide like a mouse, L. mus, G. maus, which is from 
Sk. mush to steal. 

Mussolo mussolino It., Sp. muselina, Fr. mousseline, E. muslin; 
from Mausil or Mosul a city in Mesopotamia where the fabric 
was first made. 

Mustio — moscio. 

Hutin — meute. 


Na — donno. 

Nabisso — ahisso. 

Nabot Fr. a dwarf. Perhaps from O. N. nahhi (E. knob). 

Nacar — nacchera. 

Nacehera gnacchera It., Sp. nacar a, Fr. nacre, O. Fr. nacaire, 
M. Sp. nacar J It. naccaro mother of pearl , pearl - oyster shell, 
It. O.Fr. also cymbal, castanet, Pr. necari; an oriental word, 
ILxxvdi.nakara (Sk.nakhara a nail?). V. Pott, HoferV Zeitschr. 
2, 354. 

Nacelle Fr. a little boat ; from navicella. 

Naehe — natica. 


IJ"acre — nacchera. 

Nada Sp. Pg., Occ. nado = L. nihil. From res nata, O. Fr. 

nms nee, cf. It. wi///« for nulla cosa, once commonly used with 

non whence its negative force, cf. rien &c. Sp. nadie, 0. Sp. 

nadi = nemo, to the plur. form (cf. O. Sp. essi for esso &c. 

from nado. The Gasc. has nat fem. yi^^«. Sp. Pg. nonada (f . 

a trifle = non -nihil. 
Wage Fr. in phrase ^/re ^w w^z^^ to sweat = etre en age, age =. 

an old form of eau q. v. 
Nager Fr. to swim , O. Fr. also to sail ; from navicare. 
Naguela 0. Sp. hut; from mag alia magaila maguela, n for m^ cf. 

Naibo — naipe. 

Naie O. Fr. = O. N. nei, G. nS, E. nay. 
Naif Fr. natural , artless , ingenuous ; natif native ; from nativus, 

It. nativo natio natural. Naif 2X^0 == foolish, cf. silly, innocent, 

simple &c. 
Naipe Sp. Pg. (m.), It. naibo a playing-card; from the initials 

of the inventor Nicolao Pepin , or , according to Mahn , from 

the Arabic naib a representative, the four suits (spade, coppe, 

denari, bastoni) being representatives of the four classes of 

warriors , priests , merchants and labourers ? 
Nalga — natica. 
Nans (pi.) 0. Fr. pledges, furniture, also namps, L. L. namium, 

hence nanlir to give a pledge, nantissement security; from 

O. N. ndm seizure, M. H. G. nam (G. nehmen to take) cf. Sp. 

Pg. prenda from prendere. 

Nappe Fr. tablecloth (E. napkin, napron = apron), from mappa 
(cf. naguela). Only in the Fr. ; Sp. has manteles, the It. tova- 
glia, but Piedm. mapa, Neap, mappina a towel. 

Naranja — arancio. 

Narguer Fr. to mock ; = naricare. Sbst. L. L. nario subsannans, 

whence 0. H. G. narro, G. narr a fop, Com. nar, cf. Basq. 

narra foppish. Rou. naquer to smell is for narquer. Narquois 

sneering is from narquois slang (prop, nasal, sneering talk) 

with same suffix Sispat-ois, clerqu-ois. 
Narquois — narguer. 
Narria Sp. sledge; from B. narra. 
Nasitort — nasturzio. 
Naspo — aspo. 
Nastro It. ribbon, Com. nasiola, Wall, ndle; from 0. H. G. 

nestila, G. nestel band. 

Nasturzio It. &c., L. nasturtium, Ven. nastruzzo, Fr. nasitort, 
N. Pr. nastocen, Sp. mastuerzo , Pg. mastruco, Sic. mastrozzu, 
Sard, martuzzu, Pied, bistorce, L, nasturtium = nasitortium 


quasi a naso torquendo. Cat. is morritort {morro = nose). It. 

also crescione, Sp. berro. 
Nata Sp. Pg. Cat. cream. Plin. 28; 9. quod ^\\\)eYnatat, butp'um 

est. It should have a dy but it might then have been confused 

with nada nought. 
Natiea It.^ Sp. nalga^ Pr. nagga, O. Fr. nache nage buttock, 

L. L. natica; from natis, as cutica from cutis, auca from avis 

(v. oca), 
Natte Fr. a mat, 0. Fr. nate; from matta L. L. Hence also Du. 

natte, It. matta. Cf. nappe. 

Nauelero — nocchiero. 

Naut Pr. high, sbst. nauteza; from in alto, cf. Wal. nalt and 
inalt, and ninferno. 

Nava Sp. Pg. a plain. A pure Basque word found in Navarre. 

Navaja Sp., Pg. navalha razor; from novacula. 

Naverare It. in innaverare inavcrare to bore , wound , Pr. Cat. 
nafrar , Fr. navrer (espec. in metaph. to break the heart); 
sbst. Pr. nafra. Norm, navre a wound; from 0. H. Gr. ndba- 
ger, Gr. naber, Du. neviger neffiger, N. nafar an auger. 

Navet Fr. a turnip; from napus, It. navone. 

Naviglio navilio navile It., Pr. navili, O. Fr. navile (navilie), Fr. 

navire (cf. concire from consilium, Basire from Basilius), O. Fr. 

also navirie f. Navile from navis, as civilis from civis. 

Navio Sp. Pg. a large ship; from navigium, Pr. navigi navei. 

Navio in the Gipsy language = body, cf. It. cassero. 
Navire — navilio. 
Ne Fr. from O. Fr. non. Nenni = O. Fr. nen- il = Pr. non il = 

non illud, v. oui and R. Gr. 2, 401. 
Ne — indi. 

Neanmoins neant — niente. 
Nebli Sp., Pg. nehri a falcon, Ar. nahli. Perhaps from Ar. nabl 

arrow or nahil noble. 
Nee — nido. 
Nedeo — netto. 
Neel — niello. 
Nefle — nespola. 
Nega9a — ahagaza. 
Negare Ven. (Mil. Gen. nega), Pr. negar, Fr. noyer, Rh. nagar 

to drown; from necare which in L. L. has the Rom. meaning. 

Cf. E. starve from sterben. It. has annegare, Sp. Pg. anegar 

from enecare, Wal. inneca. The Sansk. nac (= neco) has also 

the special sense of perishing by droAvning. 

Negromante nigromante It., Sp. Pg. nigromante , Wald. nigro- 
mant, Pr. nigromancid , Fr. necromancien , E. necromancer ; It. 
negromancia, Pr. nigromansia, O. Fr. nigremance j ingremance 


&c. ; from vexQo^avng^ vsxQO^avtsia. The form with i points 

to m'ffer, cf. Sp. magia nagra (^= ntgromancia) black art. 
Neguilla — niello. 
Neige Fr. snow, from adj. niveus nivea; O.Fr. ncif, Pr. neu from 

nix nivis, 
Neis ■ — nessuno. 

Neleit neleg Pr. fault, mistake; from sbst. neglecius. 
Nema Sp. a seal; from vrj^a thread, on which, when wrapped 

round the letter, the seal was placed. 
Nemon Sp. hand of a sun-dial; from gnomon, 
Nemps Pr. adv. from L. nimis. 
Nenhum — niuno. 
Nenhures Pg. adv. for L. nusqimm ; froni nee uM as nenhum from 

nee imus. Cf. dlgures, 
Nenni — ne. 

Neo It. mole; from ncevus. 
Nervio Sp., Cat. nirvi, Pr. nervi nerve, Sp. nervioso, Cat. nirvios. 

Pr. nervios nervous; from nervium (vevqlov) used by Varro 

and Petronius. 
Nesga Sp. Pg. gore, gusset; from nexus. 
Nespera — nespola. 
Nespola It., Sp. Pg. nespera y Cat. nespla, Fr. nefle (f = p) 2i 

medlar (= meslarj; from mespilum, with the common change of 

m to 71, cf. nappe &c. O.Sp. has mespero, B.mizpira, Wsill.mess. 
Nessuno It., O. It. nissuno, Pr. neis-un, 0. Fr. nes-un nis-un 

= L. nullus. From Pr. neis, 0. Fr. neis nis, from ne ipsimi, 

and un unus, so = not even one. 
Netto It., Sp. neto, Pg. nedeo, Pr. Fr. net clear pure; from nitidiis. 
Niais — nido. 
Wibbio It. kite, Dauph. nibla; from milvus tnilvius, m passing 

into n , V into h, 
Niechio It. oyster; from mytilus, or mitulus, as secchia from si- 
tula, vecchio from vetulus, n for m as in nespola &c. In the fem. 

we have It. nicchia, Fr. E. niche, whence Sp. Pg. nicho, G. 

nische. Hence It. vb. rannicchiare to shrink in like a muscle, 

se recoqiiiller to crouch. 
Nice Fr. fool; from nescius , Pr. nesci, Sp. 7iecio, For E. nice, v. 

Niche — nicchio. 
Niche — nique. 
Nicher Fr. to nestle, O.Fr. niger nigier; from nidificare , dc 

(nidfcare nidcareJ=hothch andg, 'N.'Pr. nisd from nis=nidus. 
Nichetto niccolino It. a precious stone; from onyx onychis, Sp. 

onique. Cat. oniquel. 
Nicho — nicchio. 
Nido It. Sp., Fr. nid, Pr. niu nieu, Rh. ignieu nest, from nidus; 


It. nidio, from nidulus nid'his; Pg. ninho, Com. nin from dim. 
nidinus. Hence also It. nidiace nestling, dolt, Fr. niais, E. 
nice (or = Fr. nice), nias, = a L. nidax. The Pr. niaic is 
formed with the suffix ac, so too, probably, with suffixes, 
the Sp. niego (for nidego), Pg. ninhego. From the Sp. comes 
Pr. nee, whence Fr. nigaud. 

Niece Fr., E. niece. L. neptis, to give it a more decided f. aspect, 
became nepta in Rom., Pr. nepta, Sp. nieta, Pg. Cat. neta. The 
Fr. took a form neptia, niece, Pr. /z^^5«^ It. nezza (rare). From 
the m. nepos come f. nepota, Pr. Cat. neboda , Wal. nepoate, 

Niego • — nido. 

Niello It., Sp. Pr. niel, 0. Fr. w^^/, Fr. nielle (m.) dark inlaid 
work, enamel on gold or silver, L.L. nigellum; vb. It. niellare, 
Sp. Pr. nielar, O. Fr. noeler, E. Siuneal, L. L. nigellare; from 
L. dim. nigellus. Hence also It. nigella, Sp. neguilha, Fr. «2W/e 
(f.) smut, blight, in Fr. and Sp. also = fennel - flower. 

Niente It., Pr. neien nien, Fr. neant = L. nihil; from ens entis 
with negative prefix 7ie or nee. Hence Fr. ne'anmoins = It. 
niente dimeno. 

Nififa niffo niffolo It. (Flor.), Rh. gni/f beak, Pr. nefa; from 
A. S. E. Du. neb, L. G. nibhe nif, 0. N. nebbi nef. Hence Lim. 
nifla, Pic. nifler, Fr. renifler to sniff, Rou. niflete snuffler, Lim. 
niflo nostril, Sw. nijfen to turn up the nose, ^2iY, niffeln, 
Piedm. nufie = G. s-niiffeln , E. snuffle. 

Nigaud — nido. 

Nimo It. (Prov.), Sard. 7iefnus (cf. cummegus =■ con meco), Wal. 
nime nimenea nobody, from nemo. 

Ninferno — abrigo. 

Ninguem Pg. nobody ; from nee quern. 

Ninguno — niuno. 

Ninho ninhego — nido. 

Ninno ninna It., Sp. niho nina a child , infant. It. ninna nanna 
(also in Sp. and Pg.) = a lullaby. It. ninnare to rock to sleep 
with a lullaby, N. Pr. nind to go to sleep. Lomb. nana = 
child and cradle (Fl. andare a nanna to go to bed), Sp. hacer 
la nana to sleep, Sp. nana also = nurse, mother; Cat. nen 
nena infant. Yen. nena nurse, Lim. ?iaina cradle. Words of 
the nursery are very primitive, and with the series under 
review may be compared vvvviov = a lullaby (Hesychius). 
For forms like ninna-nanna cf. Lomb. ginna- gianna a child's 
game, litta-latta swing. Like tcoqti and L. pupilla so Sp. nina. 
Cat. Pr. nina ^= the pupil of the eye; cf. Pg. menina, Ven. pu- 
iina, Romag. bamben. Sic. vavaredda (from vava v. bava), Pic. 
papare, Pr. anha the pupil = prop, little lamb. 

Nippe Fr. (only in plur.J ornaments , apparel , nipper to fit out ; 
from Du. nijpen, E. nippers, nip. 


Nique Fr. in f aire la nique to nod at, laugh at, jeer; from Gr. 

nicken to nod. So also faire une niche to play a trick. 
Nitrire It. to neigh; from hinnitus (hinnitrus), aniirire from 

Niuno It.; Sp. ninguno, Pg. nenhiim, Pr. negun nengun neun, Wal. 

nici un, = nee unus, in Wal. neque unus. In O. It. neuno, O. 

Sp. nenguno, O. Pg. neun, Cat. ningu, Rh. nagin, Com. negun 

nigun. O. Fr. nun, Champ, nune part = nulle part; from ne 

Niveau nivel — libello. 

Noeea It. knuckle; from M. H. G. knoche, G. knochen, 
Nocchiere It., Sp. nauclero, O. Sp. naochero nauchel, Pr. naucler 

naucliier, Fr. nocher pilot, ferryman; from nauclerus {yavKXri- 

Qog) used by Plautus. 
Nocehio It. kernel, knot; from nucleus, Sp. nucleo, 
Nocher — nocchiere. 
Noel Fr. Christmas , from natalis, Pr. 0. Sp. nadal, for nael as 

poele ioY paele R. Gr. 1, 164. 
Noer — notare. 
Noise Fr., Pr. nausa, Cat. nosa quarrel, bustle, noise. From 

nausea disgust, vexation, or, better, from noxa. 

Noja It., Sp. enojo enoyo, Pg. nojo, Pr. enuei enoi, Fr. ennui; vb. 
It. nojare &c., E. annoy. From in odio in the phrase est mihi 
in odio, cf . It. hajo, Sp. hayo, Pr. hai from hadius. The O. Ven. 
has : plu te sont a inodio = It. piu ti sono a noja. Cf . It. na- 
Msso, ninferno, ingordo. 

Nolo naulo It. v^^hence nauleggio, Fr. nolis, 0. Sp. nolit freight; 
vb. noleggiare, Fr. noliser; from naidurh. 

Nomble Fr. (f.) haunch of venison; from lumhulus. V. Pott: 

Etym. Forsch. 2, 100. 
Nombre Sp. name, O. Sp. nomne; from nomen, cf. hombre. 
Nombril — ombelico, 
Nonada — nada, 
Nonnain — nonno. 
Nonno It. grandfather, nonna grandmother, Pr. nona, Fr. nonne 

nonnain = E. nun, Lorr. nonnon, N. Pr. nounnoun uncle; from 

L. L. nonnus nonna (Hieronym.). Fr. nonnain is from an ace. 

nonnam, as putain from putam. Sp. nono = decrepit. 
Norabuena — or a (l). 

Nord Fr., whence It. Sp. norte; from A. S. nordh, E. north. 
Norvis O. Fr. Norwegian, from the name of the people Norvegr, 

also = proud, isolent. From the Fr. Normans we have re'ponse 

normande = equivocal, ambiguous answer. 

Nosche 0. Fr. (also nusche), Pr. noscia buckle; from 0. H. G. 

318 NOTARE — O. 

Notare It.; O. Fr. noer, Rh. nudar, Wal. /w-wo/«f to swim; o for 
a, hence It. diphthong in pres. nuoto. 

Nourrain Fr. brood, fry; from nutrimeiHy Pr. noirim, so for 

Novero It., vb. annoverare; from numerus, numerare. 

Novio Sp.; Pg. noivo, Cat. Pr. novi newly married man, f. iiovia 
noiva; from novus nova (nova nupta). Pr. sbst. novias, L. L. 
nobioe is used only in pi. after the analogy of nupiice. 

Noyau Fr. kernel ; from nucalis, Pr. nogalh. Ducange derives 
it from nodus nodellus, cf. boyau from hudellus, O. Fr. nou, 
novel, noiel, noyal, noyau, E. newel, noel, nowel the column 
round which the steps of a circular stair case wind, Fr. 
noyau d'escalier, 

Noyer — negare, 

Nualh Pr. worthless, only found in comp. nualhor, O. Fr. neut. 
7iualz and ?iuallos, O. Fr. nueillos; from ?iugalis (Grellius) nu- 

Nuance — nuer. 

Nuea It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. nuque nape of the neck. {Cervix is 
found in all the languages, but not in common use. Instead, 
various words have been introduced: It. collottola, cotiula, Sp. 
cogote, pescuezo, pestorejo, tozuelo, Pr. nozador, Fr. chignon, 
O. Fr. haterel. Wall, hanet, Wal. ceafe gut &c.) Not, perhaps, 
from nux nucis though the Sicilians call it nuci (noce), duca 
from dux being peculiar. There seems to be a connexion 
between neck, nuca &c. and nick, notch, Du. nocke , cf. cran. 
Nuca may, however, be from 7iux and have taken its form to 
distinguish it from noce, for Du. nocke is rather = It. nocca 
knuckle, Lomb. gnucca nape (It. denoccolare to behead). 

Nuer Fr. to shade ; from nue = nuhes. Hence nuance. 

Nuitantre O. Fr. adv. = noctu, L. L. noctanter on the analogy 
of cunctanter. As soventre from sequente, so nuitantre from 
7ioctante, cf. nuitamment = noctante mente. It. has nottare an- 
nottare, Fr. anuitier. 

Nuora It., Sp. nuera, Pg. Pr. 7iora, O. Fr. nore, Wal. nore. From 
nurus with fem. termination, L. L. nora, 

Nuque — nuca. 

Nutria • — lontra. 


O od It., Sp. u, Pg. ou, Pr. oz, Fr. ou, Wal. an, from avt. 

Hence It. ovvero = aut veriim, 
O O.Fr. Pr. pronoun from h.hoc; in comp. O.Fr. avoc (cf. avec), 

poroc, sinoc. 


Obbliare It., Pr. 0. Sp. oblidar, Fr. ouhlier, Sp. Pg. olvidar; 
freqiientative form from ohlivisci ohlitus. Sbst. It. obblio, Pr. 
oblit, Fr. oubli, Sp. olvido, fern. It. ohblia, Pr. oblida. As the 
It. does not usu. syncopate a t, it probably got the word from 
the Fr. Scordarsi and dimenticare are more commonly used. 

Obsequias Sp. Pr., Fr. obsdqucs, E. obsequies; from obsequice for 
exsequim, some reference being made to the obsequium of the 
attendant friends. 

Obus Fr. (hence Sp. obuz); from Gr. haubitze (E. howitzer), in 
15*'^ cent, haufnitz, from Bohem. haufnice a sling. 

Oca It. Sp. Pg.; Fr. o/e, with more primitive form Sp. Pr. Rh. 
auca, 0. Fr. ow^. Wall, aive, Berr. oc/^^ goose. From avica 
(avis), cf. natica, L. L. culica , caudica, It. mollica. In the 
Glossaries we find Tttrjvov. As the most useful domestic bird 
was called the bird ^^par excellence'^; so oxen were designated 
by the term aumaille = animalia. For other transitions from 
the general to the specific; QS..jument, mouton. Fr. dim. oison, 
cf. clercon from clerc. In Limous. we find a masc. aiic, Veron. 
ocO;, Crem. ooc^; Lim. also ooutzar = a Fr. oisard, 

Oetroyer — otriare. 

Oeillet Fr. a pink ; from oeil, 

Oes — uopo. 

Ogan — uguanno. 

Oggi It.; Rh. oz, Sp. ^oy^ Pg. /?o;"^, Pr. huei, O.Fr. ^w/ adv. from 
hodie. Hence It. oggimai omai (=: oimai, cf. oi in ancoi) not 
for ormai; Pr. hueimais; It. oggidt, Sp. /?o?/ (?/^^ Fr. aujourdliui; 
O. It. «/iC02 V. s. anclie. 

Ogni It.; O.It. own?, from omnis, O. Ven. omia. The ^w originated 
either in ogn-uno = omnis unus, or in ogtia =^ omnia. 

Ogre ogro — orco. 

Oibo It.; Com. aibai sua. interjection; perhaps the Gk. ccipot. 

Oie — oca. 

Oignon Fr.; Pr. uignon, E. onion. From nnio (Columella). 

Oille — olla. 

Oindre Fr. part, oint , whence E. anoint, ointment; from nngere. 
It. untare, sbst. imto from unctus. 

Oiseau — uccello. 

Oisif Fr. idle; from otium, with adjectival term, -ivus instead of 

Ola Sp. Cat.; Fr. houle Qi asp.) wavC; surge; from the CeltiC; W. 
hoewal, Bret. houl. O. Fr. vb. holer to surge ; sway. 

Oleandro It.; Sp. oleandro eloendro, Pg. eloendro loendro, Fr. 
oleandre, E. oleander. In L. L. lorandum a corruption Qirho- 
dodendrum through laurus, I being afterwards mistaken for 
the article and dropped. 

Olifant O. Fr. (1) elephant (2) ivory (3) a wind-instrument; Pr. 

320 OLLA k, 

oUfan = (1); Du. olifant, E Hfant, Com. oUphans, "W. 

oliffant. Corrupted from elephas, -uutis, as also is It. liofante. 

Olla Sp. an earthen pot, whence Fr. oille; from L. olla, Pr. ola 
&c.; o//« podrida (pudrida putrid , ripe, seasoned) = Yv. pot 

Olore It., Sp. Pr. olor, O.Fr. olour odour; from L. olor (= odor) 
Varro ana Apuleius. 

Olvidar — obhliare. 

Olzina — elce, 

Omai — oggL 

Ombelico bellieo bilico, Wal. huric^ Sp. omhligo, Pg. umbigo 
embigo, Pr. omhelic umbrilh, Fr. nonibril navel; from umbilicus. 
From umbiliculus come umbrilh and nombril (by dissimilation 
for lombril with article, cf. Cat. llombrigoT). Cat. has a 2'"' 
form me//^. Navel = centre, so It. bilico = point of equili- 
brium, bilicare to balance. 

Omelette Fr. ; from ceufs miles, 

Ommaggio — uomo. 

On ■ — uomo. 

One onques — anche. 

Once — lonza, 

OneleFr. Pr. whence Yi. uncle (Wal. unchiu, Alban. unki). From 
avunculus, not from unculus (for avunculus), such aphseresis 
not being permissible in Fr. Avunculus was early used for 
pairuus, so G. oheim, A. S. eme = mother's brother. 

Onde It., O. Sp. ond , Pg. onde, Pr. oni on, Wal. unde; from 
ww^^. Hence It. Sp. Pg. donde, Pr. don, Fr. ^ow/ = de unde. 

Onire It., Pr. aunir, O.Fr. honnir {h asp.) to insult, shame; from 
Goth. Jiaunjan, O. H. G. honjan, G. hohnen to scoif. Sbst. It. 
owif^; Pr. «f/z/« (for auntd), Fr. honte, 0. Sp. fonta; from 0. H. 
G. honida, 0. Sax. honda shame, hence It. ontare, O. Sp. «/o;?- 
^«r, Pr. antar, 0. Fr. ahonter, hontoier, 

Onta — ow2>^. 

Ontano It. alder. Perhaps from the collective alnetum, Sp. al- 
nedo, Fr. aunaie, through a form alnetanus, cf. ^«/jy« topo, 
Sp. helecho from collective fdictum. Ven. is onaro, Mil. olnizza, 

Onza — lonza. 

Oppio It. a sort of poplar; from opulus (Varro) ior populus? 

Oqueruela Sp. a tangled thread; from Basque oquertzea to twist. 

Or a It. &c., L. hora. L. L. bona hora, mala hora r= It. in buon' 
ora, in maV ora, Sp. en buena hora, en hora buena, norabuena 
good luck, noramala ill luck, Pr. en bon' hora, 0. Fr. en bone 
heure, bone heure; so, at last, bona and mala alone. It. mal 
Inf. 9. 54, Purg. 4. 72, Par. 16. 140, Sp. en buena, Pr. bona, 
O. Fr. bon bor mal mar, O. Pg. bora, Pg. embora (the r from 


hord). Hora and augurium meet, e. g. en bona or a (a la tonne 

heure) = en bon aiir. 
Ora It., Sp. Pg. hora, 0. Sp. oras, Pr. ora or as or, O. Fr. ore 

ores or, Fr. or, adv. from 7?or«. The Pr. has the forms ara 

aras ar, era eras er, Rh. er. Among the compounds are: Sp. 

ahora, Pr. aoras adoras, O.Fr. a ore. It. a ora from ad horam; 

Fr. alors. It. allora from ad illam horam; Fr. /or5 from ilia 

hora; 0. Sp. Pg. agora from ^«fc ^or«; It. ancora, 0. Sp. ^w- 

cara, Pr. encara enquera, Fr. encore, from ^«;zc horam; (3, Fr, 

unquore uncore, from unquam hora; O. Sp. esora, from ^p^ar 

/iorflj; Pr. (/wor^ ^wor, Rh. cwr« cw^;, from ^wo? or«, 0. Fr. cor. 
Ora oreggio orezzo — aura. 
Orafo It. goldsmith ; from aurifex, 
Orage ore orear oreo — aura. 
Orange — arancio. 
Orbaeca It. laurel berry; for lorhacca from laurihacca, R. Gr. 

1 , 240. 
Orbo It., Pr. orb dorp, O. Cat. O. Fr, Wal. orb blind, a meaning 

which Isidorus considers to be the original one of the L. or- 

bus. Cf. Apul. en orba Fortuna. 
Oreo It., Neap. huorcOj O, Sp. huergo uerco, Sp. ogro, Fr. E, 

ogre, A. S. ore; from Orcus. Sp. ^w^rco = mournful , and 

sbst. = skeleton. 
Orda It., Fr. E. horde (h asp.) a roaming body of Tatars ; G. 

horde, Alhan. hordi , Russ. orda &c. ; an Asiatic word, ordu 

or Urdu. 
Ordalie (f.) Fr. orcTeal; from L. L. ordalium, which from A, S. 

orddl (n.) = G. urtheil (ur out and theil part = a setting forth 

of parts). 0. Fr. had or del (m.). 
Ordenar Sp., Pg. ordenhar to milk; another form of ordenar to 

put in order, so = prop, to bring a cow into good order or 

condition , cf . Lim. odzusta to milk = Fr. ajuster. 
Ordo It., Pr. ort, O. Fr. Pic. ord ugly, dirty; Pr. ordeiar, 0. Fr. 

ordoier to soil; It. Pr. ordura, Fr. E. ordure. From horridus, 

cf. Pr. or?'e (f. orreza i. e. orreda) = ort, vb. orrezar = or- 
deiar. But W. makes ordo = lor do (luridus). 
Ordonner Fr. from ordinare (donner from donner tordre); O.Cat, 

ordonar, but O. Fr, ordener, N. Cat. Pr. Sp. Pg. ordenar. 

Ordnance = ordinance. 
Orecehia orecchio It., Wal. ur cache ureche (f.), Sp. oreja, Pg. 

Pr. orelha, Fr. oreille ear; from auricula ear-lap, ear. 
Oreille — orecehia. 

Orendroit O. Fr., Pr. orendrei temporal adv., from or en droit, 
Orfevre — forgia. 
Orfraie Fr. (f.) osprey ; from ossifraga, It. ossifrago, Sp. osifrago, 

Fr. ossifrague, E. ossifrage, osprey (with a reference to prey), 



Orfroi Fr., better orfrois, 0. Fr. orfrais, O. E. orfrays, Pr. aur- 
freSy 0. Sp. orofres a stuff worked with gold, gold lace, dim. 
O. Fr. orfrisiel, vb. orfroiseler. The L. L. has cmriphrigium, 
formed from aurum Fr. or and f raise frise, v. fregio. 

Orge — orzo, 

Orgoglio It., O, It. argogliOy also rigoglio, Sp. orgullo, 0. Sp. 
arguyo ergull, Pr. orgolh erguelh, O. Cat. argull, N. Cat. or gull, 
Fr. orgueil pride ; from O. H. G. urguoli, which from urguol 
insignis, cf. 0. Sp. adj. urgidloso. The root is found in the 
Sk. gur tollere. 

Orgueil — orgoglio. 

Oricalco It., Sp. auricalco, Fr. archal; from aiirichalcum , ori- 
chalcum Gr. 0QeC%akK0g. 

Oriflamme Fr., 0. Fr. also oriflamhe oriflant, Pr. auriflan, E. ori- 
flame, orig. the banner of St. Denis' monastery, a red flag on 
a gilded lance, then = the banner of an army. From aurum 
and flamma = a pendant, streamer (so called from its shape) 
cf. Veget. /lammula, 

Orilla — orlo. 

Orin — ruggine. 

Oripeau — orpello. 

Oriuolo It., Mil. reloeuri, Sp. relox, Pg. relogio, Pr. j^elotge 
clock, watch; from liorologium, Fr. horloge clock, montre 
watch (prop, indicator). 

Orlo It., Sp. orla orilla, 0. Fr. orle border, edge; a dim. from 
vra, which to distinguish it from hora, is in some languages 
treated as masc, Sard, orii, Lomb. oeur, Pr. or, O. Fr. or ur, 
Rh. ur (W. or f.). Vb. It. orlare, Sp. orlar, Fr. ourler to hem, 
border, ourlet a hem. Another word for rim is Pr. vora. Cat. 
})6ra, Val. vora, O. Fr. vore; perhaps la vora = la or a, cf. 
Cat. llavors = Sp. a la hora, Fr. lors. 

Orma It., Wal. urme a track; vb. ormare, Wal. lo^ma, Orma == 
perhaps, the Sp. husmo scent, track, husinar to track, 0. Fr. 
osme osmer, Lomb. Ven. usma usmare; from Gk. oa^ij^ da^d- 
ad'ai. The change of 5 to r in It. is unusual, but not more so 
unusual than the aphseresis of /, which would be necessary in 
deriving it horn, forma, cf. s. ciurma. 

Orme Fr. elm ; from ulmus. 

Orne O. Fr. adv. a orne "all together"; from ad ordinem. 

Orniere Fr. rut, track; from O. Fr. Pic. ordiere, wh. from 
orbit aria (orhita). Wall. ourMre. 

Orondado Sp. undulatory {orondo pompous) ; from undulatus on- 

dorado? Or from ol-andado (pla wave). 
Orpello It., Sp. oropel, Pr. ourpel, Fr. oripeau gold-leaf, tinsel; 

from aurum snidpellis, gold- skin. 


Orpimento It., Sp. oropimente , Fr. orpiment, orpin, E. orpiment; 
from auri pigmenium, 

Orteil — ariiglio. 

Oruga — ruca. 

Orvalho Pg. dew; from r or ale r or alia? The Gallic and Astur. 
have orhayo cold drizzling rain. 

Oscle O. Fr. Pr. a present (Burg, ode, oclage); L. L. osculum 
^^ donatio propter nnptias, quam solet sponsus interveniente osculo 
dare sponsce'^ Ducange. 

Oseille Fr. sorrel ; from o^aXig or o^dhog sour. 

Osier Fr. E., Berr. oisis, Bret, aozil; from Gk. olaog, which is 
connected with trca, ttvg^ vitex, with, Sk. vitika, from root 
ve (vieo). 

Oso Sp. bear, for orso from orsus, R. Gr. 1, 249. 

Ostaggio It., Sp. hostaje, Pr. ostatge, Fr. otage, E. hostage; L. L. 
hostagiiim hostaticum, It. statico; from ohsidaticum, which is 
from the L. obsidatus fobsesj. 

Oste It., Sp. hueste, Pg. hoste, Pr. O. Fr. ost, Wal. oaste an 
army, host, Pic. 05^ (pron. o) a flock. From hostis in L. L. = 
a host. The change of gender is remarkable ; L. L. fem.. It. 
masc. and fem., Sp. Pg. Wal. fem., O. Fr. fem. seldom masc. 
The fem. was perhaps used to distinguish it from the fol- 
lowing word. 

Oste It., Sp. huesped, Pr. hoste, Fr. hote (E. host), Wal. ospet = 
host and guest; from hospes. Hence It. ospitale, ospedale, spe- 
dale, spitale (whence G. E. spital, Sp. Pr. E. hospital, Fr. hopi- 
tal, L. L. hospitale; It. contr. ostale, Sp. Pr. hostaly O. Fr. E. 
hostel (hosteller = ostler). It. ostello, Fr. hotel. 

Ostico disagreeable or sour to the taste, sour, morose; from 
avGxog (avOtrjQog). 

Ostugo Sp. (l) track (2) corner, hiding-place. From B. ostuquia 
stolen (Larram.). 

Otage — ostaggio. 

Oter Fr., Pr. ostar to take away, E. oust. Ducange derives it 
from obstare, obstare viam = oter le chemin, the notion of 
hindering easily passing into that of depriving. Others from a 
L. haustare a frequent, of haurire, N. Pr. austd, cf. O. Fr. 
doster, Berr. doter , Lim. doustd from dehaurire. Haustare, 
however, is not found in L. L., and N. Pr. austd is usu. con- 
nected with hausser. 

Otero Sp., outeiro Pg. hill; L. L. oterum auterunij from alius, = 
altarium raised altar, cf. It. adj. altiero, 

Otorgar — otriare. 

Otriare It., Sp. otorgar, Pg. outorgar, Pr. autorgar, autreyar, Fr. 
octroyer to allow, ^rant; from auctoricare (for auctorare) to 
authorise; the Fr. is thus nearer the orig. than the 0. Fr. 



otroier. Hence Sp. ortogo (contract), Pr. autore mitrei, Fr. 
octroi (grant, toll). 

Ottarda It., Sp. avutarda, Pg. dbetarda hetarda, Pr. austarda, 
Fr. outarde, Champ, histarde, E. bustard. Not from otis (attg) 
with suffix ard, but from avis tarda, which Pliny (H. N. 10, 
22) gives as the name of the bird in Spain. Sp. avutarda con- 
tains a repetition of avis, u- tarda for o- tarda and ave, as in 
av - estruz, 

Ottone It., Sp. laton alaton, Cat. llauto, Fr. laiton, Norm, laturif 
0. E. latoun, latten. From It. latta a plate of metal, cf. Sp. 
plata plate , silver. In Piedm. Mil. Com. Ven. loton; the / has 
been mistaken for the article and dropped in It. ottone. Some 
derive it from skaxQOv (JXavvQa), cf. lamina, 

Ou — 0. 

bu — ove. 

Ouaiche Fr. (m.) course, track of a ship. Also ouage = Sp. 
aguage current = aquagiunu 

Ouaille Fr. sheep ; from ovicula, Sp. oveja, Pr. ovelha oelha, Ovis 
is found in the 0. Fr. oue wether, Wal. oae. Ouaille is now 
used only in fig. sense, being superseded by hrehis, It. pecora. 

Ouais — guai. 

Ouate — ovata. 

Oublie Fr. a cake; from ohlate (for ouhlaie), from its resemblance 
to the sacramental wafer. 

Oublier — ohbliare. 

Ouche ousche 0. Fr. terra arabilis; L.L. olca, prob. a primitive 

L. word: campus tellure fecundus, tales enim incolce olcas vocant 

Greg. Tur. ; cf . aXxa (ace), coXa^ a furrow. 

Quest Fr. (0. Fr. west), whence Sp. ovest; from A. S. vest, E. 

Qui Fr., Pr. oc affirmative particle. Pr. is from L. hoc, which, 

shortened into o becomes, with the addition oiillud, the O.Fr. 

o'il, whence Fr. oui, used by Moliere and others as a dissyllable. 

With this use of hoc cf. L. ita, sic (from demonstr. roots), Gk. 

ravta. In O.Fr. we also find o/^, Wall. awoi. Oil corresponds 

to nenil v. ne, 
Ouragan — uracano. 
OuTler — orlo. 
Outarde — ottarda. 

Outil Fr., O. Fr. ostil ustil, Wall, usteie (== sl Fr. outille). U ten- 
sile would have given ousil. Is it from usatellum a dim. of It. 

usato, cf. Com. usadel, Mil. usadei (kitchan utensils), O. Fr. 

ustil = Pic. otieu (ieu == ell). Eou. otil = knitted work = 

opus textile? 
Outreeuidance — coitare. 


Ouvrir Fr., Pr. obrir, ubrir, O. It. oprire to open. Whence the 
0? the It. has aprire, Sp. ahrir from aperire, Ovrir (= ouvrir) 
is prob. a shortened form of O. Fr. a- ovrir, a-uvrir, this for 
aduhrir, which, with pref. a (as in ahlasmar afranher), is from 
de-operire to uncover, open (CeJsus), cf. N. Pr. durbir, Piedm. 
durvi, Wall, drovi. Mil. Com. dervi, Crem. darver = de-aperire. 

Ovata It., Fr. ouate (Sp. huatd) wadding, padding. From ovum, 
cf. lornbo lonibata, giorno giornata, -ata denoting extension. 
The E. wad is rather from ouaie than the reverse, for the E. 
d would not become t in Fr. But Du. G. has watte, Swed. 

Ove It., 0. It. 0, u, 0. Sp. 0, O. Pg. ou, Pr. o, Fr. ow where; 
from uhi. Hence It. dove, Fr. d^ou. 

Ove Fr. from ovum. It. uovolo, Sp. ovillo, 

Ovvero — o. 

Oxala Sp., Pg. oxala interj. =L. utinam; from Ar. inschd alldh 
(in if, schd wills, alldh God); n was lost, and i took the 
interj ectional form o. 


Pabellon — padiglione, 

Pabilo Sp., Pg.pavio, Ssird. pavilu , Vr.pabil, Bh.pavaigl, W. 
pahwyr wick of a candle, snufF; from pahvlum, cf. esca = 
tinder. Mil. pahi = L. pabulum. 

Paceiare It. in impacciare, Sp. Pg. Pr. empacher, Fr. empecher 
(E. impeach) to hinder; sbst. It. impaccio, Sp. Pg. empacho, 
Pr. empach, Rh. ampaig; It. dispacciare spacciare, Sp. Pg. des- 
pachar, Fr. ^e')?^c^^r to release , despatch. Impactare, a freq. 
of impingere, would give Sp. Pr. empachar, and Fr. empecher 
(oi.flechir from fleeter e, delecher from delectare); It. impacciare 
would require impactiare. This deriv. is supported by the Pr. 
forms empaitar empaig (cf . faita faig from facta factum) and 
by the meaning "to ingraft" (impingere), 

Pacco It., Fr. paquet, Sp. paquete a packet ; from Du. pak or E. 
pack = Gael. pac. V. baga. 

Pada Pg. a loaf; from panada, padeiro baker = Sp. panadero. 

Padiglione It., Sa,Yd. papaglioni , Sip. pabellon, Vr.pabalhd, Fr. 
pavilion, E. pavilion, W.pabell, 0. Fr. pupall; {rompapilio = 
pavilion in L. L. The O. Fr. paveillon has the meaning "but- 
terfly". For the It. form cf. R. Gr. 1, 164. 

Padule It. marsh; a corruption oi paludem, L. h.padulis. 0. Sp. 
has paul (cf. Ssird.pauli), paular^ Vg.paul. W&L padure forest 
= padule. 


Faese It., Sp. Pg. pat's (from the Fr. ?), Pr. paes, Fr. pays, from 
a form pagensis (pagus); O. Sip. pages, Pr. pages, L. L. p«- 
gensis a farm. Hence It. paesano, Sp. Pg. paisano, Fr. paysan, 
E. peasant. 

PaflPuto — ji?«/?«. 

Paflon — plafond. 

Fagano It. Sp., Pg. pagdo, Pr. pagan pay an, Fr. pai'en, Wal. 
pegen, Bonem. pohan, E. pagan; from paganus, prop. == a 
countryman , rustic ; the name was given in the time of Con- 
stantino to those of the old creed who, to avoid persecution, 
fled to the country, cf. G. heide, 0. H. G. heidan, Goth. fem. 
haithno, E. heathen, from Goth, haithi, E. heath. 

Fagare It., Sp. Pg. pagar, Pr. pagar payar, Fr. payer, E. pay, 
sbst. It. Sp. Pg. Pr. paga, Fr. pate,; from pacare to 
appease, settle, cf. s. cheto. 

Faggio It., N. Pr. pagi, Fr. E. page TSp. page from the Fr.); 
from TtaidCov. Brought to Italy by tne Byzantines, or Crusa- 
ders. L. L. is pagius. 

Faglia It., Sp. paja, Pg. Pr. palha, Fr. paille, Wal. paie straw ; 
from palea. Hence Pr. paillola bed; F. pallet; Fr. paillasse; 
paillard lewd ; Pg. espalhar to strew , scatter. 

Faillard paille — paglia. 

Fairar Pg. to hold out, endure a storm, distress &c., to hesitate, 
be irresolute, temporise, naut. to tack, lie to (also Sp.). Not 
from parar to parry , though a may become at in Pg. , cf . 
plaina, mainel, esfaimar, but from Basque pairatu to bear, 
endure, hold out, whence the notion of temporizing &c. Com. 
paira, Piedm. paire, apaire. Gen. apajd, 0. Ven. apairar to be 
at leisure (hold off from business). These It. words would 
rather support the der. from parar. 

Faisseau Fr. vineprop ; from paxillus. 

Faja — paglia. 

Falabra — parola. 

Faladino Sp. public, open, plain, 0. Sp. vb. espaladinar. O. It. 
paladino open, fair (Ciullo d'Alcamo); hom. palam, though the 
mode of formation is not clear. The Paladins of Charlemagne 
were those, whose names were public and famous, or = Pa- 
latines (palatium). 

Falafreno It., Sp. palafren, Yx.palafrei, Yv. pale f rot, E. palfrey; 
from para-veredus side -horse, Ttaga and veredus (cf. jtagcc- 
(SsiQog), L. L. parafredus, whence also G. pferd, O. H. G. 
pherit, O. Sax. pererd. Palafreno got its spelling from frenum, 
Fr. has palafrenier groom. 

Palais Fr. palate. Not directly from palatum, but from palatium, 
in which was involved the notion of an arched roof. It. has 
il cielo delta bocca, Sp. el cielo de la hoca, Du. het gehemelte 


des monds, E. roof of the mouth, Gk., Conversely, 
Ennius has cceli palatum = sky. 
Palandra It., Sp. Pg. halandra, Fr. balandre a small ship for 
coasting, or for river or canal navigation; from L. G. binnen- 
lander (an m/«w^- trading ship). 

Palascio It. a kind of sabre, 0. Yr. palache ; = Russ. paldsch, 
Wsi\. palos, Unng. palos , cf. Bay sly, plotzen. 

Palco — balco. 

Palefroi — palafreno. 

Paleron Fr. shoulder-bone ; from pala, through an adj . palarius, 
so = a Pr. palairo. Sp. has pateta (also = palette). 

Paleto Sp. a fallow-deer. Yrompala, Si^.paleta, from its flat 
shovel -like antlers, hence its name in G. schaufel-hirsch. 

Palio It. vSp., Fr. pall, O. Fr.palipaile, IE,. pall; from pallium, 
also = the woollen or silken stuff, from which palls were 
made; cf. ciclaton, O. H. G. has phellolj M. H. Q^. pfellel p fel- 
ler (palliolum). 

Palla — halla. 

PalletotFr., O.Fr. palletoc, Sip.paletoque, Bret. paltdk, Burg, pal- 
toquai a clown (Fr. paltoquet); from palle-toque (hooded-coat). 

Palmiere It., Sp. p aimer o , 0. Fr. paumier, E. palmer; qui de 
Hierosolymis veniunt, palmam ferunt. Ducange. 

Paltone It. a beggar, vagrant, Pr. paltom; hence It. paltoniere, 
Pr. O. Fr. pautonier, whence M. H. G. paltanaere. For pali- 
tone from palitari (a frequentative of palari) used by Plant. 
Bacch. 5, 2, 5, and, probably, in the vulgar speech. Cf. ciar- 
lone from ciarlare, castrone from castrare &c. 

Paltoquet — palletot. 

Palurdo — lordo. 

Pamer — spasimo. 

Pampre Fr., Pr. pampol; from pampinus. 

Pan O. Fr. Pr. a piece of cloth (L. pannus. It. panno, Sp. pano), 
in O. Fr. also = something taken or seized, vb. paner, Pr. 
panar, Sp. apanar to take, seize, whence F. pawn and 0. H. 
Q.phant, O.Fris. pant a seizure (Gc. pf and a pledge, mort- 
gage), yh. penta Gi. pfdnden to distrain, pound, M.7Du. pant 
harm, loss. The Sp. verb, which also = to patch and to 
unwrap, clearly connects pan vfith. pannus paho. Besides pflfw^r 
we find panir pane'ir, espanir espaneir espanoir espenir espenoir 
to pay penalty, espanisseur an officer of justice. Pfand &c., 
according to Pott, are from L. panctum for pactum. From pan 
we have E. pane, dim. panel, Fr. panneau. It. pannello. 

Fana — panne. 

Panache (m.) a tuft of feathers, a plume; from penna, Si^. pe- 
nacho. It. pennacchio. 

Panca — banco. 


"PsiJicia, It. f S^, panza panclio, Vv.pansa, Yr.panse, Yi. paunch; 
from pantex panticis, Wal. pentece. Hence It. panciere, Sp. 
pancera, O. ¥r, panchire , Q. panzer, 

Pandura pandora It. , O. Sp. pandurria, ¥v. pandore, Sp. also 
handurria (Pg. bandurra), bandola, It. mandola, Fr. man dole 
mandore a stringed instrument, banjo; from pandura pandu- 
rium, Gk. TtavSovQa, L. 2X^0 pandoi'us , pandorium , according 
to some = IJavog dcQQOv. 

Paniere It., O. Si^. panero, Pr. ¥r. panier, Yi. pannier; irompa- 
narium a bread-basket (pants whence also paneterie, E. pantry 
and pantlerj. 

Panne Fr. whence Sp. pana velvet , O. Fr. pene , Pr. jienne pena, 
0. Sp. pena fur; iroYnpenna a translation of the M. H. G. fc- 
dere (feather) which was used for both pluma and penna. 

Panneau — pan. 

Pannoccliia It., S'p.panoja; irova panucula (Fest.) panucla (Non.) 
iov panicula a tuft, panicle (panus). 

Panse — pancia. 

Panser — peso. 

Pantalone It. a character on the Italian stage, Fr. pantalon^ E. 
pantaloon y also =: a garment worn by him; the name was 
brought from Venice, where pantalone (a common Christian 
name, L. Pantaloon, Gk. UavxccXeov) was used as a nickname. 

Pantano It. Sp. Pg. marsh, swamp; L. L. pantanum. Perhaps 
from Ttdtog ncctTj^a with n inserted as in pantofola. TheLomb. 
hs^s palta (Piedm. pauta), palian =^ pantano , which may be a 
corruption of polta pap (from jmls), for poitiglia = palta and 
polta, Rh. pantan ^= pultan. 

Panteler — pantois. 

Pantofola pantafola It., Wsi\.pa?ito/le, Si^. pantu/lo, Fr. pantonfle 
(f.) a slipper. The first part is, perhaps, patte a foot, since 
forms are found without the w, T>Vi. pattufel , Fiedm. pato/ie ; 
in the sense of a man of awkward, shuffling gait, Genev. pa- 
toufle, Roue. Norm, patouf, Fr. pataud. The Cat. has by a 
false dOiYiy .plantofa (planta) . The termination is prob.the same 
as in a glove from manupula (v. manopola), as foti- 
defte from fundibulum^ cf. Fr. emmitoiifler (amictus?) to muffle. 
Pantois Fr. breathless, sbst. Pr. j)antais, Val. pantaix, Cat. pan- 
tex breathlessness, Pr. also = distress; vb. O. Fr. panteiser, 
Pr. pantaisar, panteiar, N. Pr. pantaiged, Val. pantaixar, Cat. 
/?«n^ea;«r to be breathless , distracted, Fr. j»«w^o?>we/i/ asthma, 
panteler to cough. From E. panty which from W.pantu to press 
down, pant pressure (akin to Sk. root pad panth to go, tread), 
From the Pr. the 0. It. has vb. pantasare, Ver. pantesar, Ven. 
pantezare, Crem. panselaa (for paniaselaa) = Fr. panteler. 
Pant orr ilia Sp., Yg, panturrilha calf of the leg; prop. = little 


belly from pant- ex , for pantig-orra; cf. Cat. ventrell de la 

cama, L. venter cruris, Gk. ya^XQO-xvri^Lov , Rh. vantrigl 

Papa Fr. E., from papa, whence It. Sip. papa used for the native 

babbo and taita. The same word is the It. Sp. Tg. papa, Fr. 

pape, E. pope. The L. p^/?« pappa also = It. pappa, Wal. 

pape^ Sp. Pg. papa, O. Fr. papin papette , E. J9«j9, L. It. j9«/?- 

;?<zr^ to eat pap = Sard. J9«p«2 to eat (generally). It. pappo 

= bread, Sp. Pg. papo a morsel; also fowl's crop or craw 

(also papera), dewlap of oxen &c., Ven. Crem. papota papa 

fleshy cheeks ; papon papoto fat, fleshy, Sp. papudo double- 
chinned, also It. paffuto = papoto. Sic. baffii, cf. Pic. Norm. 

empafer to fill. The notion of crop may be partly from L. 

papula pimple, swelling, which in Sp. = tumour on the neck, 

in It. == swelling. 
Pape It. an miev]. = 'L. papce, Gk. %a7taC\ so Occ. babai = Gk. 

papav, L. babce. 
Papero It. gosling, cf. Sip. parpar to quack or cackle; an ono- 

matopoeion. Diefenbach compares the N. Gk. Ttaitia a duck. 

Cf. S^. paparo a simpleton, clown. 
Papier Fr. (Y,. paper) not directly ivom. papyrus but from an adj. 

papyrius, so iov papiir. The Sp. papel is from the sbst. 
Pappagallo It., Sp. Pg. papagayo, Pr. papagai, 0. Fr. papegai 

papegaut, Yi. popinjay, M. Gk. itaTtaydg, N. Gk. TtaTcdyaXXog. 

From papa priest and Fr. geai, E. Jay (or gallus). The Ar. 

bdbbaghd is from the Rom., cf. Ar. -^o^r^^= Hippocrates. Cf. 

Pappalardo It., Fr. papel ard a hypocrite; prop, one who aff'ects 

to be abstemious , but is , secretly, fond of bacon (pappe-lard). 

Other It. expressions are baciapile (kiss -pillar), stropiccione 

(besom, as sliding about on his knees), graffiasanti (saint- 

clawer), ^omco//o (neck -twister). 
Paque — pasqua. 
Paquet paquete — pacco. 
Par Fr. prep., 0. Fr. also per; from L. per, It. O. Sp. O. Pg. Pr. 

per, Wal. pre. The O. Fr. par in trop par dure too too hard &c., 

is the Lat. per in perdoctus, cf. Ter. Andr. 3; 2, 6. per ecastor 

scitus = perscitus. 
Par Fr. in the form de par le roi in the king's name = part, as 

it was also written in O. Fr. 
Para — por. 
Parafe (m.) Fr. a flourish with the pen in signatures &c.; from 

Gk. 7CaQdyQa(pog JtaQaygaqyij. 
Paraggio It., Pr. paratge, Fr. parage birth, lineage; prop. 

equality of birth, from^^ar, whence E. disparage. 
Paragone It., S^. paragon parangon, 0. Yv, parangon, Y. para- 


gon prop. = comparison. It is from the Span. ji?«r« con: e. g. 
la criatura para con el criador, not from the Greek. 

Parangon — par ag one. 

Parapet parapluie parasol — parare. 

Parare It., Pr. parar to hold out, stretch forth, Sp. jO«r«r in 
parar mientes animum advertere; also It. Fr. = E. parry, Sp. 
to stop, leave off, prevent. From the L. parare to prepare 
were derived the notions (1) of holding forth (prop, keeping 
in readiness) (2) of holding off, keeping off, parrying (prop, 
guarding, protecting, cf. defender e^. From the notion of 
guarding we get \i, par a -petto, whence Fr. Yi. parapet; from 
that of warding off. It. para-sole, Fr. E. parasol, It. paravento 
&c., ¥t. parapluie. Hence also It. riparare, Sp. reparar {^. 
repair^ remedy, take care of, sbst. riparo reparo, E. repair 
place of defence; It. comperare comprare, Wal. compera to 
buy; Sp. Pg. Pr. emparar amparar (cf. Sp. emhrollar amhrol- 
lar) to take seize, Fr. s'emparer to make oneself master of. 
It. imparare (like apprendere) to learn ; Fr. se remparer to in- 
trench oneself, sbst. rempart, E. rampart; It, spar are, Sp. dis- 
parar to discharge (agun). It. parare = also to make ready, 
adorn, Fr. parer (E. pare), whence parata , parade. 

Parbleu Fr., 0. Fr. parhieu, for par dieu with a common disguis- 
ing of the sacred name, cf. Sp. par diohre (= dios), Fr. morbleu. 

Paree — cio, 

Parehemin Fr., E. parchment; from pergamena , (charta), Gk. 
TtSQyaiiTJvrj f Pr. parguatnina &c., O. Fr. parcamin with an 
unusual change of the g into c, hence parehemin. 

Parco It., Sp. Pg. parque, Pr. pare pargue , N. Yv. pargou, par- 
gado, pargagi, Fr. pare (E. park) whence Fr. parquet, vb. 
parquer. L. L. has parens parricus, O. H. G. pfarrich pferrich, 
(j;,pferch, K,'^. pearruc pearroc, Qsiel. pdirc , W. pare and 
parwg. The Kom. words are derived from the Celtic, and the 
root is found in the Sk. prich conjungere, in the causative = 
colligare. Pare = enclosure, cf. TtoQxog a fishing-net, TtOQKTjg 
a hoop, W.perced a bow -net. 

Pardo Sp. Pg. dark - coloured , gray. From pallidus paldus par- 
dus; cf. escarpelo from seal pel lum, surco from sulcus; for the 
transition of meaning, cf. O. H. G. hleich pallidus (O.E. blake) 
with A. S. bide pallidus, niger, black, Gk. jtsXlog with nokiog. 
From pardo comes pardal gray sandpiper , cf . Rh. grischun. 

Parecchio It., Sp. parejo, Fr. pareil like, Wal. sbst. peredche 
peer; dim. from par, L. L. pariculus. It. plur. parecchi = 
several, prop. = several things of the same kind. Hence It. 
vb. apparecchiare, Sp. aparejar, Pr. aparelhar, Fr. appareiller, 
prop. = to pair (so still in Fr.), hence to combine, put together, 
prepare, apparel; shst. apparecchio &c.j 


Pareil parejo — parecchio. 

Parelle Fr. a plant, rumeXy XccTtad'OVj ^ip. paradela ; hompra- 
tum, cf. Hor. ^^herba lapathi prata amantis^K 

Paresse — pigrezza. 

Pargolo pargoletto ior parvolo parvoletto , v. R. Gr. 1, 187. 

Parias Sp., Pg. pareas (f. plur.) tribute paid by one prince or 
state to another; from h.parm equivalent, return, payment, 
cf. par pari respondere = pariare to pay, pay tribute. 

Parier Fr. to bet, to wager, L. \j. pariare to make like, prop, 
to set like against like, Pr. pariar = to divide, share equally, 
V. preced. 

Pariar pariare parier — parola, 

Parmi — mezzo, 

Parven Pr., O. It. patri'^w^e evident, Tr. parven, parvensa, It. par- 
venza appearance; from parere parens , v inserted to distin- 
guish it from parens a parent. 

Paroisse — parrocchia. 

Parola It., Sp. palahra, Pg. palavra (E. palaver), O.Pg. paravoa, 
Pr. O. It. O. Sp. par aula, Fr. parole; from parabola a parable, 
speech, word (so in early L. L.). It took the place of the L. 
verhum which , from religious scruples , was sparingly used 
(It. Sp. verbo, O. Sp. vierbo, Pr. verbi, Rh. vierf); the Wal. 
vorbe (f . as O. It. verba), however = parola. Vb. It. pariare, 
Sp. Pr. pariar, Fr. parier (E. parly, parliament), 0. Fr. paro- 
ler, L. L. parabolare , Fr. parloir in a nunnery = E. parlour. 

Parpado Sp. eye-lid; a corruption oi palpebra, Fr. paupiere &c. 

Parpaglione It., Vv. parpalhd, Lomb. parpaj parpaja butterfly; 
a corruption of papilio. Hence It. sparpagliare , Pr. espar- 
palhar, 0. Fr. esparpeiller, Fr. eparpiller, Sp. desparpajar to 
flutter, scatter; so N. Pr. esfarfalha from farfalla (q. v.) 
=^ parpalho. Other names are: It. farfalla, Sard, faghe fa- 
rina, parabatola , calagasu, Sp. mariposa, alevilla, Bresc. bar- 
bel, Pg. borboleta, Rh. bulla, Lorr. bouble &c. 

Parque — parco. 

Parrain Fr. godfather, Vy. pairin, Si^, padrino &c., L. h. pairi- 
nus. It would be more correctly written parrin. 

Parrocehetto It., Sp. periquito, Fr. perroquet, E. parroquet, par- 
rot. Prop. = priestling, from parochus, these birds being 
chiefly kept by ecclesiastics. The Sp. simple form perico, 
however, = Peterkin and parrot, is not from parochus y but is 
one of the many instances of names of .men transferred to 

Parrocchia It., Sp. Pr. parroquia, Yy. paroisse, E. parish; L. L. 
parochia a corruption (the spelling from parochus) of TtaQOima 
(parcecia in Augustine, ¥y. paroisse) j v, I)u.c. parochia. 


Part Pr. prep, for Lat. ultra, trans; from pars in the sense of 
district, side. 

Partigiana It., 0. Val. partesana, Fr. pertuisane, E. partisan; 
Rabelais has parthisanej so partnisanc borrowed, probably, its 
spelling from pertuis pertuiser to bore. The masc. partisan 
= the chief of a ti'oop of light -armed (It. partigiano , E. par- 
tisan^ and prob. gave the name to the weapon, cf. It. gialda 
from Pr. gelda infantry, It. mugavero, Sp. gineta lance from 
ginete horse-soldier. It. rubalda helmet from ruhaldo. 

Partire It., Sp. Pr. Fr. pariir to depart , with and without the 
pronoun, orig. only with it (0. Fr. se partir); irom. partiri , se 
partiri to part, 

Parvis Fr., O. Yi. parvise the fore -court or atrium of a church 
usually surrounded with cloisters, the cloister -garth. From 
paradisus (para'is paravis parvis cf. gravir, emblaver, pouvoir, 
R. Gr. 1, 164), ^esLip.paraviso, It. paradiso = Gk. TtccQccdetOog 
park. Many towns in England which had monasteries have a 
Paradise street. The Cloister -garth at Chichester is called 
the Paradise, at Chester the Sprise - garden. The same word 
is used for the area in front of any large public building, e. g. 
Westminster Hall ; cf. Chauc. Cant. Tales (Prol.). "A vSergiant 
of law ware and wise, that often had been at the Pervise^\ 

Pas Fr. as a complement of the negative; horn passus: Je ne vois 
pas = non video passum not a step. 

Pasa Sp., Pg. passa raisin ; from uva passa. 

Pasmo — spasimo. 

Pasqua It., Sp. Yr.pascua, Fr. pdque Easter, Lat. pascha (wh. 
from Jieh. pesech he crossed). The notion of feasting after a 
long fast connected itself with pasciia, hence the ?/; pasca 
would have given pdcJie. Pr. 0. Fr. pascor spring is formed 
like nadalor Christmas. 

Pasquino It. the name of a statue at Rome , to which lampoons 
were affixed, hence Fr. pasquin buffoon, S^.pasquin, It. pas- 
quiUo a lampoon. 

Passamano It., Sp. pasamano, Fr. passement fringe, border, trim- 
ming. Sp. pasamano = also baluster, porque pasamos por el la 

^ mano (Covarr.), whence it was applied to any fringe. Al. from 
passer because of the motion of the hand in netting. The G. 
has posament (from the Fr.) lace, Swed. pasman, Hung, paszma 
paszomdn, Pol. pasaman. 

Passare It., Sip.pasar, Pg. Fr. passar, Fr. passer, WsA.pesa, E. 
pass. Often transitive and so better from pandere as freq. in 
sense of opening, passing through (cf. pandere mcenia &c. and 
spassare = expander e) than directly from passus, which gives 
passeggiare, Sp. pasear. 

Passeggiare — passare. 


Passement — passamano. 

Pasta It. Sp. Pg. Pr.^ Fr. pate, E. paste; from pastus, influenced 

hypastillus, Si^. plasm being formed aiter plasma. Hence It. 

pastellOj Sp. Yv. pastel a crayon, Si^.pastilla, Fr. pastille; Fr. 

«j9/?^/ bait, pi. appas charms. 
Pastoechia It. a tale; from pasto, darpasto to allure with words. 
Pastoja It. a shackle for cattle at pasture, L. L. pastorium. 

Hence It. pasturale, Fr. pdturon, E. pastern cf. fetlock, in Gr. 

fessel; vb. It. impastoiare , Fr. empetrer for empeturer to fetter 

(E. pester). It. pastoiare, Fr. depetrer to unshackle. 
Patan patruUa — /?«^<z. 

Patata batata Sp. Pg., E. potatoe a word of American origin. 
Pataud — j9«^^a. 
Pate — pasta. 
Pateea Sp. pumpkin, water-melon; from Ar. hftichah, Pg. also 

albudieca, Cat. albudeca. Hence also Sp. Pg. hadea. 

Patin — patta. 

Patio Sp. Pg., Cat. N. Pr. pati hall or court. According to Sousa 
an African word , pathaton. 

Patois Fr. ; cf. 'Roviohi pati-pata chattering, Fi. patter; an ono- 

Patrana Sp., Pg. patranha a story; iov patarrana from Cat. pa- 
tarra wh. ivoiaipata a goose, cf. preced. 

Patta Crem., N. Pr. pata a flap. Com. a foot, Sp. Cat. pata, Fr. 
patte a foot, paw, Sp. patear to treat ; Sp, pato pata, Alb. pate 
a goose; Fr. pataud a turnspit (with broad feet); Sp. patan a 
clown; It. pattino, ¥r. patin a skate, Ft. patten. Not, prob., 
from Gk. Tcdtog TCatetVy but an onomatop. like G. patschen. 

Pattino — patta. 

Pattuglia It., Sp. patrulla, Fr. patrouille, E. patrol; vb. Sp. j9^- 
trullar patullar , Fr. patrouiller to patrol. Also to stir any 
soft substance with hand or foot, also patouiller = E. paddle, 
patouille = puddle, patrouille a pot ladle. R is inserted, the 
root being ^a^ to tread, cf. patta; cf. Rou. patoquer patroquer 
patriquer patouger. Champ, patoiller platrouiller. 

Paturon — pastoia. 

Paumier paumoier O. Fr. to seize; from palma hand. Hence 

also Sp. palmear, Fr. paumer, L. L. palmare to slap with the 

hand (paume). 

Paupiere — parpado. 

Pausare It., Sp. Pg. Pr. pausar, Fr. pauser, Fi. pause; from the 
\^iQl^Sii. pausare. In trans, as well as intrans. sense we have 
It. posare, Sp. posar (sbst. posada resting-place, inn), Fr. 
poser (Prov. only pausar). Hence It. riposare, Si^. reposar. 


Pg. repousar, Pr. repausar, Fr. reposer, E. repose. But Fr. de- 
poser, disposer, expose?^, imposer, proposer are from deponere&c^ 
formed on the analogy of pausar, for Pr. has depausar &c.; the 
prop. Lat. form being only found where the simple verb is 
used in its Lat. sense, of. It. diporre, Sp. deponer &c.; the Fr. 
and Vr. pondre is only used in the restricted sense of ^'laying 
eggs '\ 

Pautonier — paltone. 

Paver Fr., ^.pave; from, pavi're with change of conj. as in totisser, 

Pavese palvese It., Si^, paves, Fr. jPffi;o?5 large shield , Wsd. pa- 
veze, Hung, pais, Boh. paweza. From Pavia, of. pistolesi from 

Pavilion — padiglione. 

Pavois — pavese. 

Pavot Fr. poppy. From papaver, the seeming reduplication be- 
ing dropped and the term, changed, cf. Treves from Treviri; 
cf. A. S. papig, popig, E. poppy, W. pahi. The Norm, mahon 
is the O. H. Gr. mdgo, M. H. G. mdhen, G. mohn, 

Paxaro Sp., Vg. passaro, Wsii. pasere bird; from passer, with or 
for er, cf. passer non passar App. ad Probum, so a?iser non 
ansar, but Sp. ansar; camera, non cammara, Sp. camara, 

Payen — pagano. 

Payer — pagare. 

Payla — poele (1). 

Pays paysan — paese. 

Pazzo It. mad, furious, vb. pazziare. From 0. H. G. harzjan 
parzjan, M. H. G. barzen to be furious , cf. cucuzza from cu- 
curbit a, gazzo = Sp. garzo, pesca from persica, dosso from 
dorsum &c. Hence It. strapassare, Sp. estrapar, Fr. estrapasser, 
strapasser, sbst. strapasso, 

Peage — pedaggio. 

Peason 0. Fr., Vv,peaz6 foundation, base; L. h. pedatio from 
pedare to support. 

Pee O. Fr. fern, peque pecque (Moliere), Vy. pec pegua, Yg. peco, 

B. peca stupid; from pecus which is so used even in Class. 

Pecea It., Fr. peca pec fault, Sp. peca, Pg. peco speak; from 

Peechia — ape. 
Peechiero — bicchiere. 
Peche — persica. 

Pechina Sp. a sort of mussel, from pecten. 
Pecho peeha Sp., Tg. peito peita tax, xiontribution, yh. pechar 

peitar to pay tax ; from pactum. 

Pecilgar — pellizcar. 


Pecora It. (f.) sheep, Wdl. pecure; from pecora, orig. used as a 

collective ; cf. E. sheep. 
Pecorea — picorer, 
Pe9onha — pozione, 
Pedaggio It.; Sp. peage, Fr. peage toll (paid by passengers); 

from pes pedis. 
Pedante It. Sp. ,Pg., Fr. pedant ^ E. pedant. Pedanti= quegli 

che avevano cur a dei fanciuUi insegnando loro e menandogli fuora 

(Varchi); from TtatdsvsLV whence a L. L. yh. pcedare. 
Pedazo Sp. Pg. a piece; horn, pittacmm, pitacium a piece of paper, 

cloth &c. Cf. also Pr. pedas, Occ. petas, Fr. rapetasser (to 

patch). Y.pezza. 
Pedone It., ^^.peon, Vr. peon pezon, Fr.j^/ow foot -soldier, E. 

pawn; from a form pedo (pes). Hence Pr. pezonier, O. Fr. 

peonier, Fr. pionnier, E. pioneer. Fr. pie'ton requires a L. pe- 

dito (irom. pedes, L, h. peditarej. 
Pegar Sp. Pg. Pr. to cement, fasten, empegar empeguntar (comp. 

with untar) to pitch, apegar to adhere; from. picare. Fr. poisser 

empoisser directly from pixpicis. It. impeciar e ==Fr. empoisser, 

empeser (sbst. empois); impegolare = Pr. empegar; appicciare 

impicciare appiccare to adhere , impiccare to hang up , spiccare 

to detach, not from piccare, cf. appiccare to take root = Sp. 

pegar; pice for pec (hsit.ptc) was perhaps through the influence 

of the Gr. pichen. 
Pego — pelago. 
Peigne peine — pettine. 
Peindre Fr. to paint; iroro. ping ere, It. pignere, but ^^. pintar, 

E. paint. 
Pejo Pg. impediment, yh. pejar, pejada pregnant (cf. Sp. emba- 

razadq); from pedica with change of gender as in Fr. pie'ge; 

for they cf. Sp. mege from med'cus. 
Pelago It J Sip. pielagO; Fg.pego, Fr. peieg (peleagre) sea, high 

sea, main, vb. Cat. empelegar; from pelagus which in L. L. 

and Romance involved the notion of deep, fathomless water 

(Pg. pelago well). 
Pelare It., Sp. Pg. Pr. pclar, Fr. peler to pluck hair, peel; from 

Pele-mele Fr. (E. pell-mell); the 0. Fr. is mele-pele, mele is 

clear enough but the second member, as usual in rhymed 

words of this kind (cf. tire-lire, chari-vari &c.) is difficult; is 

it O. Fr. paesle a pan, or pelle a shovel? Burg, paule-maule = 

earth thrown up. 
Pelear Sp., Fg. pelejar, Fr. peleiar to fight, struggle, shst. pelea 

&c. From icalaCuv or from L. palus (fencing stick) ? 
Pelerin — pcllegrino. 
Pelfre 0. Fr. booty, pelfer to plunder; F.pelf, pilfer. 


Pelisse — pelliccia. 

Pelitre — pilatro. 

Pella Sp. Pg. ball; mass; {rom ptla, which is not found in the 

other Rom. languages. Sp. pila, Pg. pilha, Fr. pile, E. pile 

comes from pila a pillar. 
Pella — poele, 
Pelle Fr. shovel, E. peel; from pala, It. Sp. Pr, pala» Hence It. 

paletta &c., palette. 
Pelleja Sp. harlot; from pellis pellicula in which sense it is also 

used, cf. scortum. Pellex would have given pellega. 
Pellegrino It., Pr. pelegrin pelerin, Fr. pelerin, pilgrim; from 

peregrinuSy Sp. peregrino. From the Rom. come E. G. pilgrimy 

Pelliccia It., Pg. pellissa, Fr. pelisse, F. pilch, O. H. Q. pelliz, 

G. pelz; from adj. pelliceus pellicea. Hence Pr. soh^epelitz, Fr. 

surplis for siirpelis, E. surplice. 
Pellizcar pecilgar Sp., Pg. hellizcar to pinch; from pellis, cf. 

O. Fr. pelicer (from pellis, cf. pelicon) to pull. 
Pelmazo Sp. slow, dull; usu. derived from TtsX^ia the sole of the 

foot, so, perhaps, orig. = heavy -treading, cf. Fr. pataud 

from patte, 
Pelota pelote — pillotta, 
Pelouse • — pehiche. 
Peltro It., Sp. Pg. peltre, O. Fr. peautre, Du. peauter, E. peivter. 

Perhaps from Pr. em-peltar to stuff, graft, mix (tin with lead 

or quicksilver). 
Peluca — pilluccare. 
Peluche Fr. (f.) a stuff composed of linen and camel's hair, 

phish; from It. peluccio, peluzzo (pilus). Sp. is pelitsa down on 

fruit, nap of cloth, 0. '^'^.peluza. Cat. pelmsa. From same 

root is Fr. pelouse, Lim. pelen. 
Penea Sp. Cat. prickly, sharp -pointed leaf, also lash; a Celtic 

word, W. pine point, E. pink. 
Peneher Fr. to hang, slope, Pr. pen jar pengar, O. Sp. pinjar; 

from penclicare (pendere). 

Pendeloque — loque. 

Pendice It. slope, declivity; formed, on the analogy oi appen- 
dicCy horn pendere, O. Fr. pendant a hill. 

Pendon — pennone. 

Penil — pettine. 

Penna It. peak of a mountain, Sp. peha, Pg. penlia rock; from 
pinna a pinnacle, Yx.pena, Yv. pignon, \i.pigno7ie; Fr. jjinacle, 
E. pinnacle from pinnaculum. The Celt, pen head, top, would 
have formed masc. derivatives. 

Pennone It., Sp. pendon, Pr. peno, Fr. E. pennon; O. Sp. = 


streamer. From penna feather ; for Sp. d cf. pendola pen from 
pennula; so It. pennoncello = both streamer and plume. 

Pensar pensare penser — peso. 

Pente Fr. slope ; iovpende as tente for tende; irovQ. pendere. Hence 
sotipente. Cf. It, peniola, ^. pent -house. 

Pentola It. a pot to hang over the fire; from pendidiis (It. pen- 

Penzolo — pentola. 

Pena — penna. 

Peon — pedone. 

Pepie pepita r — pipita. 

Pepin Fr. a corn or grain, pepiniere nursery -garden. Some 
derive it from pepo (O. Fr. pepon. It. popone) so = orig. a 
pumpion or cucumber seed (Sp. pepino). Cf. It. pipita, Sp. pe- 
pita seed , kernel , pip. Pepo is from the Gk. TtSTtav ripe. 

Pequeno — piccolo. 
Pereer — pertugiare. * 

Perehe Fr. a pole; \i. pertica, Sp. Pg. percha, E. perch. 
Pereio — cio. 

Perdiee perniee It., Sp. Vv. perdiz^ Fr. perdrix, E. partridge; 
from perdix. 

Perdrix • — perdiee. 

Peroxil — petrosellino. 

Pereza — pigrezza. 

Perfilar — profilare. 

Pergamo It. a pulpit , stage'; from pergamum a tower, 

Periquito — parrocchetto. ,^ 

Peritarsi It. to be ashamed. In Crem. Ven. Mil. peritare perita 
= to rate, tax, perito valuer. Perhaps ivovn paiiritare iterative 
of paurire (in spaurire), au being changed irregularly into e, 
so as to take the form of the O. L. peritare. But it may, bet- 
ter, be connected with the Sp. apretarse (v. prieto). 

Perla It. Sp. Pr., Pg. perola (perla), Fr. perle, cf. O. H. G. pe- 
rala herala, A. S. E. pearl, Nor. perla, L. L. perulus perula, 
perla, used instead of the L. unio. The trisyll. form seems 
the orig. one, cf. Yen. perolo, L. L. perula. The derivations 
given are (l) pirula (from pirum, It. Sp. per a) cf. Sp. perilla 
ornament in the shape of a pear (2) pilida a globule (Ven. pi- 
rold) (3) perna mussel (v. Ducange), cf. Neap. Sic. perna = 
perla, It. pernocchia mother-of-pearl, but these may have con- 
formed themselves to perna, (4) from G. herala (a corruption 
of henjllus or a dim. of heere a berry, cf. hacd). This is 
Grimm'^ conjecture, and seems the most likely. The Wal. is 

Perniee — perdiee. 



Perno It. Sp. Pg. hasp, bolt, hinge, ^^. j)ernio hinge, Yv.jyerron 
a flight of stairs ; according to Menage from perna, but cf. Gk. 

Pero It. Pr., Sp. 0. Pg. lyero, 0. Fr. poro poruec for Lat. igitur, 
sed, autem, from per hoc and pro hoc the former used by 
Apuleius and others for propterea. Hence Sp. empero, Pr. em- 
pero; It. perocche, L. L. per hocque. 

Perol Sp. a pan, large kettle, Vr.pafrol; i'rom pati7ia , whence 
patin-ol patnol patrol (cf. engre for engne), patrol, 

Perola — perla. 

Perpunte — pourpoint. 

Perro Sp. dog (adj. = stubborn). Sic. perm. Diez gives no 
derivation, but connects it with the L. L. petrunciikis canis. Is 
it from the Celtic? Perro is a common name for a dog in Wales. 

Perron — perno. 

Perroquet — parrocchetto. 

Perruea perruque — piluccare. 

Persa It. marjoram, N. Gr. iiBQaa\ from tcqccGov a leek. 

Persiea pesca It., Sp. persigo prisco , with Ar. art. alpersico, al- 
herchige (Ar. al'hers([)j V^. pecego , alperchi, Pr. presega, Fr. 
peche, E. peach, W al. pearsece; It. persico, pesco (Sp. meloco- 
ton), V^. pecegueiro J Vv. pesseguier, Fr, pecher, WsS. pearsec; 
ivoiw persicum , persicus, 

Persil — petrosellino. 

Perso It., Pr. O. Fr. 0. E. jjers dark, of a colour between purple 
and black ; L. L. persus perseus- ^^ad persei mali colorem accc- 
dens^^ Ducange. 

Pertugiare It., Pr. pertusar, Fr. peixer (whence E. pierce and 
Sic. pirciari) = pertuisier; It. sbst. perhigio, Fr, pertuis a hole ; 
from pertundere pertusus fpefiusiare periiisiiimj . 

Pertuis — pertugiare. 

Pertuisane — partigiana. 

Pesca — persiea. 

Pescuezo Sp., Pg. pescoco nape of the neck; horn post (cf.pes/o- 
rejo) and cnezo (v. cocca)j so = hind -cask, cf. testa. 

Peso It. Sp. Pg., Pr. pens pes, O. Fr. poix, Fr. poids (a form 
which points to pondus), ^. poise, irom. pensu?n. Vb. li.pesare, 
Sp. Pg. Pr. pesar, Fr. peser, poise; Sp. apesgar to overload; 
2S.^o pensare , pensar pessar (Pr. ) petiser to think, from pensare, 
and with a diiferent spelling, Fr. panser to attend upon, nurse, 
dress wounds &c., cf. L. pensare siti?n to satiate thirst. 

Pestana — pestare. 

Pestare It., Sp. jnstar, Pr. pestar, also Sp. jnsar, Pg. Pr. pizar, 
Fr. piser, Wal. pisa to stamp, tread, bray. The forms with st 
must be referred to L. pistiis (It. pesto) for pitisitus, those with 
s to pisare (Varro). Hence It. pesta, Sp. pista, Fr. piste track. 


tread, whence li. instagna, ^^.pestana, Vg.pestana fringe (track 

or stripe on cloth), in Sp. Pg. also eyelash , cf. Cic. firribria = 

end of locks of hair. Hence also It. pestone, Fr. E. piston. 
Pestillo Sp. ; Cat. pestell bolt. Perhaps from pes-it-illo fcf. 

cabr-it-illo) iov pesillo from pessulus, the form being varied 

so as to avoid confusion with pesillo a small weight, or so 

as to resemble pistillum a pestle. 
Pestorejo Sp. nape ; from post (puest pest) and oreja ear , cf. pes- 

Pesuna Sp. hoof ; from pedis ungula. 

Petaca Sp. portmanteau, wallet; from Mexican J9e/to«//?. 
Petardo It. Sp., Fr. E. petard; a coarse military word, from 

peto, pet, L. peditum. Hence Fr. petiller. 
Petate Sp. rush -mat; from Mexican jt?^//«^/. 
Peteecliie It., Sp, petequias, Fr. petechies (all plur.) fever-spots; 

a word introduced by physicians immediately from the Gk. 

Ttittdmov, not from L. pittacium. 
Petiller — petardo. 
Petisear — pito. 
Petit — pito. 
Peto Sp. breast -plate; from It. petto, L. pectus. From pectorale 

we have It. pettorale, Sp. petral, Fr. poitral (also = dewlap), 

E. poitrel, petrel. 
Petrina — poitrine. 
Petrir Fr., Pr. pestrir to knead; from a form pisturire (pistura, 

pinsere), cf. cintrer from cinctura, accoutrer from ad-consutura, 

It. scaltrire from scalpiura. 
Petrosellino petrosemolo prezzemolo It., Sp. perexil, Fr. persil, 

parsley (=^ A. S. peterselfge, G. petersilie) ; from petroselinum. 
Pettine It., Sp. /^m^, Vg.pente, Pr.petiche, ¥y. peigne comb; 

from pecten; vb. pettinare &c. Hence Fr. penil (for peignil) 

groin, crines circa pudenda, Juv. pecten, It. pettignone , Sp. 

empeigne, Gk. TcxBCg. 
Peu Fr. adv., in O. Fr. also an adj. poies choses &c. ; from^^w- 

cus, Pr. pauc, It. Sp. poco. 
Peur Fr., O. Fr. paour fear; ivora pavor, It. paur a. 
Pevera It. also petriola, Mil. pidria, Romagn. pidarja, Com. ple- 

dria, Ven. impiria a wooden funnel; from impletorium? 
Pezon — piccinolo. 
Pezza pezzo It., ^^^.pieza, Fg.peca, Vy. peza pessa, ¥y. piece, 

E. piece. L. L. pctium petia = a piece of land. Diez derives 

it from Tte^a a foot, edge, border (cf. petiolus = pezzuolo, v. 

picciuolo). The contraction from Sp. pedazo, would, he says, 

be too harsh. But another derivation which he mentions, that 

from the W. peth, Bret, pez, Gael. j)eos (whence a Lat. pethia, 

petia), seems more probable. 



Pezzente peziente It. beggar; from petiens for petens, cf. cag- 

giente from cadiens for cadens, veggente for videns, Cf. Pg. 

Phiole Fr. a vial; horn, phiala , It. fiala^ Pied. /^o/^. 
Piaggia spiaggia It., Sp. Pr. play a j Pg. praia, Fr. ^/«^^ shore. 

L. L. plagia, from ^/«^« a region (It. piaggia). 
Pialla It. a carpenter's plane, piaUare to plane; for plamda 

planulare, from planus planar e^ cf. M/« n-om lunida. Pialla 

also = adze, axe (for hewing), and this points to the O. G. 

pial, G. l}eil, E. hill; another form is piola. 
Pianea Piedm. a plank for a bridge , Pr. planca plancha , Fr. 

planche, plank , whence Sp. plancha a plate of metal, Pg. 

prancha a board; ivom. planca (Festus and Palladius). It. Sp. 

Pg. palanca a pole, lever, is from palanga, Pic. pelangue, 

Wal. pelanc. 
Piara Sp. herd ; from pecuaria. 

Piare It., Sp. piar (Fr. piailler), to chirp; an onomatopoeion. 
Piastra It. plate of metal, Sp. &c. piastra, piastre; O.Fr. plaisfre 

pavement, ceiling, Fr. pldtre stucco, plaster; It. piastf^otie, Pg. 

piastrdo, Fr. E. plastron; It. piastrello. From emplastrum (e^- 

TtlaCTQOv) a surgical plaster, It. empiastro, Fr. empldtrCj Sp. 

emplasto = Gk. e^itXaCxov. From plastrum (by rejection of 

the initial) was formed vb. lastricare to plaster, sbst. lasirico 

astrico (Mil. astrich astregh, Com. astrach), L. L. astricus, G. 

estrich. Hence also It. lastra, Sp. lastra lastre a slab of stone 

or metal, v. s. lastOj ph. also 0. Fr. astre aistre, Fr. dtre 

Piato It., Sp. pleito, Pg. pleito preito, Pr. plait plag^ 0. Fr. je?/«/^, 

E. pleay law -suit, Rh. pled a word; It. piatire piateggiare, Sp. 

pleitear, Pg. preitejar, Pr. plaideiar, 0. Fr. plaidier, plaidoyer. 

Fr. plaider, E. plead, Rh. plidar. From L. L. placitum which 

was used = a convention for the discussion of affairs of state 

(placita hal)ei^e), O. Pg. placito, plazo prazo, Sp. plazo. 
Piatto It., Pg. Sp. chato, Pr. Yv. plat flat. It. sbst. piatto, Sp. 

plato, Fr. /?/flf^, plate; a root common to many languages and 

connected with Gk. nXarvg, O. H. G. /7«z. Hence also Sp. 

Pg. plata silver, 0. Fr. plate, E. plate, and platina; Sp. 

c^«^« a flat -bottomed boat (It. sciatta, cf. Com. 5C2«/^ = Sp. 

Piazza It., Wal. piatZj Sp. Pg. Pr. plaza placa plassa, Fr. E. 

place; vb. Fr. placer, E. place; from platea {TtXarela) a street, 

in Horace platea, Goth, platja. It is first used by Lampridius 

= a court -yard (place). 
Piearo ■ — picco. 
Piccino — piccolo. 
Piecione It., Sp. pichon, Pr. pijon, Fr. E. pigeon; from jjipio 


(Lampridius), which is ivoro. pipdre pipire, cf. Mil. pipi a little 

Picciuolo It. stalk, Wal. picior foot; from petiolus little foot, 

stalk; Sp. pezon, Ven. picolo, Mil. picoll, Piedm. picol = 

Picco It., Sp. Pg. picOj Pr. Fr. pic^ heak, peak &c. ; It. picca, 

Sp. Pg. pica, Fr. pique pike; It. piccare, Sp. Pg. Pr. picar, Fr. 

piquer to prick. From L. j9?ct/5 woodpecker, Sp. j^/cO;, Fr. 

p/c; of. W, piff a point, G. picken, picket, E. pick peck &c. It. 

picchio (picuhis) == woodpecker, blow, picchiare to knock ; Fr. 

j9/co^ a pick-£i^e, picoter to pick with an axe ; perhaps also Sp. 

picaro, It. piccdro a sharper. 
Piccolo It., Sp. pequeno, Pg. pequeno little, for which Pr. Cat. 

Fr. have petit. From the O. Rom. pic a point (v. picco) so = 

minute (as It. picco is used = punctum, so piccolo =.punctu- 

lum). The Wal. j9/c = drop, Alb. pice. Besides piccolo the It. 

has picciolo and piccino (^=^ pic-ciolo pic-cino or pit-ciolo pit-cino 

from root oi petit); N. Pr. has piccioun, Lim. pitsou, fem. ^^Y- 

Pichel — hiccMere. 
Pichon — piccione. 
Picorer Fr. to prowl in quest of plunder , prop, of cattle ; from 

pecus, cf. Sp. pecorea marauding. 
Pidocchio It., Sp. /?/o;'o, Vg. piolho, Fr.peoth, pezolh, Fr. pou 

(for peou) a louse; from pediculus (peduculus) L. h. peduclus. 

Hence It. spidocchiare , Sp. despiojar, Fr. epouiller. 
Piece — pezza. 
Piedestallo It., 81^. pedestal , Fr. piedestal; formed with G. stal, 

V. stallo. 
Piegare It., Sp. Pr. plegar, Pg. pregar, Fr. plier, in comp; ployer 

(E. ply, -ploy) J Wal. pleca to fold ; from plicare. Hence It. im- 

piegare, Sp. emplear, Pg. emplegar, Fr. employer, E. employ, 

from implicare; It. impiego, Fr. emploi, E. employ; It. spiegare, 

Pr. espleiar, Fr. deplier deploy er (E. deploy) from explicare, 

de-explicare, Q.i.llegar. 
Piege Fr. (m.) a snare; from pedica. It, piedica, Wal. peadece, 

masc. Pg. p^^o. 
Pier (pyer) Fr. to tipple; from ^rt^tv, cf. Sp. empinar from £ft;rt- 

i/£it/, Fr. trinquer from G. trinken. Hence j^/o^ a draught of 

wine, vb. Norm, pioter. 
Pierna Sp. leg, 'Pg.perna; homperna = the leg from the hip to 

the foot (Ennius), ham. 
Pietanza It., Sp. Pr. pitanza, Fr. pitance (E. pittance) a monk's 

daily allowance. The It. form had once also the meaning of 

pity , and was altered from pitanza so as to conform to pieta, 

cf. O. Pg. = charitableness. Prob. from 0. Rom. 


pite a morsel, small portion, through a verb pitare (Geno. 

pitta to pick). 
Pieton — pedofie. 

Pietre It. poor , needy. For piestre from pedestris ? 
Pieu Fr. post. From palus, pal, pel, piel, picu, cf. in O. Fr. cher 

(cams) chier, tres tries j tel tiel licii. As no instance of this 

process occurs in Modern Fr., Diez didYiYG^ pieu ivoiw jnciilus 

piclus , so == It. picchio. 
Pieve It. district, parish, Eh. ptleif, \i.piovano, Wuh pieban a 

parish- priest; from L. h. plebs parish church, plebamts, 
Pieviale piviale It. mantle ; for piovale = phivialis. Cf . pimaccio 

cushion = piumaccio, O. Pg. chimaco and chumaco. 
Pieza — pizza. 
Pifaro pififero piffre — pipa. 
Pigeon — piccione, 
Pigiare It. to press ; a participial verb from pinsere pinsus (pin- 

siare), cf. pertugiare from perttisus. 
Pigione It. house -rent; from pensio, Fr. pension , cf. magione 

from mansio. 
Pigliare It., Sp. pillar, Vg, Pr. pilhary Fr. pillcr to take, pill, 

pillage; from pllare in expilare, compilare. The soft / is to 

distinguish it from It. pillar e, Fr. piler to stamp, from p\la, 
Pignatta It. pot; homjmea, because the lid was shaped like a 

pine-cone. Hence Sp. piiiata. 
Pignon pignone — penna. 
Pigolare — pipa. 
Pigrezza It., Sp. Pr. pereza, Pg. pregidca, Fr. paresse idleness; 

from pigritia. 
Pihuela Sp. a fetter; YfiXh piola (cf. vihuela viola) irom. pes pedis ; 

cf. pi- ojo from pediculus. 
Pila — pella. 
Pilatro It., Sp. Pg. Pr. pelitre, Fr. pyrethre, E. pellitory a plant; 

from pyrethrum {tivqb^'qov). 
Pile — pella. 

Piler pillar piller — pigliare, 
Pillotta It., Sp. Pg. Pr. pelota, Fr. pelote, E. pellet (hence E. 

pelt); from pXla, L. L. pilotellus = Sp. pelotilla. Hence also 

Sp. Yv, peloton, Ya. platoon. 
Pilori Fr., E. pillory, Pr. espitlori, Pg. pelourinho. Due. from 

pilier, Grimm from M.H. G. pfilaere. The L.L. has pilloricum, 

pcllericum, pellorium, piliorium, spiliorium. 
Piloto It. Sp. Pg., also It. pilota, Fr. pilote, E. pilot. From the 

Du. pijloot , the origin of which is not clear. 
Piluccare It. to stone grapes , Pr. pehicar, Pic. pliiqucr, Norm. 

Champ, pluchotter; Fr. eplucher, Rh. spluccar to pluck out. 

From Lat. pilare with suffix uc (R. Gr. 2, 333); not from 


A. S. pltfccian, E. pluck, which are from the Rom. Connected 

with pilluccare is Sard. pUucca, Lomb. peluch, Pied, pluch. 

Gen. pellucco, It. (corrupted) perruca parruca, ^2\. peroce, 

Fr. perruque, E. peruke (periwig), Occ. pamparrugo , Sp.jse- 

luca (cf. machuca, almendruco &c.), 
Piment — pimiento. 
Pimiento pimienta Sp., Pg. pimento (whence E. pimento) pimenta 

pepper, Pr. pimenta spice, Pr. pimen, O. Fr. piment, L. L. 

pigmentum a drink made of wine, honey, and spice, Yv. piment 

a medicine; from L. pigmentum a colouring material, hence 

juice of plants used for colouring, so anything aromatic. 
Pimpa — pipa, 
Pimpinella It., ^^. pimpinela, Yv.pimprenelle, Y^. pimpernel ; from 

hipinclla for hipennula (two- winged). The Cat. has pampinella, 

Pied, pampinela a mere corruption, for it has no connection 

with pampinus. In N. Pr. it is fraissineto, from fraisse = 

Pimpollo Sp. sucker, sprout, Pg. pimpolho; for pampinoUo, a 

dim. oi pampinus, cf. ^vi^. pcmpinella iov pimpinella. 
Pinaccia It., Si^, pinaza , ¥v, pinasse, ^. pinnace ; horn pinus. 
Pincer pinehar pinzo — pizza. 
Pincione It., ^^. pinzon pinchon, Yv. pincon, Cat. jt?2>^s^ a finch. 

From W. pink (Gr. finke, E. finch) frolicksome, finch, cf. Fr. 

geai = gay and jay. The Bret, has pint, Bav. pienk, Slav. 

pinka. Hung, pinty; N. Pr. quinson ioY pinson, Fg. pisco. 
Pino Pg. nail, point; a pino Sp. Pg. on tiptoe, cf. Sp. empinarse 

to stand erect (though this pino may be a different word , and 

derived from /?mw5;, cL arbolarse) ; from E. W.j!?m, Gsiel.pinne, 

O. N. pinni, Gr. pinne. 
Pinque Fr. (f.), Sp. pingue (m.), pinco, Pg. pinque (m.), L. G. 

pinke (f.) a sort of ship, E. pink; from pinus pinica, pinca, cf. 

pinaza &c. 
Pinta Sp. Pg. paint -spot, mark, from pingere; hence also a 

marked measure for liquids, Fr. pinte, Yi. pint, Wal. pinte, 

cf. rubbio. 
Pintacilgo Sp., Pg. pintasirgo a goldfinch; from pictus passer- 

Pinza — pizza. 
Pinzon — pincione, 
Pinata — pignatta. 
Pioggia It., Sp. lluvia, Pg. chuva, Fr. pluie, Wal. ploaie rain; 

from pluvia. Hence Sp. chubasco squall, cf. O. Sp. cheno from 

Pioletto It. (in Com. piolet) a little axe or bill ; from the O. H. G. 

bial pial , G. beil, E. bill. 
Piombare It. to sink perpendiculary, to isXl plumb down, cadere 


a piomho; Vy, plomhar, ¥y, plonger (with suffix </ = iCy phim- 
hicare , cf. venger from vindicare) a bye -form of plomber, cf. 
0. Fr. dinger , enfcrger by the side of cliner j enfcrrer; E. 
plunge (plumb ^ plumb); sbst. Ywplongeon a diver. Not derived 
from, though connected with, Bret, plunia, W. plivng = 
Sansk. plavana (Pictet), for the der. from plumhicare is sup- 
ported by the Pic. plonquer , cf. Wall, jilonc = Fr. plomh, 
plonki = plonger. 

Pion pionnier — pedone, 

Pioppa pioppo It., Wal. plop (Alban. plepi), Wall, plopp, Pg. 
chopo choupo, Sp. popo chopo, Cat. clop, Neap, chiuppo. From 
populus, with a remarkable change of form to distinguish it 
ixova. populus; h. h. ploppus , Lomb. pohbia, Berw peuplc for 
peuplier, Jnrsi puble, hiui. piboul. 

Piorno Sp. Pg. Spanish broom; ph. iov picorno ivom. pico a point, 
cf . pia from pica, 

Piot — pier. 

Piota It. Dante Inf. 19, 120 = foot, sole, elsewhere = a grass- 
plot. From the Umbrian /?/o^w5 plautus, cf. Festus : plotos ap- 
pellant Vmbri pedibus plants poeta quia Umber Sarsinas erat 

initio Plotus postea Plautus coeptus est did. 

Piovano — pieve. 

Pipa piva It., Sp. Pg. pipa^ Pr. pimpa, Fr. pipe pipeau, Wal. 
pipe, ^. pipe; from pipare pipiare, Yr. piper (= illicere aves 
pipilando, then c= cheat, espec. at cards), whence also 0. H. 
Cr. p/ifa, G. pfeife, E. fife, G. pfeifer which became in It. pif- 
fero, ^^.pifaro, Yv . piffre 2ixA fifre ; Rh. fifa. li. pivolo, Fr. 
pivot tap , E. pivot are connected. From pipilare is It. pigolare 
iov pivolare , g for v^ or, better, inserted in a form piolare for 
pivolare. YYovo-pivarewohdiwe ?iho piviere, Fv.pluvier, Y. plover. 

Pipistrello It., also vipistrellOj vispistrello, vespistrello a bat, from 
vespertillus for vespertilio. 

Pipita It., Si^.pepita, Tg. pevide pivide, Vy. pepida, ¥y. pe'pie, 
E. jnp (in fowls) ; from pituita (pevita pipita, O. H. G. phiphis). 
Nearer the L. is the Mil. puida puvida. 

Pique — picco. 

Pirouette Fr. ; from a primitive pive (= It. piva) of pivot a peg, 
and roue a wheel. 

Pis Fr. udder, 0. Fr. breast, from pectus, Pr. peitz, Lomb. pecc, 
Lim. piei (f.). 

Pisar piser piste — pestare. 

Piseiare It., Wal. pisa, Vy. pissar, ¥y. pisser; an onomatop. like 
the G. zischen, cf. Cat. pixar, N. Pr. picha, Fie. pichcr. 

Pistola It. Sp., Fr. pistole pistolct, E. pistol. Orig. = a dagger 
(worn secretly, like the pistol), and, according to H. Stepha- 
nus, from Pistoja, pistojese, pistolese, pistola. Others derive it 


hom pisttiltts f It pestelio a pestle, with a change of form, c£. 
Ven. piston peston a rifle, from It. pestone a large pestle. But 
here the change of suffix is unusual , the form should be pis- 
luola, ol only following i as in oriolo &c. The pistole = a gold 
coin is prob. the same word, cf. Claude Fauchet (1599): ayant 
les escus d'Esp eigne cstc reduicts a ime plus petite forme que les 
escus de France, ont pris le nom de pistolets (little pocket pistols). 

Pitaud Fr. a clown; from pedes -itis, ci. pie'ton. 

Pito Sp. a small pointed bit of wood, 0. Fr. pile a mite, Rou. 
pete a trifle, Com. pit small; hence Sj).pitorra woodcock (from 
its sharp bill), Wall, petion bee's sting, vb. Vr. pilar to bill, 
Sp. apitar to instigate, O. Fr. apiter to pick with the fingers, 
Vg. petiscar to nip; Mil. pitifi small, Crem. peteen trifle, Sard. 
pitieu small. From a root pit found in W. pid = point. Hence 
O. It, pitetto petitto , Pr. Cat. ¥r. petit, N. Pr. pitit. Wall, piti 
small, petit/, dim. Pr. Cat. O. Fr. petitet; ci. piccolo irom pic. 
Petit is for petet by an euphonic change. 

Pito Sp. a pipe, pilar to pipe; an onomatop., ti. pita a hen-call. 

Pitoeeo It. a beggar, from Ttraiog, perhaps influenced by pit 
small , cf. Lomb. piton poor. 

Pitorra — pito. 

Piva — pipa. 

Pivoine Fr., Fi* peony; from pceonia (Ttaioavia from TLaicov), It. 
Sp. peonia. 

Pivolo — pipa. 

Pivot — pipa. 

Pizarra Sp. Pg., Cat. pissarra slate. Perhaps from pieza piece, 
with suffix arra, cf. G. schiefer = prop, a fragment. 

Pizca — pizza. 

Pizza Ven. pricking, itching, Sard, pizzu beak, Rh. pizza, Mil. 
pizz, ^iQ. pizzu. It. /?mzo prick, Si^. pinzas, Fr. pince. It. pin- 
zette pincers; also It. pizzico, Sp. pizca a mite, small particle; 
Yon. pizzare, Y^'eAX. pisst, It. pizzicare, WslI. pitziya pisca. Cat 
pessigar, N. Pr. pessuga, Sp. pizcar and pinchar, Fr. pincer 
epincer epinceler, E. pinch; Pg. piscar os olhos to wink the 
eyes. From Du. pitsen, G. pfetzen, itself from a root common 
in ^om. pit, Y.pito. Others deriye pinz are pinzo &c. hom pictus, 
pictiare, pinctus, pinctiare. But pingere (^k.pinj colorare) does 
not mean orig. to pierce, embroider? in the phrase acu pingere 
the sense of piercing belongs to acus not to pingere. 

Pizzico — pizza. 

Placard — plaque. 

Place — piazza. 

Plafond Fr. ceiling; from plat fond flat floor; hence Sp. paflon. : 

Plage — piaggia. 

Plaid — piato. 


Plaindre Fr., O. E. plain; from plangere, Pr. planher^ It. pia- 
gnere, Sip, plamr. 

Plais plaissa Pr. hedge , O. Fr. plaissier plessier to hedge , Pr. 
partic. as sbst. plaissatj O. Fr. plessie, also Pr. piaissaditz , O. 
Yy, pleisse'is a park, Fr. Plessis; irom. plexus plexa twisted, so 
plais = basket- work. 

Planche — pianca. 

Plaque Fr. plate, \h, plaqiier, ^hst, placard; from Du. pla/c a flat 
piece of wood, a shaving, plakken to paste up, fasten, not 
from Gk. TiXd^j since the word is only found in Fr. 

Plasta — pasta. 

Plat Plata — piatto. 

Platre • — piastra. 

Playa — piaggia. 

Plaza — piazza. 

Plegar ■ — piegare. 

Plegaria Sp. public prayer ; from precarius. 

Pleige — plevir. 

Pleita Sp. rush -matting; horn, plectere. 

Pleito — • piaio. 

Plessier • — plais. 

Plevir Pr. O. Fr. to pledge, Vr. plieu, Fr. pleige (== E. pledge), 
whence Yen. plezo, Sic. preggiu; plevir = prwhere (sc. fidem), 
cf. temple from tcmpora, Planchais = Praricatius for Pancra- 
tius. Pleige = prcehium a remedy, surety ; Pr. plevizo = jor«?- 
Mtio, Fr. plevine warranty, E. plevin, i^eplevin. W. refers to a 
G. source, T>\\. pleghe duty (Gr. p/licht), Y^. plight. 

Plie Fr. a plaice = in meaning L. platessa (Ausonius), Sp. pla- 
tija, Pg. patruca, E. plaice. Plie is for plaie from plate fem. of 
plat flat, and is altered in form to distinguish it irom plaie = 

Plier — piegare. 

Plisser Fr. to fold; a participial verb, from plicare plic'tus 

Plonger — piomhare, 

Ployer — piegare. 

Plusieurs Fr., Vr.plusor, O. It. pliisori a comparative for L. plus 
(plures) which was appropriated to form the Romance com- 

Earative; irom plus was dor. plusior, cf. Varro's plusi?nus, and 
I. L. pluriores. 
Poche Fr. introduced from England; A. S. pocca, Y. poke. 
Pocima Sp. potion; from 7t6ti6^a. 
Podar — potare. 
Podesta It. m. a magistrate; Pr. podestat poestat, Sp. potestad, 

L. potest as all fem. 
Podre Sp. pus, matter; irom puter, = Pg. podre. 


Poe O. Fr., Pr. pauta, Cat. pota; from Du. poot == G. pfote foot. 

Poele Fr. f. a pan, O. Fr. paelc paesle, E. peel pail; from L. pa- 
tella ^ It. padella , Sp. padilla. From Fr. paele come Sp. payla 
and Pg. j9^//«f. 

Poele Fr. m. a canopy, pall, O. Fr. poesle; from TtetaXov, L. L. 
petalum a golden canopy hung over the Pope's head. Pallium 
would have gi\en paile, Vv.pali. Bufv. Littre, p. 69, who 
makes poele = poile = paile. 

Poele Fr. m. a heated room, a stove, O. Fr. poisle, L. L. has 
piscle, pisalis, which point to L. pensilis, pesile, cf. the expres- 
sions horreum pensile (h.)y domus pensilis, camera pendens i}^, 
L.). A Rom. form hirle for pirle is from^/s/e, as varlet from 
vaslet, L. L. pirale, O. H. Gr. pheral, not from jT'L'^ which could 
only have given pirale. 

Poge — poggia. 

Poggia It. rope at the end of a sailyard, Fr. poge (m.); from 
TtodCov (jtovg). The poggia was on the right, as the orza was 
on the left. It is one of the numerous nautical words borroAved 
from the Greek, cf. harca, sesto, golfo, artimone, falo. 

Poggio It., Pr. pueg puoi, O.Fr. pui a raised place (E. pew pue), 
Sp. Pg. poyo a stone bench near the door, O. Fr. puiot; from 
podium raised place*, hence vb. It. poggiare, O. Pg. Vr. poyar, 
O. Fr. puier to mount; It. appoggiare, Sp. Pg. apoyar, Fr. ap- 
puyer to support, lean; sbst. appui. 

Poi It., Sp. /?w^5, Vg.poz, Vr.pois, Fr. puis, horn post; hence 
It. dipoi dopo (cf. domani), the latter a very old form for Wal. 
has dupe, Pg. Pr. depois, Fr. depuis, L. L. de post; Sp. despues, 
Pr. despuois, Com. despo, Padu. daspo from de ex post, li.pos- 
cia , Pr. poissas is from postea. 

Poids — peso. 

Poignard — pugnale. 

Poin9on — punzar. 

Poindre Fr. to prick , also to spur a horse, whence sbst. poindre 
assault in battle, M. H. G. poinder; from pungere, Pr. ponher, 
It. pungere, Sp. pungir. 

Point — punto. 

Poison — pozione, 

Poisser — pegar. 

Poisson Fr. fish ; from piscis, Pr. peis, O. Fr. pescion, It. pescione. 

Poitrine Fr., Pr. peiirina breast, from a form pectorina, Dauph. 
peiturina; orig. = breast -piece, or girdle, cf. Bip. petrina pre- 
tina girdle. O. Fr. has pis = pectus. Hence O. Fr. poictrinal 
petrinal, E. petronel because worn in the girdle. 

Polea — poulier. 

Poledro puledro It., Sp. Pg. potro, Pr. poudre, O. Fr. poutre a 
colt; from L, L. pulletrus poledrus ; Scaliger's pulletra for pul- 


lastra in Varro, is a mere conjecture. Puletro may be from a 
Gk. TtcokCdQiov for TCcoXCdioVj {TtcoXog, cf. LTtTtog, iitnCdiov). 
^^. potro also = a wooden horse, cf. eqmilcus (G. folter from 
poledrus), Fr. poutre a cross-beam to support another beam. 

Poleggio puleggio It., Pr. pulegi, Sp. poleo, Tg, poejo, Fr.pou- 
Hot a plant , penny - royal ; from pulegitim, 

Polichinelle — pulcindla. 

Polilla Sp.; Pg. polilha a moth ; according to the Sp. etymologers 
from pulviSj the v suppressed as in fulo from fiilviis, Gonzalo 
for Gonzalvo. 

Polisson Fr. a blackguard, whence ^ip.polizon; iYovcv politio one 
who polishes the pavement , cf. nourricon from nutritio. Roue. 
polisso = a smoothing iron. 

Polizza It., Sp. poliza, Fr. police bill, certificate, policy (of in- 
surance &C.V, a corruption of polyptijchum a catalogue &c., 
usually in pi. poly pty elm an account- book {tio'Kv'Kxv'iov)^ also 
polecticum poleticum poletum, Fr. poulie. 

Pollarelt. to shoot, bud forth, whence rampollare ; ivom. pnllulare, 

Pollegar Pg., Sip. pulgar, Vv. polgar, O.Fr. pochier thumb; from 
pollicaris (pollex). 

Poltro It. lazy, dastardly, whence joo/^row^, Sp. poltron, Fg. po- 
trao, Yv. poltron J Yi. poltroon all from the It., the ^vim.. poltro 
found only in Champ, pleutre. Connected with O .fl.Q< . polstar 
holstar, E. holster, cf. Fr. lodier (1) blanket (2) idler, and cf. 
It. holdrone holdra a part of the bed furniture; the commen- 
tators on Dante Inf. 24, 46 (spoltre) mention a sbst. poltro, 
Mil. potter, Rom. pultar a bed. The dropping of the initial s 
may be owing to the 1st of the original , and the double initial 
points to a G. source. 

Porno It. Sp., Fr. pomme apple; from pomwn. Dim. It. pomello, 
Fr. pommeau, F. pommel. Hence sX^o F, pomander = pomme 
d'amhre, and pomatum (made from apples), v. Wedgwood. 

Ponce Fr., prop, pierre ponce pumice-stone; irom pumex, It. po- 
mice, Sp. pomez. Hence sbst. poncis, vb. poncer. Hence E. 

Ponceau Fr. purple , deep red ; from pnniceiis punicellus , Pr. pu- 

Pondre Pr. Fr., Cat. pondrer to lay eggs ; from ponere, which, 
in these three languages, is only found in this sense. 

Ponente It., Sp. poniente, Yx. ponent west, prop, sun- setting, 
ove il sol si pone; Wal. apus (parti c. from apune = apponere), 
Fr. couchant, cf. lev ante. 

Pontare puntare It. to press, insist on, resist; = Fr. pointer, to 
point, cf. It. pontar la lancia contra alcuno. 

Ponzona — pozione. 

Popar Sp. to caress, Yg.poupar to spare, save; fropiL.It./?«//?«re. 


Popone — pepin. 

Poppa It., Fr.popa, O. Fr, poupe breast; from pupa a doll (cf, 

coppa from ciipa), hence ^h., poptiy Fr. poupee (E. poppy), G. 

puppe. Cf. It. zita from Gr. zitze a teat? 
Por Sp. Pg. O. Fr., Fr. pour for L. pro, in Sp. Pg. also = per, 

so in early L, L. non territus pro hoc sacri/icio. It is not found 

in It. but the Sard, has po (=^ por) prob. from the Sp., since 

peri is also used. O. Sp. 0. Pg. pora, Sp. Pg. para = pro ad, 

Cat. pera, Prov. per a, O. Fr. por a. 
Por puer 0. Fr., Pr. por pore a particle = L. porro and used 

with certain verbs, such as gitar, traire, volar e. g,por gitar 

to throw away. 
Pore -epic Fr. corrupted from porc-espi, Pr. porc-espin (O. E. 

porpin a hedgehog whence, by corruption, porpentine in Shaks- 

pere). It. porco spino, porco spinoso, Sp. puerco espino, E. 

poixupine. The Fr. connected it with spica. 
Poreellana It., Sp. Pg. porcelana, Fr. porcelaine, E. porcelain. 

The word is of Italian origin; poreellana = (1) a shell -fish, 

concha Veneris (2) porcelain, which resembles the shell in 

transparency. Poreellana in sense (1) is derived from L. porcus 

in a secondary sense, cf . Fr. pucelage with the same meaning. 

V. Mahn, Untersuchungen, p. 13. 
Poreellana • — portulaca. 

Porehe Fr. (m.), Yx.porge porch; from. porticus , li, portico. 
Porende poren O. Sp. O. Pg. = por tanto from proinde. Pg. po- 

rem is for ndo porem , as pourtant for non pourtant. 
Porfla Sp. Pg. Cat. obstinacy, porfiar to dispute obstinately, 

O. Pg. per/ia, 0. Sp. porfidia, so from perfidia. Cf. a%i(5'tm 

faithlessness and disobedience, and for the form cf. Sp. hasiio 

from fastidium. 
Poridad Sp., O. Pg. puridade = Sp. puridad secrecy, L. purifas. 
Porra Sp. Pg. Cat. a club-headed stick; irom. porrum a leek, or 

from a B. root. Hence porro heavy, dull. 
Portulaca It. Pr., Sp. verdolaga (through verde), Pg. verdoaga 

verdoega heldroega , a plant, purslane; from portulaca. From 

Lt. porcilaca {2X^0 porcastrum) comes It. poreellana, F. purslane ; 

from pulli pes, Fr. pour pier, 
Poruce — appo. 
Posar poser — pausare. 
Poscia — poi. 
Posnee O. Fr. podne'e haughtiness. Foy ])oussonee irom. pousser ? 

or connected with W. posned (m.) = something round and 

Possa poussa Pr. nipple; = bud, Fr. pousse? 
Posta It. Sp. Pg., Fr. poste, E. post; from positus, because of the 

relay of horses. 


Posticeio It., Sp. postizo, Yw posiiche, also apposticcio, apostizo, 

• Pr. apostitz supposititious , counterfeit ; L. appositicius. 

Postierla — poterne. 

Postilla It. Pg. Pr., Sp. posiila, Fr. aposiille, E. postU marginal 
note, comment; not from posiius (wh. would have given 
postella), but irovn post ilia (sc. verba auclo?is). 

Postilla Sp. scab; from pustula, 

Postrar — prostrare. 

Pot - pourri — olla, 

Potage potaggio — pote, 

Potare It., Sp. Pg. Pr. podar, 0,Fi\ poder to prune; from putarr 
which is not found in Rom. in its figurative sense. Sp. podo7i, 
Pg. podao a hoe, O. Fr. poun from Sp. poda a pnming; Occ. 
poudo a pruning- knife. 

Potasse Fr. from G. poU-asche (also kesselasclic)^ F. potash. 

Pote Sp. Pg., Pr. Fr. ^0^; from Du. E. pot, cf. Viq. potequin = 
T)\\. iwtckin ; W.pot, Gcnei. poit. The It. has no masc. form 
potto, but the fem. potta has the secondary meaning which is 
found also in the Irish puite, and in L. and It. concha, It. vaso. 
Hence Fr. potage, E. pottage , It. potaggio, that which is pre- 
pared therein , cf . formaggio that made in a forina. 

Poteau Fr., Pr. postel a post; ixovii postis, 

Potenee Fr. a cnitch, gallows; from L. L. potentia prop. = sup- 

Potere It., Sp. Pg. Pr. poder ^ O. Fr. pooir {d lost), Fr. pouvoir 
{y inserted to prevent the hiatus), ^a\. putea = \j. posse , a 
new conjugation being formed as invelle &c., v. R. Gr. % 121. 
Sbst. It. podere, Sp. poder, Wah ptitea?^e power, also = pos- 
session, estate (like G. vermogeix), It. form. 

Poterne Fr., E. postern; a corruption of O. Fr. posterle, Pr. pos~ 
terlla, It. postierla , ivom. postei^ula, 

Potro • — poledro, 

Pou — pidocchio. 

Pouaere Fr. filthy ; formed from inter] ectionj90Wff^, Burg. Norm. 
polacre , Vio.. polaque , N. ¥r. pouldcre. 

Poudre Fr. (f.), E. powder, from pulvis pulveris (poire poldre). Fr. 
poussiere is ior pourriere (cf. beside), 0,¥Y.porriere pouldriere. 

Poulain Fr. foal; irom. pidlns, Pr. polin. 

Poulier Fr. to hoist up, poulie (E. pulley, Sp. pole'a, Fg. pole); 
from A. S.pidlian, E.jndl; but v. Wedg. s. v. ^^ pulley ^\ 

Pouliot — poleggio, 

Pouls — pulsar. 

Poupa — upupa. 

Pour — por. 

Pourpier — portulaca. 

Pourpoint Fr., Tr.perponh, Sp. perpunte, pespunte, Pg. pesponto; 


L. 1j, perpuncium , so called because it was quilted. On pour 
for^<?r cf.R. Gr. 2, 353. 

Pousse poussif — hoho. 

Pousser — pulsare. 

Poussiere — poudre. 

Poussin Fr.; Fr.pouzin a chicken; from pullicemts (Lampridius). 

Poutre — poledro, 

Poyo — poggio. 

Pozione It., Sp. pocion, Pr. poizo drink, medicine, O. Sp. pozon, 
Fr. poison, E. potsofi; from potio a draught, a potion to work 
a charm or cure; vb. Pr. p>oizonar, Sp. ponzohar, from po- 
tionare, whence Sp. ^'^i. ponzona, Tg. peconha poison. Cf. Sp. 
yerba, Pg. erva poisonous plant, poison, O. Fr. enherher to 
poison, and G. gift poison = prop, dose (dd(?ig). 

Pozzo It., Wal. putzu, Sp. pozo, Pr. potz, Fr. puits (E. pit) well; 
from puteus. Hence vb. Pr. pozar, Fr. puiser, e'puiser. 

Pozzolana It. melted lava, so called because often found in the 
district of Pozzuoli. 

Prace It. space between two furrows ; from TtQaoCa a garden-bed. 

Prebenda prevenda It. Pr., S^, prebenda, Fr. prebende, F. pre- 
bend daily supply for the monks &c. The Yr.provende (whence 
(ji.pfrunde, Ya, provender)^ li. prof enda has taken \\\Qprov from 
providere, cf. Q^. proviant, 

Preboste ■ — prevoste, 

Precher Fr., E. preach, Pg. pregar &c., sbst. Fr. prechc, Pr. 
prezic; ivom. prcedic are. 

Predella It. a foot -stool. Mil. br^ella; from O. H. G. pret = G. 
brett board. 

Predella — brida. 

Pregno It., Pg. prenlie, Yx.prenh, O. ¥y. prai?is , ivovo. pra^gnas ; 
vb. Pg. prenhar , Sp. part, prenado, Pg. emprenhar, Sp. em- 
prenar &c. 

Pregui9a — pigrezza. 

Preguntar Sp., Pg. perguntar to ask; ivovo. percontari. 

Preindre 0. Fr. to press, Vi\ pjre?ner; from p?^ef?iere. Hence Fr. 

e'preindre == exprimere, empreindre =■ imprimere , depreindre 

(O. Fr.) = deprimere. Cf. imprenta. 
Prele — esprelle. 
Prendar — nans. 

Prensar Sp., Cat. prempsar to press ; from pressure. 
Pres presque — presso. 
Presente It. Sp., Fr. present, E. present; L. L. prcesentia (900 

A. D.), O.^sen (1150 A. D.) ; irom prcesentare to present, 

Presso It., Pr. pres, ¥r. pres = L. prope; irom presstfm, cf. «V^t, 


' fyyvg. Hence It. appresso, O. Pg. ia pres, Pr. apres, Fr. ajjres; 

It. pressoche , Fr. presque. i 

Prestare It.; Sp. prestar, Fr. prefer to lend ; from prcestare = to 

lend (Salvian, Venantius &c.). i 
Preste — prete. I 

Presto It. Sp. Pg., Pr. prest, Fr. pret; from a late L. prfrsf7/s. 

The Pg. has also prest es (indec.)^ cf. lestes and lesto, 
Pret — presto. j 

Prete It., Sp. 0. Pg. preste, Fr. pf^tre, O. Fr. Pr, prestre, priest, 

from presbyter; other forms ar6 immediately from TtQSG^vte- 

Qog y Pr. preveire, preire, CsiU prehere , O. Fr. proveire pro- 

voire, cf. Pr. preveiral preveircn from L. L. preshyteralis preshy- 

teratiis. It is remarkable that the It., tliough fond of the 

combination sty has lost the s in pi^ete. Mil. prevet pret. 
Preter — prestare, 
Pretina — poitrine. 
Pretto It. pure, vmmixed (of wine &c.); iov puretto from ptirm. 

But the e in pretto is open, and the contraction is unusual, 

hence Muratori derives it from O. H. G. herht ^= E. bright, 

where the meaning does not suit so well. 
Preux — pro. 
Preveire — prete. 
Prevosto It., Sp. Pg. preboste, Fr. prevoty Wal. pi^eot, provost; 

from prapositiis. Hence also Sp. Pg. prioste syndic. 
Pria It. adv. for prio from priiis, the termination being prob. 

borrowed from poscia. 
Priego O. Sp., Pg. prego a nail, cf. A. S. prica, E. prick, Du. 

prik, W. ptic. 
PrietoSp., P<^.preto pressed, thronged, miserable, mean, sordid 

(hence Sp. Pg. also = blackish), Pg. pe?'to closely (It. presso), 

vb. apretar, apertar to compress, sbst. S'p. presa haste] pret or 

nnist be a freq. of premo (premito). 
Prigione It., Si^. p?ision, Fi\ preiso, Fr. E. prison; ivom p?Tlfensio 

prensio seizure (so in Sp.). The It. andSp. words have also 

the meaning of ^'prisoner". 
Primavera — ver. 
Prime Sp. Pg., Fi. prime, la obra es prima &c.; from primus for 

primarius, cf. Pr. prim (==•. E. prim^ fine, pretty, primhois =-• 

fine, small wood for fagots, prim preon very deep, cf. Najvius : 

prime probus. 
Prime Sp. Vg. primo liermano Sp. cousin, first cousin. Pr; prim 

= a near relative, quart a relative in the fourth degree. 
Prince Fr., Pr. prince prinsi; whence It. prenze, prince. From 

princeps; O. Fr. princier horn. j)ri?nicerius. 
Pringue Sp. grease, fat; ir om pinguis. 
Printemps — ver. 


Prioste — prevosto. 

Priseo — pej^sica. 

Prision prison — prigione. 

Pro It. Sp. Pg. Pr.; O. Fr. ])rou preu pro, for which also It. 
prode^ O. Sp. 0. Y^.prol, Pr. pron profit; fromL.jyro used 
as a sbst. e. g. in It. in pro o in contro. For proficiat was writ- 
ten ^ro faccia for prodest prod^ e (hence the d). Next, prode 
was used as an adj. egli e prode = prodest he is useful; brave, 
cf. M. H. G. hiderhe, G. frum and L. L. utilis in both senses. 
The Pr. pros retains the s of declension as an integral part of 
the word, Xiqwqq Yv. preux , Wc^.prus, adv. Vr. prosamen pro- 
osamen, O. Fr. proiisement though no adj. proos, proosa is 
found. From the O.Yx. prou comes sbst. ^^row^s^^^ Y. prowess. 
Some derive the adj . pro pros from prohus, which is supported 
by the Pr. adv. j9ro, Fr. prou = satis, from^roZ^^, Oat. prou: 
pro batre alcun = probe percutere aliquem. 

Proa — prua. 

Proehe Fr., Pr. /?rop2 near; ir om. propius m propiare, appropiare, 
Wal. aprop'ia; whence Fr. approcher, Pr. apropchar, O. It. ap- 
procciare approach. Cf. reprocher. 

Proda — prua. 

Profenda — prebenda. 

Profllare It., Fr. profiler (borrowed), Sp. pcrfdar to draw pro- 
files or outlines (Chauc. purfile = edge, border, E. purfle, 
purl), shut. It. pro/ilo , Fr. pro/il (E. profile), Si^. homb. per/il. 
From filum line , outline. 

Profitto It., Tr. pro/ieg, Cat. Fr. pro/it, F. profit; vb. profittare, 
profeitar, profiler ; from sbst. profectus. Hence also (better 
than from proveclus) Sp. Pg. provecho proveito, O. Pg. profeito. 

Promener — menare. 

Prone Fr. m. a sermon, proner to preach; from prceconium 
(preone prone). 

Propaggine It., Yx. probaina, ^'^. provena, Fr. provin (for pro- 
vain O. Fr.) a layer, shoot, vb. provigner; from propago, pro- 
paginare, whence also G. pfropfen (E. prop). 

Propio It. Sp., Cat. propi; from proprius , Wsd. propiu, Sp. Pg. 
proprio, Pr. propri, Fr. propre (E. proper). 

Prosciutto — suco. 

Prostrare It., Sp. prostrar (so Pg. Pr.), E. prostrate; from pro- 
stratus (prosternere) treated as though of the first conjugation. 

ProtocoUo It. &c. From TtQcotoxoXXov the leaf prefixed and 
attached (itQcorog xoXka) to the Byzantine papyrus •• rolls stat- 
ing by wJiom, and under what ^^ comes largitionum '^ each 
was published. Whence the name was transferred to the public 
records which, by edict of Justinian, were to be always ac- 
companied by such a protocol. 



Prou — pro. 

Proue — prua. 

Provano — tema. 

Proveceio provecho — profitto, 

Provena — propaggine. 

Provende — prebenda. 

Provianda — viande. 

Provigner provin — propaggine. 

Prua It., Sp. Pg. Pr. proa, Fr. prone (E.proiv); ivoiw jyrora with 
rare euphonic elision of the r for wnich d is substituted in the 
It. proda, the O. G. has 7?ro/. The li. prod a in the sense of 
edge, is better from the G. 2)roth prort hrort than from prora. 

Prude Fr. (E. sbst.) an adj. wanting in the sister- tongues and 
derived from the compound prud' homme for preud' homme, 
Fr. prozom, Sp. pro1i07nbre, It. produomo Others derive 
it from prudens. 

Prudere It., Pr. pruzer, Pg. Cat. pruir (for prudir^ to itch ; from 
prurire, cf. proda from prora, 

Pruir — prudere. 

Puce — pulce. 

Pucelle — pulcella. 

Puche Sp. pottage ; from puis pultis , It. polla. Hence puchero sl 
pot for cooking. 

Pues , puis — pot. 

Pugnale It., S^.punal, Fr, poignard a dagger; irora pugio pu- 

Puiser puits — pozzo. 

Pular Pg. to hop , spring , bud , geminate *, from pullare for pnl- 
lulare to sprout. 

Pulce It. f., Fr. puce f., Cat. pussa, Sp. Pg. pulga, Crcm. pei'degh 
flea; from pulexm..'^ vb. It. spulciare , Fr. epucer. Cat. espus- 
sar, Sp. Pg. Pr. espulgar, Val. espJugar, Sp. =:= also despiojar 

Pulcella It., O. Sip. puncella poncella, 0. Pg. Vr. pucella, Fr. pu- 
celle, Jih. purscella maid, young girl, Fr. piucel , Fr. puceau, 
Rh. piirscel youth. A dim. from pullu$,(in L. only of animals), 
dim. pidicella (A. D. 500), cf. O. Fr. jmlle a girl, poulot a little 
boy (still used in Berry and Normandy). 

Pulcinella It., Fr. polichinelle a mask in the Neapolitan comedy; 
so called according to some , from Puccio cTAniello of Acerra, 
the first to sustain the part; al. = little child, darling (prop, 
chickling \pidl6\)j thence transferred to the most popular 
stage -figure. Hence prob. E. Punch. 

Pulga • — piUce. 

Pulsar Sp. Pg., Fr. polsar, Fr. pousser (E. push); from pulsare, 
whence also Sp. Pg. puxar to thrust out, outbid; sbst. It. 


polso, Yv.pouls, ^. pulse hom. pulsus. The form expulser &,c. 

is of more recent formation. 
Punehar — punzar. 
Punto It., Fr. point, Vr. ponh point used to strengthen a negative; 

from punctum; cf.pas, rien, aucun &c., R. Gr. 3, 395. 
Punzar punehar Sp., Pg. puncar, It. punzellare punzecchiare to 

stick , E. pounce, a participial verb = punctiare from punctus. 

Sbst. It. punzone, Sip. punzon, ¥r. poincon, F. punch, G. pun- 

zen, hunzen; irom punctio, which, becoming concrete, is made 

masculine, cf. tosone. 
Pupitre Fr. from pulpitum, It. pulpit o , pulpit. 
Puput — upupa. 
Pure It. particle used for solum and tamen; from j»wr^ = purely, 

Pusigno It. a meal after supper; ivovn post-cceniiim. 
Putput — upupa. 
Putto It., Sp. Pg. puto lad. It. f. putta girl, harlot (Sp. puta, Fr. 

pute). A Avord from the spoken Lat., found in an epigram 

attributed to Virgil ^'me perdidit iste putus^\ cf. S^. putra = 

filius. Putillus in Plant, becomes It. putello. From putta comes 

It. puttana, O. Sp. putana harlot; instead of Fr. putaine we 

have putain (Pr. putan), from accusative putam, cf . Evain from 

Evam, Bertain from Bertham. 
Putto It., O. S^. pudio, Pr. O. Yv. put base, mean, disgusting; 

Hvom. putidus , as netto from nitidus. 
Puxar — pulsar. 
Puya pua Sp., Vg. pua prickle, shoot, layer; horn puffio -onis, 

as huba from ^ov^(6v, cf. Sp. mugron in same sense, prop. = 

a dagger. 
Puzzo puzza It. stink, Yh. puzzare; irom. putidus putius, ci'.sozzo 

from sucidusj rancio from rancidus. 


Qua It., Sp. acci, Pg. cd from eccu^ hac; cf. Pr. sa sai, Fr. ca, 

Lomb. scid from ecce hac. 
Quadro It. Sp. Pg. square, frame, picture, Pr. cadre frame, Pr. 

caire a square stone; from quadrum. Hence Fr. carricre, E. 

quarry (where square stones are cut), L. L. quadraria , to be 

dist. from carrier e career; It. quadrello, Sp. quadrillo, Pr. 

cairel, Fr. carreau a small square, an arrow-head, bolt, E. 

quarrel; It. squadra , vSp. esquadra, Fr. equerre, E. square, It. 

Sp. also = a band of people, whence Fr. escadre escouade; 

It. squadrone, Sp. esquadron, Fr. escadron, E. squadron; all 

from squadrare (ex-quadrare) to square. 



Quaglia It., O. Sp. coalla, Pr. calha, Fr. caille (E. callet = Fr. 

cailleite), Rh. quaera. E. quail; L. L. quaquila, an onomatop. 

connected with G. quaken, E. quack. The Cat. (/7mtlla , Val. 

gmala is the G. wahtala. The Wal. is prepelitze, pitpelace, 

Sard, circuri, Pied, cerlach. 
Quagliare cagliare It., Sp. cuajar^ Pg. coalhar, Fr. cailler to 

coagulate; from coagulare. From sbst. coagulum is Pg. coalho, 

It. <;fl^/20 rennet, also gaglio, whence galium (Linnaeus). 

Quai — c«yo. 

Qualche It., 0. Sp. qualque, Pr. qualsque, Fr. quelque; homqua- 
lis quam after the analogy of quisquam. Hence It. qualcuno, 
qual-clied-uno, Fr. quelqxiun. 

Quan Sp., Pg. ^wr/o, Pr. crm adv.; from ^?/rt;w. 

Quandius Pr. ; from quamdiu. 

Quaresima It., Sp. quaresma, Fr. car erne (m.), Wal. peredsimi 
Lent; from quadragesima j Gk. TsaaaQaxoOtrj. 

Quatto It., Pr. quait, Sp. crtc^o gacho crouching, (s)quat; Fr. 
c«c^e hiding place; It. quattare, Fr. cacher to hide; Fr. e'cacher, 
O.Fr. esquachier, Pic. ecoachar, Sp. acachar agachar to quash, 
squash. Quatto = coactus, quattare = coactare (cf. coagulare, 
cailler, fleeter e flechir). Another form from coactus is Fr. catir 
to press = O. Fr. Pic. quatir. From cache cachet seal, cachetic 
hiding-place, c achot ^ri'&^yw. Besides Pr. cachar we find qid- 
char, N. Pr. esquichd, Rh. squicciar, cf. G. quetschen. 

Quattrino It. a small coin = four danari. 

Que — che. 

Quebrantar — crehantar. 

Quebrar — crepare. 

Quee ■ — chaque. 

Queda Pg. fall = Sp. caida from caer (L. cadere)^ It. caduta. 

Quedar quedo — cheto. 

Queixo — casso. 

Quelha — calha. 

Quello It. as well as colui (prov. It. quelui), Sp. Pr. aquel, Pg. 
aquelle , from eccii ille; Wal. acel eel, Pr. aicel eel, O. Fr. icel 
eel as well as celui from ecce ille, cf. qui. 

Quelque — qualche. 

Quemar Sp., Pg. queitnar to burn. From cremare, cf. quehrar, 
temhlar. It is unnecessary, with Larramendi, io derive it from 
the Basque. 

Quenouille — conocchia. 

Querela queree (f.) It. an oak; from adj. querceus, cf. faggio 
from fageus. 

Queso — cascio. 

Questo It. and costui (prov. It. questui), Sp. Pg. aqueste. Cat. Pr. 


aquest; from eccu' isie; so Wal. acest cesl, Pr. aicest cesl, O. Fr. 

icest cest and cestui, Fr. eel, from ecce isie. 
Queue — coda. 

Queux Fr. (f.) a whetstone; from cos cotis, Pr. cot, It. cote. 
Queux O. Fr. (m.) a cook; from coquus , It. cuoco. 
Quexar (quejar) Sp. to complain; from a freq. questare from 

queri questus. For x from st, v. R. Gr. 1, 225. 
Qui — c^^. 
Qui It., O. Fr. iqui equi and enqxd anqui, Sp. Pr. aqui; from ^ccm' 

/i/c; also It. ci, Pr. «/c? aissi, Cat. «r552, Fr. 2c/ ci, Wal. «/c2 

?c?, from ecce hie. Hence It. qui-ci, li-ci. 
Quien Sp., Pg. quern ; from L. quern, so alguien, alguem from ali- 

quem; cf. for quilibet, Sp. quien- quiera, quem-quer (conj. of 

querer to be willing). 
Quignon — coin. 
Quilate — carato. 
Quilla quille — chiglia. 
Quimera — chimera. 
Quin quinn Pr. interrogative pronoun, Wald. f. quena; from 

quinam? Wal. cine. 
Quincaille — clincaille. 
Quinci It. adv. of place, from eccu^ hincce , cf. quindi from eccu^ 

hide, quivi from eccu' ibi &c. 
Quintana chintana It., Pr. quint ana, 0. Fr. quint aine, E. quin- 
Quinon — coin. 

Quitare quite quitte quitter — cheto. 
Quivrer O. Fr; to wake, rouse; from E. quiver nimble, busy, 

A. S. cviferlike restless, E. quiver (verb). 
Quixada — casso. 
Quixote — coscia. 

Quiza quizas Sp., Pg. quica, 0. Pg. quizais, Sard, chisa chisas, 
. Sic. ciisa adv. for L. fortasse; from qui sabe (Sp. quien sabe) 

^^who knows", in the Poem. d. Cid qui sab. 
Quoi — che. 
Quora — or a (2). 
Quota It., Pr. cota, Fr. cote a contribution, quota; from quotus, 

Sp. Pg. cota also = an annotation, quotation. Hence It. quo- 
tare, Sp. Pg. cotar acotar, Fr. coter to quote; Sp. cotejar, Pg. 

cotejar to compare (bring together) ; Fr. coterie a body (prop. 

of contributors). 


Raban — haubans. 

Rabano Sp., Pg. rabao radish; from raphanus. It. rafano. 


Rabarbaro It., Sp. Pg. ruibarho, Fr. rliuharbc, E. rhiibarh j a 
plant which is found growing wild on the banks of the Volga 
and in China; from rha harharum^ so called to distinguish it 
from rha ponticum (Pontus) a plant of the same kind known 
to the Romans. 

Rabel — ribeba, 

Rabesco — ardbesco, 

Rable Fr. (m.), 0. Fr. roable, Occ. redable an oven -rake; from 

Babo Sp. Pg. a tail, according to Diez, from rapcrc in allusion 
to the quick motion of an animal's tail, but better, with Mahn, 
from rapum a carrot, cf. G. schivanzriibc (tail-radish)= the 
thick part of the tail. Hence, perhaps, E. rabbit, cf. bunny 
from bun a tail, and cf. raposo. 

Raboter Fr. to plane (Sp. raboiear to dock), whence rahot a 
plane; corresponds to Pr. rebotar, It. ributtarc (v. botlare), to 
thrust back, rebut, Fr. rabouier; hence Fr. raboteux rough, 

Rabrouer — bravo. 

Raca racca Pr. a jade, mare, Yr.recaille rabble ; prob. from Norse 
racki, E. rack hound (G. rckcl clown), cf. canaille from canis. 

Raechetta It. (corr. lacchetta)y Sp. raqucta, Fr. raqiiette, E. 
racket; from a form rctichetta from rete. 

Race — razza. 

Rachar rajar — raggio. 

Raehe Fr. (f.) sediment of tar; from a form rasica from rasis 
resin, cf. ragia, thus distinct from rasche rash scab , v. rascar. 

Racher 0. Fr., Wall, rechi, Pic. raquer, Pr. racar. Com. raca 
reca to spit; from O. N. hrdki spittle, hrmkia to spit, A. S. 
hrwkan (wreak). Fr. cracher is of the same origin, Pr. escra- 
car (sbst. crai), Sic. scaccare, Rh. scracchiar. 

Racine Fr., Pr. razina root; from a form radicina (radix), Wal. 

Racier — rascare. 

Rada It. Sp., Fr. rade road (for ships) ; from 0. N. reide prepa- 
ration, equipment, Du. reede. 

Rade — raudo. 

Radeau Fr.^, Pr. radelh a raft ; from raits. 

Radio O. Sp., Pg. arredio strayed; from a form errativus? 

Rado It. an altered form of rarus, v. R. Gr. 1 , 248. 

Radoter Fr. to talk nonsense, O. Fr. redoter; from Du. doten, 
E. dote, cf. W. dotio, Du. dutten, M. H. G. totzcn to doze, be 
toty, G. verdutzt abashed. 

Rafez rahez 0. Sp., 0. Pg. refece light, small, bad; from Ar. 
rakhic easy, smooth, sbst. rokhc cheapness. 

Raffare It. in arraffare. Mil. raffa, Piedm. rafe, Rh. raffar. 


O. Fr. rajfcr, Lorr. raffua to seize &c.; sbst. Piedm. rafa 
booty, Lorr. Kouclii raffe, It. ruffaraffa a scramble, Rom. 
riffe raff a, Rh. riff a raff a, Sp. rifi-rafc (E. riff-raff^; It. arraf- 
fare (for arrafflare), Fr. raflcr erafler, sbst. It. raffio a hook, 
Fr. rafle in /V/^'re rafle to seize everything. From M. H. G. 
reffen, G. raff en, E. ra/f (from the Fr.); with / G. m^<!?/, vb. 
O. N. hrafla, sbst. Du. Swed. m/f<?/, E. m/77<?. Lorr. adj. raffe 
= sour {raffen = corripere); cf. 0. H. G. raffi, E. rough, Com. 
rrt!/?, O. N. hrappr. 

Raffio rafler -^ raff are. 

Ragazzo It. boy, ragazza girl; according to Muratori, from qd%y\ 
rags/ so = one who wears rags, a servant, boy, cf. puer = 
boy, servant (and cf. fante)^ or from raca homo nihili in St. 

Raggio razzo It., Sp. Pg. rayo, Pr. rai raig, 0. Fr. r«2, Fr. 
rayon, E. r^y, from radius; f. It. r«2rz« spoke, A¥al. raze, Sp. 
Pg. Pr. rayaj Fr. r«/e ray, stripe, streak; vb. li. raggiare raz- 
zare to beam, Pr. rayar, 0. Fr. raier roier to beam, stream, 
Sp. rayar, Fr. r«?/gr to stripe; from radiare. Sp. r^?/flrr = also 
to make strokes, lines, rajar to split, r^Jrt a splinter, Pg. 
rachar raxar, sbst. raja racha. The 0. Fr. raie or r<?'^ ^^ ?w?H;, 
Norm, reve, Fr. rayon de miel honeycomb, Pg. raio de mel 
point to O. S. rata, M. Du. rate, M. H. G. rdz. Fr. m/e = 
channel (for water), O.Fr. roie, Pr. rega arrega, is from rig are, 

Ragia It., Rh. rascha resin; from an adj. raseus rasea (rasis). 

Ragouter Fr. to provoke the appetite , hence ragout (cf. frican- 
deau a dainty dish); from re-ad-gustare. 

Raguer Fr. to rub, triturate; from N. raka to rub. 

Raie — raggio. 

Raifort Fr. horseradish ; from radix fortis, 

Railler — rallar. 

Rain Fr. in rain de hois; from rain border, ridge. 

Rainar — hargner. 

Raiponce — raperonzo. 

Raire Fr. to bellow (of a stag). On the analogy oimugire, rugire 
vagire was formed ragire, Fr. raire, It. ragghiare^ cf. mugire, 
muire, mugghiare. 

Raise 0. Fr. rese an expedition; from 0. H. G. reisa, G. reise. 

Raisin Fr., Pr. razim grape (E. raisin); from racemus, Sp. ra- 
cimo. Pic. O. Fr. rosin (G. rosine). 

Raler Fr. to rattle; from E. rattle, Du. ratelen, G. rasseln. Hence 
rale, E. rail (a bird) = Pr. roufte, E. ruff, from vb. roufla = 
ronfler, cf. Pic. rousselet from G. rosseln, cf. also Sp. ronca, 
G. iviesenschnarcher. 

Ralingues Fr. (m. pi.) ropes to fasten Ae sail, bolt-ropes; from 
Du. raa, Swed. ra yard, and Du. leik, Swed. Ilk rope. 


Rallar Sp. Cat., Pg. rdlar to grate, plague, Fr. railler, E. rail, 
rally; sbst. Sp. rallo, Pg. ralo grater. From a vb. radiculare 

Balo Sp. Pg. thin. From rarulus, Plant, ralla vestis (I = II as in 
novela, apelar), or from rarus (R. Gr. 1, 247), the objection to 
which is that the form rale is found in Lim. Rouchi, whereas 
the change of r to / between vowels is unknown in Fr. The 
form may, however, have been adopted from the Sp. 

Ramadouer — amadouer. 

Rambla Sp. Cat. sandy beach; from Ar. rami sand. 

Rame — risma. 

Rame It., Wal. arame, Sp. aramhre alamhre, Pr. aram, Fr. airain 
copper; from ceramen (Festus), aramentum a copper vessel. 
The Rh. is irom a corruption of iram erarriy like uffoni from 

Rame Fr. (f.) oar has taken its form from It. Sp. Pr. rama a 
bough, its meaning from remus, the proper Fr. form of which 
(rein) was regarded as too slight an expression, cf. ramcan 
instead of raiji from rafmis. The Gael, ramh (m.) = bough 
and oar, 0. Ir. ra?nce = remi. Rouch. is reme (j..), N.Pr. i^emo. 

Rame ramette Fr. printer's form (Sp. rama, Wal. rame); from 
the G. rahm. 

Ramentevoir — mentar. 

Ramequin Fr.; from G. rahm cream -cheese. 

Ramerino It., Sp. romero, Cat. Pr. romani, Pg. rosmaninho , Fr. 
romarin, E. rosemary; corruptions or adaptations of ros ma- 

Ramero — raminffo. 

Ramfo It. (in Lomb. ram/" ranf) cramp, from M. H. G. rampf, 
O: krampf. 

Ramingo It., Pr. ramenc ~- a young falcon that flies from bough 
to bough (ramus), so unsteady, Fr. ramingue\^W.{\A. Ramingo 
= Sp. ramero, fem. ramera a prostitute. 

Rammaricare — amaricare, 

Rammentare — mentar. 

Ramolaccio It. horseradish; by dissimilation for ramoraccio, 
from armor acia. Columella armor acium. 

Ramon Fr. a besom, ramoner to sweep a chimney; from ramus, 
cf. Sp. ramon tops of branches , ramonear to lop. 

Rampa It. claw, rampo hook, Pr. Sp. rampa cramp; vb. It. ram- 
pare , 0. Fr. ramper to clamber, Fr. to creep, part. Fr. E. 
rampant (her.), whence Fr. rampe, Sp. rampa mound. From 
same root as rappare (q. v.), L. G. rapen, Bav. rampf en to 
seize, claw, sbst. Lomb. ramf ranf cramp, cf. E. cramp in 
both senses , G. kranfpf, Pr. drops the m rapar = rampar, 
led rapan = Sp. leon rampante. Hence It. rampone hook, vb. 


rampognare to jeer, 0. Fr. ramposner ramponer to scoff, E. 

Ran Pic. ram; from O. H. G. Du. E. ram. 

Ranehe Fr. f., E. rung of a ladder; from ramex bough, pole. 

Ranelio ■ — rang. 

Rancio — arancio. 

Ranco It., Sp. rencOj 0. Fr. ranc hipshot, Ven. ranco distorted; 
vb. It. rancare arrancare to limp, dirancare distort, tear out, 
Sp. arrancar to wrest, force away, wrench (O. It. arrancare). 
From a German source; G. rank, Du. wrongk distortion, 
M. H. G. renken to wrench, Bav. renken to tear, A. S. vrcnc 
deceit, Goth, vraigus crooked, E. wring, wrong, wrench. Thus 
arrancar is to be distinguished from Fr. arracher (q. v.), to 
with which the Sp. arraigar agrees in form but not in mean- 
ing. For Sp. renco we have also rengo conforming to, though 
not etymologically connected with, derrengar (q. v.). 

Ran9on Fr., O. Fr. raancon, E. ransom; from redemtio. 

Rancore It., 0. Sp. Pg. Pr. rancor, 0. Fr. rancaur, Sp. rencor, 
E. rancour; from rancor (1) a rancid taste (Palladius) (2) ran- 
cour (Hieronymus and in L. L.); hence also Fr. rancune, It. 
0. Pg. ranciira &c. 

Rancune — rancore. 

Randa Pr. extremity, Pr. It. a randa close upon, quite, urgently; 
also Sp. randa, Pg. renda point-lace, prop, the rim or border, 
cf. G. kante; from 0. H. G. rand = O. N. rond margo, extre- 
mitas , E. round. Hence O. Fr. randir to urge on ; Pr. 0. Fr. 
randon urgency, vehemence, haste, adv. a randon and de ran- 
dony Sp. de randon y de rondon, Pg. de rondao, E. at random, 
vb. randonar randoner to rush at. 

Randello It. a stick, cudgel; from G. rddel, reitel , Com. rat 

Rang Fr., Pr. renc arrenc, vb. Fr. ranger arranger (range ar- 
range), Pr. rengar arrengar; G. Du. Swed. rang, E. rank, W. 
rhenge, Bret, renk. Pied, ren ran. From the same root as 
aringo (q. v.), viz: O. H. G. hring, M. H. G. E. ring, so ^= 
prop, a collection of persons arranged in circular order, then, 
generally, a row, file, line, cf. O. H. G. riga (v. rigd); from 
ranger Sp. rancho mess, arrancharse to form a mess, mess 

Ranger Pg. to grumble, snarl, growl. Verbs of the 2"^^ Rom. 
conj. are, without exception, derived from the 2"'^ and 3"^ of 
the Lat., so ranger must be referred to ring ere rather than to 
Gk. Qsyxsiv QoyTca^Siv. 

Rangifero It. Sp. , Fr. rangier, Du. reynger rein -deer; from 
L. L. rangifer, which is a corruption of Finnish raingo. Fr. 
renne is from N. lirein, ren, E. rm-deer, G. renn-\K\&c. The 


A. S. has hranas (pi.); the O. E. raine-deerj rane deer, rain 
deer. V. Dasent in the '^ Times" of Nov. W^ 1862. 

Rannicchiare — nicchio. 

Ranoechia — grenouille. 

Rapar Pr. — rampa, 

Rapar Sp. — rappare. 

Rapaz Sp. Pg. boy, rapuza girl. Usually der. from rapax, and 
so to denote the rapacity of children, cf. rapaceria childish- 
ness, rapagon from rapax, SiS perdigon from perdrix , raigon 
from radix. 

Raper — raspare. 

Raperonzo raperonzolo ramponzolo It., Sic. raponzxdu, Romag. 
raponzal, Sp. reponclie ruiponce, Pg. ruiponto, Fr. raiponce, 
E. rampion, G. rapunzel; from rapa rape, with It. suffix. 

Rapetasser — pedazo. 

Rapiere Fr. an old sword -blade (depreciative), E. rapier; for 
rdpiere from rape rasp, so = a notched, useless blade? 

Raposo Sp. Pg. f. raposa fox, for which we also find zorra, the 
L. vulpes only appearing in the fem. dim. vulpeja. From Sp. 
raho tail, cf. loho lupino, cobra capriino. 

Rappa It. tuft, bunch; cf. M. H. G. M. Du. rappe stalk of 
grapes, = Piedm. rap (It. grappold). 

Rappare It. in arrappare, Sp. Pg. Pr. rapar to plunder (E. 

rape), Lorr. rapoua to devour. From L. G. Du. rapen, O. E. 

raff, rap, Swed. rappa, G. raff en. Of the same stock is the 

It. rappa a cleft in a horse's foot = Du. rappe scab , Ven. 

Lomb. rapare rapa to shrink, shrivel = Bav. rdpfen to harden, 

to encrust. 
Raquette — racchetta. 
Rasare It., Sp. Pg. rasar, Fr. raser (E. raze) to shave. A freq. 

from radere rasus. 
Rascare Sp. Pg. Pr. to scratch; Pr. rasca, 0. Fr. rasche, E. rash 

(sbst.), for rasicare from radere frisiis. Hence also It. raschiare, 

Cat. rasclar, 0. Fr. teaseler, Fr. racier, sbst. It. raschia = Pr. 

rasca, from a Lat. rasiculare. The Sp. Pg. rasgar to tear 

asunder, sbst. rasgo a sketch, flourish of the pen, is usually 

referred to resecare, though rasgunar to scratch and sketch is 

evidently from rasicare. 
Raschiare — rascar. 
Raseia — raso. 
Rasente — rez.' 
Rasgar rasgunar — rascar. 
Rasilla — raso. 
Raso It. Sp., Fr. ras satin, Sp. ras a smooth place; from rasus. 

Hence Sp. rasilla a kind of serge. In the It. raseia serge (G. 


rasch), some recognize Bascui (a Slavonic district, Dante Par. 
19; 140) whence the stuff came, others Arras (but v. Arazzo). 
In an old It. poet we find : vestiti di Doagio (Douai) edi Rascese. 

Raspare It, Sp. raspar, Fr. rdper to rasp; from 0. H. Gr. raspon 
to scrape. Sbst. It. raspo a stalk of grapes, mange, Sp. Pr. 
raspa a stalk of grapes, beard of corn, rasp, Fr. rape rasp; 
It. also graspo, cf. gracimolo for racimolo, Tabac rape =^ E. 

Rasse raise 0. Fr., Pr. rasa, from 0. N. rds, A. S. rws, E. race. 

Rassettare — assettare. 

Rastro It. Sp. rake &c. ; from rastrum, Sp. r astro rastra, Pg. 
rasto sledge, dray, truck; dim. It. rastrello rasiello, Sp. ras- 
trillo rastillo, Fr. rdteau rake. 

Rate Fr. (f.) milt; from Du. rate honeycomb, from its spongy 
cellular appearance , cf. raggio. Hence derate brisk , gay = 
prop, without spiee?i. From the same root comes rato?i a cake. 

Rateau — rastro. 

Ratis ratin O. Fr. fern. Marcel. Empir. : hcrbm pteridis i. e. fili- 
cide qum ratis gallice dicitur. It is the W. rhedyn, Corn,reden, 
Bret, raden. 

Rato Sp. moment; from raptus. The Cat. estona is from G. 

Raton — rate. 

Ratto It., Sp. Pg. rato, Fr. E. rat an animal unknown to the 
Romans. From O. H. G. rato (m.), A. S. raet, L. G. ratta, 
Gael, radan, Bret. raz. From Sp. rato come radear to crawl, 
r«^<?ro creeping, vile. The Ven. is J^«/^/<?^fl(/^ (big- belly) from 

Ratto It. quick ; from raptus. Wall, toratt = It. tutto ratto. 

Raudal — raudo. 

Raudo Sp. rapid, O. Fr. Pic. rade; Sp. raudal a torrent; from 

Raus Pr., Bret, raoz, hence Pr. rauzel, Fr. roseau; from Goth. 
ram, whence 0. H. G. ror, G. rohr, cf. Rh. ror. 

Rausa (rauza) Pr., Lim. roouso sediment, crust of wine, Rom. 
rosa (with open 6) a crust; cf. 0. H. G. rosd (roso?) crusta, 

Rausar rauxar rousar roixar O. Pg. to ravish, sbst. roucom. 
From a L. rapiiare. 

Raiiser — rifusare. 

Raust Pr. rough; from raucidus? cf. G. rauh (l)asper (2)raucus. 

Rautar Pr. subito auferre. From rapt are, not found in the co- 
gnate tongues. 

Ravauder Fr. to mend, repair; from re-ad-validare. Ravauder 
= also to tease, plague, ravauderie silly nonsense (botch- 


Ravir Fr.^, E. ravish; from rapere, It. rapire. Hence also ravin, 

ravine, ravage. 
Bayer rayo rayon — raggio. 
Razione It., Sp. racion, E. Fr. ration; from ratio in L. L. = jus, 

right, due. 
Bazza It., Sp. Pg. Pr. raza, Fr. E. race, Radlcem would have 

given It. raccia; so it is better to refer razza to the 0. H. G. 

reiza line, of. L.L. linea sanguinis, Fr. ligne, E. line, lineage &c. 

Cf. tir (Wall.) s. V. Here. 
Bazzo — arazzo. 
Be O. Fr. a pyre for burning malefactors , L. L. dim. redulus 

'^strues lignonim ardeniium^'. It is the L. f^ete, wh. appears 

also in, the 0. Fr. reiz, Sp. red net, grating, cage for pri- 
soners , cf. 0. Fr. ardoir dedenz un re. 
Beal Sp. Pg. a coin, Pg. pi. reaes re'is; from regalis, whence also 

Sp. Pg. real S'p. a camp, Pg. king's tent (also arraial), and 

royal salutation. 
Beame It., O. Sp. reame realme, Pr. reyahne, E. realm, Fr. 

royaume; from a form regalXmen (regalis), cf. diicheautne O. Fr. 

for duche, which is the only other instance of such a formation. 

From regimen comes Fr. regime, Pr. regisme, 
Bebano Sp., Pg. rehanhorahanho flock, herd; from Ar. ribba ribbi 

a myriad, with Kom. suffix (rare), cf. almir-ante, ammiraglio. 
Bebatar Sp. Pg. to carry off, assault; from raptare, v. Rom. 

Gr. 1,281. 
Bebbio It. tine of a fork, Sp. rejo spike. From an old form 

ripil of the G. riff el iron comb (cf. Du. rcppen, E. ripple = G. 

riffeln) ? 
Bebee — ribeba. 

Bebentar reventar Sp. Pg. to burst; from ventus. 
Bebondre O. Fr. Pr. to hide, bury, partic. rebost, 0. Fr. reboz, 

from reponere. The Burg, has rebdirc = remeltre. 
Bebosar — versare. 
Bebours rebrousser — broza. 
Becado — recaudar. 
Becamare recamer — ricamare. 

Becare It. to bring; from 0. H. G. reichan, G. reichen, E. reach. 
Beeato — catar. 
Becaudar Sp., Pg. recadar arrecadar to collect taxes &c., 0. Sp. 

O. Pg. recabdar to get, obtain, Sp. rccaudo a tax -gathering, 

Sp. Pg. recado also = errand , message. Captare would give 

recatar recautar, cautus recotar recoiitar. Recaudar (O. Pg. re- 

cabedar, sbst. recabedo recabito) is the It. ricapitare to effect, 

appoint, sbst. ticapito appointment, from capitare to perfect 

(q. v.); cf. caudillo, cadiello from capilellus. 
Beeear — zelo. 


Recensar — rincer. 

Recere It. to spit ; from re'tcere (Virg. Fest. &c.) for rejicere, but; 
probably; with some reference to the German; v. racher. 

Reche reque Pic. sour, hence Fr. rechin, f. rechigiie, Com. 
reschign, It. arcigno (from Fr.) sour; harsh; unfriendly; vb. 
Fr. rechigner to look sour; crabbed; to knit the brows ; Com. 
reschignas, Ven. rancignare (from theFr.); O. Fr. rechigner 
recliiner, Pr. rechignar = also to mutter; growl; Sp. Pg. rechi- 
nar to grate ; creak; be reluctant. Heche, for resche resque, is 
from Gr. resche rosche harsh; rudo; rough. It. rincagnarsi =^ 
Fr. rechigner owes its form to cane, cf. stare in cagnesco. 

Rechef — chef, 

Rechinar — reche. 

Reeif — arrecife. 

Reciner — dessinare. 

Recio Sp. strong; stout; from rigidus, though usually g only 
becomes c after a consonant; cf. arcilla. Hence arrecirse to 
be benumbed with cold. 

Recodo — cuhito. 

Recoi — cheto. 

Reeourre reeousse — scuotere. 

Recru Fr. (of wood) aftergrowth; recrue recruiting; vb. recruter, 
E. recruit; from Fr. recroUre, 

Reeua Sp. Cat.; Pg. recova, a drove of beasts; from Ar. rakiiba 
a camel or other animal for riding upon. 

Reeudir — cudir. 

Recular reculer — rinculare, 

Redea — redina. 

Redil Sp. Pg. sheep-fold ; from rete net; Sp. red enclosure; cf. re. 

Redina It., Sp. (corr.) rienda, Pg. redea, Pr. regna, Fr. rene, 
0. Fr. resgnCj E. rein; from retinere; Pr. regna = reina for 
retna, as paire = patre. 

Redingote Fr. ; from E. riding - coat. 

Redo in It. arredo, Sp. arreo, Pg. arreio, Pr. arrei, O. Fr. arroi, 
E. array; It. arredare, Sp. arrear, Pg. arreiar, Pr. aredar ar- 
rezar, 0. Fr. arroier arreer, E. array; also It. corredo, Pr. 
conrei, 0. Fr. conroi equipment &c.; Sp. conroi, Cat. correu 
benefit; favour; It. corredare, Pr. conrear, O. Fr. conreer to 
equip; adoru; Fr. conroyer to prepare leather (E. curry), clay, 
mortar &c. (sbst. conroi), Sp. conrear; also Pr. desrei, O. Fr. 
desroi derroi, Fr. de'sarroi, E. disarray, vb. Pr. desreiar &c. 
The simple roi is found in O. Fr. mesure ne roi, and in Sp. 
arreo (=areo) successively; Pr. darre' = ^i^. de arreo. From 
a German source; Goth, raidjan to order; A. S. ge-rcedian, 
M. H. G. ge-reiten to make ready, and more immediately con- 
nected, Du. reden. Others refer to the Celtic, Gael, reidh 


smooth; ready, Bret, reiz rule, order = Fr. roi, as feiz =:^ foi, 
efreix = effroi , preix=proie, all which, however, maybe 
from the German. 

Redor Sp. circle, circular mat, O. Sp. prepos. redor de around, 
ader-redor for arrededor, Sp. alrededor, Pg. as redor &c. Redor 
is perhaps for ruedor ruedol (rotulus), cf. ridsehor from liia- 

RedruiiaSp. left hand; prop, the hand that '^retreats" or "gives 
way" from retro ^ Sp. redro. The suff. wio is very rare (cf. 

Ree — raggio, 

Refe It. thread; from Gk. Qcccprj ^ or, better, from O. G. re?'f 
string, cord, cf. Piedm. tra, Rh. trau from G. d?Ytht thread. 

Refran Sp., Pg. refrao proverb, Pr. re f rank, Fr. refrain j E. 
refrain. From r efr anger e , Pr. re franker, Fr. refraindre. So 
J. Grimm derives fringutire and fringilla from frangere, cf. 
0. N. kleka to break, klaka to sound, clink &c. For refranher 
the Pr. has also rcfrinher from refringere ; the sbst. re f rim 
clap, crack, owes its form to fremitus. 

Refriega — fregare. 

Refrogner — frignare. 

Regain — giiaime, 

Regalare It., Sp. Pg. regalar, Fr. regaler to regale, make pre- 
sents to; It. Sp. Pg. regalo, Fr. regal a present. The Sp. re- 
galar means also to pamper, coax , O. Sp. to melt ; this points 
to the L. regelare to thaw, melt as the origin of the Rom. 
word (not from regalis); cf. O. Sp. plomo regalado = molten 
lead, Vaipisis plumbum regelatum = liquef actum; O. Fr. regeler, 
sbst. regiel = Sp. regalo. 

Regan ar Sp., Pg. Pr. reganhar, Pr. also reganar to show the 
teeth, snarl, growl, grumble. These words seems identical 
with the O. Fr. recaner = (l) to show the teeth (2) to bray;, 
Berr. recJianer, archanner to neigh, chagner to snarl. From 
cachinnare to laugh with open mouth. The Fr. ricaner (ri for 
re perhaps from ridere rire) is only used for expressing the 
sneer of malice or the simper of idiotcy. 

Regazo Sp. Pp. lap, skirt, regazar to tuck up the skirt; 
from Basque sbst. galzarra with the same meaning. 

Regimber Fr. to kick; not from rejamher (jambe, gamba) for 
this would not account for the form regiber in O. Fr. ; m is in- 
serted before b , not rejected. Cf. E. gib. 

Regime — reame. 

Registro It. Sp., Pr. Fr. registre (E. register), Pg. registo, from 
L. L. registrum for regesium ^Hiber in quern regeruniur commen- 
tarii quivis vel epistolce summorum. pontificum " Ducange. 

Reglisse — regolizia. 


Regocio — gozo. 

Regoldar Sp. to belch; for regolar from gola, L. gula. 

Regolizia legorizia It., Sp. regalicia , regaliza , Sp. Pg. regaliz, 
Pr. regalicia regulecia, regalussia, Fr. reglisse, E. licorice; from 
liquiritia (Vegetius); which is the Gk. yXvKv^^it,a. 

Regretter Fr. to regret ^ Fr. E. sbst. regret. According to Mahn 
(who finds an 0. Pr. regradar regredar) from gratus, It. grado, 
Pr. grat, 0. Fr. gret, Fr. ^r^'^ cf. grado; It. aggradare &c. = 
to take with thanks, so regradar might = to long for, regret 
(to receive back willingly). Though this may be the true der., 
yet the form is, doubtless, partly owing to the Goth, gretan, 
O. N. grata, E. Prov. greet to weep (the L. t in such positions 
is usu. dropped in Pr., but cf. agradar as well as agreiar^. 

Rehen Sp., Pg. refem arrefem hostage; from Ar. rahrij arruhn 
pledge, hostage. 

Rehusar — rifusare. 

Reinette Fr. a sort of apple, rennet; from reine regina, so = 
queen of apples. 

Reja Sp., Pg. relha iron lattice - work ; from reticulum, v. also 

Rejo — rebbio. 

Relampago — lampo. 

Relayer Fr. to change horses &c., sbst. relais, E. relay. From 
religare, cf. frayer from fricare. Al. from the E. lay. 

Relha Pg. Pr., O. Fr. reille, Sp. reja ploughshare; from regula? 
O. Fr. reilhe de fer = regula ferrea. 

Relinchar Sp., Pg, rinchar to neigh. Hinnilitare (Lucilius) would 
give Sp. hinchar, thence re-hinchar red-inchar relinchar, though 
such process is unusual. From hinntiliare for hinnilitare, come 
Pr. endillar enilhar (Cat. renilyar) inhilar. 

Relox — oriuolo. 

Reluquer — luquer. 

Remate — matar. 

Remedar arremedar Sp. Pg. to imitate; from re-imitari, 

Remir Pg. to redeem ; = Sp. redimir, L. redimere. 

Remolacha Sp. beet-root; = It. ramolaccio, L. armoracia horse- 
radish, cf. rabano. 

Remolear remorquer — remorchiare. 

Remorchiare It., Fr. remorquer, Sp. remolear to tow; from re- 
mulcum a towing-rope. 

Rempart — parare, 

Remuer — muer. 

Renard Fr. fox, O. Fr. renardie craftiness. From O. H. G. 7?^- 
ginhart Reinhart (coimsellor) the name of the fox in the Fables ; 
this in Fr. became an appellative and supplanted the O. Fr. 
volpill (= vxdpecida), goulpille, goulpil (whence goupillon). 


Rencilla — renir. 

Rencontre — timpetto. 

Renda — randa. 

Rendere It.^ Sp. rendir, Pg. render, Pr. Fr. rendre, E. render, 

from reddere; sbst. It. rendita, Sp. Pr. rendita , Fr. rente, E. 

rent, from redditum , pi. reddita. Pott derives from re-indere, 

but this would not suit the sense well (of. rendre paisihle ^^ 

placidum reddere), and the w is a mere insertion for strengthen- 
ing the form. 
Rendija Sp. crack, chink, O. Sp. rehendija; a dim. ivovA fenda 

split, Sp. also hendrija with metathesis of the r. 
Rene — redina. 
Renfrogner — frignare. 
Renge O. Fr. girdle, L. L. 7inca; from O. H. G. liringa (ring) 

buckle , whence also Eh. rincla buckle. 
Renifler — niffa. 
Renou Pr. usury, prop. = sprout, short, Sp. renuevo, from reno- 

vare, cf. L. fenus, Gk. xokoi^^ G. wucher. Hence renovier 

usurer, Kh. ranver, Sp. renovero. 
Renso It. fine flax; from Rlieims, whence it was brought. 
Rente — rez. 
Renir Sp., Pg. renhir. Cat. renyir to quarrel, Sp. rifia quarrel, 

dim. rencilla; from L. ringi. 
Renne — rangifero, 
Reo It. guilty, also = bad, wicked, in which sense we have also 

li. rio, Wal.ra/. Sp. reo, Rh, i^ens are only used in the L. sense. 
Repairer 0. Fr., Pr. repair ar, E. i^epair, sbst. O. Fr. Fr. repair e 

(in Fr. only = den, lair), E. repair; from repatriare, It. ripa- 

Repit Fr., Pr. respieit , It. rispitto adjournment, resptle ; from 

respectus consideration, so c= indulgence, forbearance. Vb. 

O. Fr. respiter, E. respite from respectare. 
RepoUo Sp., Pg. repollio cabbage, from repxdhdare to sprout. 

Sp. also = bud. 
Reponche — raperonzo» 
Represaille — ripresaglia. 
Reproeher Fr., Pr. repropchar, sbst. reproche repropche, hence 

Sp. reprochar, reproche, E. reproach. As approcher from ap- 

propiare , so reproeher from repropiare to draw near, advance 

(trans.) throw back in one's teeth, cf. Pr. reprochier reprovier 

a proverb. 
Reptar O. Sp. Sp. Pg. Pr., Sp. retar, O. Fr. reter to reproach, 

reprimand, to challenge. From reputare = reproach in L. L. 

cf. si quis alteri reputaverit , quod scutum suum jactasset L. Sal., 

cf. appellare used in the same way. The Rh. has ravidar, v == 

L. p, i ^^ u. 


Requin Fr. shark, a corruption of requiem which form is found 
in some dictionaries. The name was given by the Norman 
mariners , who regarded this dangerous fish with the greatest 

Res Sp.; Pg. rez head of cattle; from Ar. rds head; cf. caput, 
E. head. 

Rescatar — accaftare. 

Reseau Fr. net -work, small net; from a L. reticellum; It. reti- 

Resemblar — sembrare, 

Resma — risma. 

Resollar — sollar. 

Resquieio — quicio. 

Ressembler — semhrare, 

Ressort — sortire. 

Resta It., Sp. ristra, Pg. reste restia, Pr. rest a string or trace 
of onions &c. ; from restis a rope. Piedm. rista hemp cor- 
responds to O. H. G. rista a bundle of flax. 

Resta It., Sp. ristre enristre (m.), Pg. reste riste risire , E. rest 
(of a lance &c.), whence Pr. arestol, O. Fr. arestuel handle of 
a lance; from restare, Roman arrestare to resist, so prop. = 
resistance, support. 

Resta — aresta, 

Restanar — stanco. 

Restio It. (for restivo), Pr. restiu, Fr. retif, E. restive; from res- 
tare to resist. Mil. is restin. 

Restreindre — etreindre. 

Retama Sp. Pg. broom (shrub); from Ar. ratam, ratamah, 

Retar — reptar. 

Retif • — restio. 

Retono Sp. a shoot, sprout, retonar to shoot, sprout anew. 
From tumidus, retumiar (limpidus limpiar), retonar, or from 
the Celtic, W. tun a projection. 

Retro It. in Comp., Pr. reire, E. rear, O. Fr. riere; from retro, 
for which Sp. Pg. atras. Hence It. dietro drieto, Pr. dereire 
derrier (also adj.), Fr. derriere from de retro; It. addietro, Pr. 
areire, E. arrear, Fr. arriere from ad retro; Pr. dereiran = a 
form deretranus, Fr. dernier = deretranarius. The r is 
dropped in dietro for diretro as in O. Fr. za en ayer = Pr. sa 
en areire. *f 

Retroenge retrowange O. Fr. also rotruange, rotruenge, rotru- 
henge, rotuenge, Pr. retroencha , retroenza a troubadour-song, 
ballad, dance -song; from retroientia, if an orig. Pr. retroensa 
(whence retroencha , Fr. retroenche , retroenge) may be sup- 



Reuper Pic. eructare = O. Sax. ropizon, O. H. G. rof-az6n, 
G. reup-sen, 

Reiiser — rifusare, 

Reussir — escire. 

Revanehe — vengiare. 

Reve Fr. dream, vb. rever io dream, rave, in O. Fr. resve resver; 
the s however is not orig., since we have Pr. reva, cf. esve for 
eve (aqua). It is a prov. form for rage frabiesj, cf. cage and 
caive; rabia raiva reve, E. rave. From rever come Du. reven, 
revelen, M. H. G. rehen; Fr. revasser, Burg, ravasser. 

Reveclie reves — rivescio. 

Revel O. Fr. (rivel), E. revel revelry = Pr. revel resistance, 
rebellion, from vb. revellar, O. Fr. reveler y L. rebellare , so ■==■ 
prop, incitement, rousing. The form reviaus is against the 
der. from reveiller. 

Rez Fr. sbst. level, rez-de-chaussee ground -floor; from old part. 
reSy Pr. raSj L. rasus; also used as preposition in certain 
phrases, e. g. rez terre on a level with the ground, cf. radere 
litus, rez a rezy Pr. ras e raSj Pg. rez e rez close. Hence also 
Pr. part. pres. rasen, It. rasente. Cf. L. G. prep, ror from 
rdren to stir, touch; Mil. arent, Neap. Pg. rente, from licerens; 
O. Sp. peg ante, from pegar to cleave tq; Pic. tout serant, from 
serrer to press. 

Rezar Sp. Pg., Cat. resar to recite, pray; from recitare, rec'tare, 

Rezelar — zelo. 

Rezno Sp. an insect, a tick; from ricinus, It. ricino. 

Rezza It. a sort of lace; from L. rete, pi. retia. 

Rezzo — aura. 

Rhume Fr. (f.) rheum, cold; from L. rheuma (qsv^o), Pr. raitma, 
It. rema. 

Ria Sp. Pg. Cat. mouth of a river; for riba, L. ripa bank. It. 
riva also limit, so = end of a river, cf. arrivare to reach the 
mouth of a river. 

Ribaldo It. Sp. Pg., Pr. ribaut, Fr. ribaud, E. ribald; hence N. 
ribballdi, M. H. G. ribbalt, It. (corr.) rubaldo. L. L. ribaldus, 
cf. Matthew Paris: fures, exules, fugitivi, excommunicati , quos 
omnes ribaldos Francia vulgariter consuevit appellare, = Gk. 
TtavovQyoL. The word ribaldi was also specially applied to 
the ^^enfans perdus'^ the ^^ black guard" of an army, hence 
It. rubalda a sort of headpiece worn by such , Fr. ribaudequin 
a missile. The O. H. G. has a fern, hrtba (Jiripa) prostitute, 
M. H. G. ribe, whence, with suffix aid, might be formed ri- 
baldo; hence too Fr. riber to debauch a woman, perhaps also 
ribler to rove. 

Ribebalt. a musical instrument, rebeck; from Ax,rabdb. Hence 
(corrupted) It. ribeca, Pg. rabeca, Cat. rabaquet, Fr. rebec (E. 


rebecJc), Pr. rdbey, also Sp. rahel, Pg. rdbel arrahil, O. Fr. 
rehelle; for change of h into Cy cf. Sp. jdbeba jdbeca a Moorish 

Bibrezzo — hrezza. 

Ricamare It., Sp. Pg. recamar, whence Fr. recamer to embroider; 
sbst. It. ricamo, Sp. Pg. recamo; from Ar. raqama to weave 
a stripe in a piece of stuff, sbst. raqm striped embroidery. 

Ricaner — reganar. 

Rieeio It., Wal. ariciu, Sp. erizo, Pg. ericio ourico, Pr. ensso'n, 
Fr. herisson (h asp. but in O. Fr. ericon, irecon whence E. 
urchin) a hedgehog; from ericius (Varro). Hence vb. It. ar- 
ricciarej Sp. erizar, Pg. ouricar, Pr. erissar, Fr. herisser, 

Riccio It., Sp. rizo curled, frizzled, sbst. curl, Pg. rico shaggy 
stuff; vb. It. arricciare, Sp. rizar, Pg. ouricar ericar ricar to 
curl. From riccio &c., hedgehog, cf. L. L. redurrus ^'hispidus, 
crispus'% and Ducange (h. v.): habehat capillos crispos et rigi- 
dos atque sursiim erectos et , ut ita dicam , rehursos. 

Ricco It., Sp. Pg. rico, Pr. ric, Fr. riche (rich); from O. H. G. 
rihhif Goth, reiks, G. reich, Fr. riche seems to be a fern, of 
ric or rique, cf. franc, hlanc. 

Ricredersi It. to retract one's error, Pr. O. Fr. se recreire to 
retract, renounce, grow weary of a thing, L. L. se recredere. 
One who was vanquished in a judicial combat and forced to 
confess his wrong, was specially called recreditus, hence recre- 
zut recreu, recrezen recreant (E. recreant^, Se recredere or cre- 
dere was a translation of the O. G. sih galauhjan = recedere, 
de/icere of a friendly giving in or compliance , galauhjan = 
credere (G. glauben, E. be-lieve). 

Riddare It. to dance , move in a circle , sbst. ridda a dance in a 
circle ; from O. H. G. ga-ridan, M. H. G. riden to turn about, 
move in a circle. 

Rider Fr. to wrinkle, ride wrinkle, curl, ripple, rideau curtain 
(from its folds) ; from ga-ridan to twist about, contort, whence 
G. adj. reid curled, twisted, v. riddare, or from A. S. vridhan, 
E. writhe. 

Ridotto raddotto It., Sp. reducto, Fr. redoute (f.), E. redoubt; 
from reductus. 

Rial Sp. a bar or ingot of uncoined metal; from regula a rod, 

Rien Fr. used for L. nihil, from ace. rem; je ne vois rien = non 
video rem, nihil video. Pr. ren re = L. aliquid, quidquam. 
Cat. res; O. Pg. has una rem, algun rem, algorrem; Pr. ganren 
= gran ren much (Fr. grand' chose), N. Pr. quauquarren fquel- 
que chose), O. Pr. aldres (autre chose). 

Rienda — redina, 

Riesgo — risicare. 


372 RIFFA — RIN. 

Riffa It. (prop, rifa Com.), Sp. Pg. Cat. Sic. rifa scuffle, con- 
test, raffle; vb. It. ar-riffare to play at dice, raffle, Sp. Cat. 
Pg. rifar to dispute, jangle, raffle, O. Fr. riffer to rifle, seize, 
Lorr. riffer to tease flax. From a German source, Bav. riffen 
(= G. raufen to pull , pluck), cf. O. Fr. riffler to tear , E. 
rifle, scuffle. Wall, rifler to mn blindly about, Rouch. rifeter 
^= riffer, sbst. 0. Fr. riffle a switch, stick (E. rifle\, !Norm. 
rifle IdIow, scab, perhaps also It. riffllo apish face , Pied, rifla- 
dor file; from O. H. G. riffil riffila saw, G. riff el a flax-comb, 
riffler, vb. riffeln. 

Riflutare — rifusare. 

Rifusare It., Pg. Pr. refusar, Sp. rehusar, Fr. refuser, E. refuse. 
From recusare with the / of refutare, It. riflutare, Pr. refudar 
= respuere, rejicere (L. L.). We find in Pr. 0. Fr. a second 
form without the f (cf. preon from profimdm) rehuzar reiisar, 
rehuser reiiser raiiser to give way, get out of the way, ruser 
(espec. of wild animals) to turn or double so as to throw the 
dogs off the scent, whence Fr. ruse trick. 

Riga It. line, row, rigo rule, ruler, rigoletto circular dance, dance, 
G. reigen; from 0. H. G. riga line, circumference, M. H. G. 
rihe == G. reihe. 

Rigoglio — orgoglio. 

Rigogolo rigoletto — galbero, 

Rigole Fr. trench, O. Fr. ligol. From the Celtic: W. rhig in- 
cision, rhigol furrow, ditch, L. G. rige brook. It. rigoro may 
be corr. from rivulus. 

Rigoletto — riga. 

Rigoro — rigole. 

Rigot Pr. curled hair, rigotar to curl, It. rigottato curled. From 
0. H. G. riga a row , circle. 

Rima It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. E. rime; vb. rimare, rimar, rimer, rime. 
In Pr. also m. rim. Norm. E. rym. The Rom. word belongs 
rather to the 0. H. G. rim numerus, O. Ir. rim, W. rhif, than 
to the L. rhythmus, which would give rimmo or remmo. Hence 
O. Sp. adrimar, Sp. Cat. arrimar to put in order , bring toge- 
ther, put one thing on another, stow (Fr. arrimer)^ cf. O. H. 
G. rim = row, Sp. rima, cf. also Fr. enrimer (Berry) to put 
in order, Sp. rim,ero things put in order over each other. N. rr. 
rima to approach = Sp. arrimar. 

Rimbombare — homha. 

Rinapetto, di rimpetto , a rimpetto a qc. It. prep, for contra. 
Yyoxq. 2)etto (pectus), as rincontra (re -in -contra), Fr. rencontre, 
from contra. For this use oi petto, cf. Sp. hacia, car a, f rente; 
cf. Dante Inf. 8; 115: chiuser le porte nel petto al mio signor, 
so It. appetto. 

Rin 0. Fr. (m.) well. Com. rin streamlet, Wall, arene canal; a 


Celto - Germanic word, W. rhin (f.) canal, Goth, rinnd a 

stream, O. H. G. rinnd, G. rinne. 
Rineeau Fr. foliage; for rainceau = It. ramicello, from ramus. 
Rincer Fr. ; for rinser, cf. Pic. rinser, E. rinse. It is the O. N. 

hreinsa to purify, G. reinigen. Distinct from Pr. recensar, Sp. 

recentar, Cat. rentar i. e. recentiare, recentare to renew, reform. 

Rincon Sp., O. Sp. rancon rencon, Cat. raco a corner. Of the 
same origin as the Rom. ranco renco, so = something curved, 
Goth, vraiqos crooked. 

Rincontra — rimpetto. 

Rinculare It., Sp. Pr. recular, Pg. recuar, Fr. reenter to recoil; 
from cuius, cf. G. sich drsen, Du. aerselen. Hence Fr. adv. a 
r^cw/o/zs backwards , G. drschlings, M. H. G. er sling en. 

Rinfrignato — frignare. 

Ringavagnare — guadagnare. 

Ringhiera — aringo. 

Ringla Sp., Cat. rengla line, row, Sp. renglon; from Fr. rang, 
or from regula? 

Rintuzzare — intuzzare. 

Rina — renir. 

Riiion — rognone. 

Riole O. Fr. striped; from G. riege, reihe a row, cf. It. rigato 
(from rig a). 

Riotta It., Pr. riota, 0. Fr. riote y E. riot, vb. It. riottare , Fr. 
rioter, E. riot (distinct from Fr. rioter to titter); for rivoter 
from rihan to rub, whence Du. revot , ravot. Cf. Sp. refriega 
quarrel, from /nc^r^. 

Riparo — • par are. 

Ripentaglio It. danger. Cf. 0. Fr. repentaille (repentir) forfeit, 
penance - money . 

Riper Fr. to scrape, ripe scraper ; from prov. G. rippen ribhen = 
G. reiben to rub , cf. Du. ripf (f.) scraper. 

Ripido It. steep, from ripa; the term, idus is not found else- 
where in It., so, perhaps, the form was taken from rapidus, 

Ripio Sp. Pg. small stone to fill up a crevice, ripia shingle, Pg. 

r^pfl; board, lath. ^ip. ripiar to plaster chinks in walls. The 

L. is replum. 
Ripire It. to clamber; from repere with a change of conj., cf. 

fuggire. The Ph. has rever without change. 
Ripresaglia rappresaglia It., ^ip. represalia, ¥y. repre'sailte, E. 

reprisal; from reprehendere reprehensus. 
Risicare It., Sp. arriscar arriesgar, Pg. riscar, arriscar, Fr. ris- 

quer, E. risk; sbst. It. risico, risco, Sp. riesgo, Fr. risque, E. 

risk. Originally a nautical word , and = a dangerous rock, 

precipice, Sp. risco from resecare, cf. Sw. skdr rock (scaur) 

374 RISMA — ROBA. 

from skdra to shear, cf. sheer = precipitous ; cf . N. Pr. rezegd 
to cut off, Mil. Com. resega saw and danger, vb. resega to 
saw and to risk; hence also Pg. risca stripe (cutting), riscar 
to stripe. 

Risma It., Sp. Pg. resma, Fr. 7^ame, E. ream (of paper). The 

» Gk. aQid'^og became in It. (trismus to correspond with arisme- 

tica (so L. L. Pr. O. Sp. Cat. O. E. arsmetrik), hence rismo 

risma, which latter, in Florence, also means a collection of 

people, a company. 

Biso It., Pr. ris, Fr. riz, Wal. iirez, E. rice; from oryza, Sp. 
Pg. arroz is from Ar. ar^uzz or ruzz (al-riizz, ar-ruzz). 

Risque — risicare. 

Rissoler Fr. to roast brown; from the Norse, Dan. riste = G. 
rosten, E. roast, Icel. Swed. rist = G. rost, hence dim. rissoler 
= G. rosteln. The H. G. o appears in It. rosolare, 

Ristre — rest a. 

Ritorta It., Pr. redorta, O. Fr. riorte reorte roorte rorte, Norm. 
rote osier, withe, wicker; prop. = twisted, from retorquere, 
whence also Sp. retorta, Fr. retorte, E. retort a vessel of 
twisted form. 

Ritroso It. stubborn; from retrorsus (= ret r over siisj. 

Ritto It. adj. right, as opp. left, prop. = straight hand (not 
crooked or maimed like the left hand), hence 7narritto comp. 
with manus. Hence It. diritto dritto, Sp. derecho, Pg. direito, 
Pr. dreit, Fr. droit, Wal. drept, L. directus; O. Fr. endroit en- 
dreit prep, for L. versus, Fr. sbst. endroit place, cf. contree, 
G. gegend. 

River Fr. to rivet a nail, whence Fr. rivet (sbst.), E. rivet; per- 
haps from Du. rijven or O. N. rifa to rake, clear away obstruc- 
tions &c., O. H. G. riban, G. reiben, E. rive, N. Pr. rihlo a 
rammer = O. H. G. ribil (rlhan) a pestle , rihla = river. 

Rivescio rovescio It., Sp. Pg. reves, Fr. revers, reverse; from 
reversus, whence also Pg. adj. revesso, Fr. reveche harsh, un- 

Riviera It., Sp. ribera (vera), Pg. Pr. ribeira, Pg. also beira, O. 
Fr. riviere bank, shore, prop, parts about the bank or shore; 
from riparia. Influenced bv rivus the meaning of ^^river" was 
added, Fr. riviere (E. river). 

Riz — riso. 

Rizo — riccio. 

Rizzare It. to erect, from a L. rectiare (rectus). From directiare 
we have It. dirizzare drizzare, O. Sp. derezar, Pg. Sp. en- 
derezar, Pr. dressar, Fr. dresser, a -dresser, E. dress, address. 

Roba It. 0. Sp., 0. Pg. rouba, Pr. rauba, Fr. robe, E. robe, Sp. 
ropa, Pg. roupa clothes, apparel, stuff, and in older sense 
booty, Rh. rauba estate; masc. Sp. robo, Pg. roubo robbery; 


It. rubarCj Sp. robar, Pg. roubar, Pr. rauhar, O. Fr. rober, Fr. 
deroher, 0. Sp. rohir; from 0. H. Gr. roub spolium, vb. Goth. 
hiraubon, O. H. G. roubdn roupon, G. rauben, E. ro&, cf. Gael. 
robainn, L. L. raubare. Hence O. Pg. roubaz robaz roaz 
thievish, formed like rapax. Wal. robi to take prisoner, from 
rob = Serv. ro&, Alb. ro^/rop? prisoner, slave. 

Robbio — roggio. 

Robbo rob It., Sp. Fr. rob, Pg. robe, E. rob; from Ar. rw&&. 

Robin — ruggine. 

Roble — rovere, 

Robra Sp. a document to prove a sale ; from roborare. Pg. ro- 
bora (revora), L. L. robora =: puberty ; from robur, 

Roeca roceia It., Sp. roca, Pg. Pr. roca i^ocJia, Fr. roche rock 
(It. 7^occa also = bolt , lock), Cat. m. roc stone , Fr. roc; Pr. 
rockier, Fr. roclier; vb. 0. Fr. rocher to stone; It. diroccare 
dirocciare, Sp. derrocar , Pr. derrocar derocar, Fr. deroquer 
derocher to throw from a rock, throw down, vSp. derrochar to 
waste, throw away, O. Fr. aroquer arocher to dash to pieces. 
The word is found in Gael, roc , E. rocA", Du. rots, Basque 
arroca, W. rhivg (a projection). Diez considers that it does 
not properly belong to any of these languages, and he de- 
rives it from a L. rupea or rupica (rupes). 

Rocca It., Sp. rueca, Pg. roca a distaff, from 0. H. G. rocco, 
0. N. rockr. Hence rocchetta, E. rocket. 

Rocchetto It., Sp. roquete, Fr. E. rochet (It. also roccetto)^ cf. 
Wal. rochic a woman's frock. L. L. roccus = O. H. G. roc, 
G. rock, A. S. roc, E. frock, O. N. rockr. Prop. = a garment 
with folds, cf. Vg. enrocar, It. arrocchettare to fold, from O. 
N. hrucka, Gael, roc fold, E. ruck, to rwcA*. 

Rocchio It. a block of wood or stone; It. ronchione; from rocca 
a rock? 

Roeco It., Sp. Pg. roque, Pr. Fr. roc, E. rooX: the castle in chess; 
from Pers. rukh (a camel with a tower for archers), which 
Forbes traces back to the Sanskrit roka a ship, that being 
the original form of the piece. 

Roche rocher — rocca. 

Rochet — rocchetto. 

Rociada rocio — ros (l). 

Rocin — ros (2). 

Rodela rodilla — rotella. 

Roder Fr. to roam, prowl. The Pr. rodar, It. rotare to roll. For 
roder is found rouer, Rou. router. 

Rodilla — rotella. 

Rodrigon Sp. vine-prop; from ridica, but with allusion to the 
proper name Rodrigo, cf. rui- ponce for ri- ponce. 

Roffia — ruff a. 


Roggio It., Sp. roxo, Pg. i^ouxo, Pr. rog (f. rojd)y Fr. rouge, also 
It. rohhio, Sp. ruheOy Pg. ruivo, E. r?/Z^y, red*, from rw^^ws; Fr. 
vb. rougir, Pr. ro^/r. Hence also rohhia, Sp. rw^/f/ madder. 

Rogna It., Sp. roha, Pg. Pr. ronluiy Fr. rogne, Wal. mV/ (cf. r/e 
with It. vigna, sicriu with scrigno) itch, mange*, from robigo 
rohiginis (Menage) a harsh, but possible, contraction (rohgn 
rogn). Hence O. E. ronyon. 

Rogner Fr. to cut , clip , O. Fr. rooigner to cut the hair , Pr. re- 
donhar rezoynar, Sp. (Murcia) des-ronar. From rotundare, 
whence Sp. redondear, cf. Bergonha from Burgundia , and cf. 
Sp. cercenar, v. cercine, 

Rognie Pic. a trunk of a tree ; from O. H. G. rona (f. rono m.), 
M. H. O. row^ m., G. rdhne f., a fallen trunk. 

Rognonelt., Sp. rinon, Y\,renh6renh6, Fr. roignon kidney, Wal. 
renunchiu; from a form reiiio (ren), cf. vigliacco from t;?//^. It. 
has also arnione argnone, cf. arcigno from Fr. rechin. 

Rogo It. bramble, blackberry, Wal. rug; from rw^w^ ^roi;o ro/70^ 
Sp. rubo. 

Rogue Fr. adj. proud, haughty; borrowed from the Normans, 
O. N. hrok-r arrogant, E. rogue (Gael. rdg). Wall, has aro- 
guer to address haughtily. 

Roide Fr. stiff; from rigidus, It. rigido. 

Roitelet Fr. a goldhammer (usu. a wren, G. zaun-konig hedge- 
king), from its golden crown or tuft; = roi-et-el-et with triple 
dim. suffix, cf. L. regulus, regaliolus, Gk. paGilsvg^ ^aGiUc^og^ 
tvQavvog^ It. reattino, Sp. reyezuelo, Pg. avere, also Norm. 
re-pepin, Berr. roi-hertaud, Saintonge roi-hedelet, It. re di siepe 
(== zaun-konig). 

Rojar — rozar. 

Rolde rollo — rotolo. 

Role — rotolo. 

Roman — romanzo. 

Romanzo It., Sp. romance, Pr. 0. Fr. romans, Fr. roman , Rh. 
romansch, L. L. romancium, E. romance (language or com- 
position); hence vb. Sp. romanzar, Pr. romansar, O. Fr. ro- 
mancier to translate into Romance. From L. adv. romanice: 
parler romans := loqui romanice. O. Fr. romans took the forai 
romant in the oblique cases, cf. patsans paisant , hence later 
nom. romant roman, adj. romant-ique, romantic. Cf. O.Fr. bre- 
tans z= britannice, Sp. vascuence = Vasconice. 

Rombo It., Sp. rumbo, Pg. rumbo rumo, Fr. E. rumb (E. also 
spelt rhumo), point of the compass, line, course of a ship; vb. 
Fr. arrumer to trace the course of a ship on the chart ; accord- 
ing to some from QV\jb6g pole of a waggon, according to others 
from rhombus. But Fr. arrumer, Sp. arrumar = to stow, and 


must come from Du. ruim ship's - room, Cf. Norm, arruner to 

arrange, deruner to disarrange. 
Rombo frombo It. a humming, buzzing, romba fromba, rom- 

hola fromhola a sling, rombolare frombolare to sling; from 

Qo^^og a top, QO^^stv to whirl, sling. The / is onoma- 

Rombo Pg., Sp. 9^omo, Cat. rom adj. blunt, obtuse; from Gr. 

sbst. rumpf, Du. romp (E. rump) truncus. Pg. rombo sbst. = 

hole, cf. buco, 
Romeo It. O. Sp., also romero, O. Fr. romier, E. roamer (vb. to 

roam) a pilgrim (prop, to Rome), cf . Dante, Vita Nuova : chia- 

mansi romei inquanto vanno a Roma. 

Romero — romeo and ramerino, 

Romire It. to make a noise or bustle ; from 0. H. H. hromjan 

hruomjan = G. ruhmen to extol. 
Romito It., Sic. rimita hermit; from eremita. 
Ronca It. a sickle, javelin with a sickle-shaped point; from vb. 

runcare to mow. O. Fr. ronsge a spear. 

Roncar Sp. Pg. Cat. to snore, snarl; from rhoncare, sbst. rhon- 

Ronce Fr. (f.), Pr. ronser briar, thorn. From rumex a missile 
with barbed point (It. ronciglio hook, barb), cf. Fr. chardon 
= (l) thistle (2) spike. The Occ. is roumec. For the form, 
cf. Fr. ponce, Pr. pomser from pumex, Fr. pouce, Pr. polzer 
from pollex. From rumex also comes Pr. ronsar to sling, 

Roncear Sp., Cat. roncejar to loiter, behave sulkily, Sp. roncero, 
Pg. ronceiro slothful; perhaps of the same origin as the It. 
ronzare to hum.| 

Ronchione — rocchio, 

Ronciglio — ronce. 

Roncin — rozza. 

Ronco Sp. O. Pg., Cat. rone hoarse; for roco from raucus (Pg. 
rouco), taking the n of the verb roncar = L. rhoncare^to 

Rondine rondinella It., Wal. rendunea^ Pg. andorinha, Pr. ironda 
irondella, Fr. hirondelle swallow; Wal. rendurea, Pr. randola, 
N. Pr. endriouleto andoureto dindoideto, O. Fr. aronde alondre 
arondelle, Cat. aureneta oreneta, Val. oroneta. From hirundo 
Mrundinis, Cat. orin-ela by loss of the d. Whence is the Sp. 
ffolondrina (ffolondro = hoipe , desire)? Ferrari recognises in 
it the Gk. xshddv. 

Rondon — randa. 

Ronfler Fr., Pr. ronflar, Sic. runfuliari, Tusc. ronfiare, Ven. 
Lomb. ronfare to snore, snort; the root is seen in the O.H. G. 


rof-azdn, O. S. ropizon to belch, perhaps too in the Bret, rufla 
to guzzle ; Eh. g-rufflar to snort. 

Ronger Fr. to gnaw ; bite , champ. From rumigare to chew the 
cud , 0. Fr. ronger, Sp. Pg. rumiar ronzar, Pr. romiar, It. ru- 
gumare, Mil. rumega, Wal. rumega. 

Ronsar — ronce, 

Ronzare It. to hum, buzz, sbst. ronzone a blue -bottle. From 
O. H. G. runazdUj M. H. G. runzen. 

Ronzino — rozza, 

Rona — rogna. 

Roque — rocco, 

Roquete — rocchetto, 

Roquette — ruca. 

Ros Pr. (m.) dew; the Pg. Sp. form from adj. rosciduSf sbst. ro- 
cio, rocio, Sp. vb. rociar (cf. limpidus iimpmr), Cat. ruxar, Pr. 
arrosar, Fr. arroser to bedew , besprinkle (E. rose of a water- 
ing-pot), Avhence Sp. Pg. rociada, Cat. riLxada, Pr. rosada^ 
Fr. rosee. It. rugiada dew. 

Rosa It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. E. rose. From a form rdsa with long 
0. From ro5« come It. riiosa, Sp. rw^^^, Wal. roase. We find 
a diphthongal form in ^lil. roeusa, Piedm. reusa, Rh. i^osa. 

Ros^e — ros. 

Rospo It. toad; perhaps connected with ruspo rough, v. escuerzo. 

Rosse — rozza. 

Rossignuolo It., Sp. ridsenor, O. Sp. rossenol rosenor, rouxinhol 
rouxinol, Pr. Fr. rossignol nightingale, Pr. f. rossinhola; from 
lusciniohis from luscinins luscinia. Varro de ling.Lat. 5, 76 men- 
tions only a dim. lusciniola. L was changed to r for euphony, 
to avoid such combinations as lo losignuolo; ruscinia roscinia 
are found as early as the 9"' century. The Wal. uses priveghi- 
toare =pervigilatrix, Alb. hilhil (= Pers. Turk, hu/hul, hulbiil). 

Rosso It, Sp. roxo, Pg. roxo, Pr. ros, Fr. roux, Wal. ros rosiu 
red: from L. russus (rare). 

Rosta It. (1) stoppage (Dante Inf. 13, 17 rompieno ogni rosta), 
Com. vb. rosta to hinder. (2) fan, tail, vb. arrostare to fan, to 
wag; from G. rost a flood-gate, the grate of a helmet, a fan. 
Wal. rosteiu grate, lattice = Serv. rostilj. 

Rostire It. in arrostire, Cat. rostir, Fr. rotir, Pr. raustir to roast; 
part, past as sbst. It. arrostito, Fr. roti a roast; sbst. from the 
root Pr. raust^ It. arrosio. It is the 0. H. G. rostjan (Rom. i 
= 0. H. G. ^'), sbst. gi-rosti, E. roast, also in Celtic, Gael. 
roist, W. rhostio, Bret, rosta. 

Rostro Sp., Pg. rosto face, countenance, Wal. rost mouth. Lat. 
rostrum for os occurs in Plautus, Lucilius, Varro and Petro- 
nius; cf. A. S. neh os, E. neh rostrum, O.H. G. snahul rostrum, 
O, Fris. snavel os. 


Bot Fr. Cat. belch; from ructus, It. rutto. 

Rote 0. Fr. E., Pr. rota a stringed instrument, crowd. From a 
Gr. form (hrota, M. H. G. rotte) of the Celtic crot (0. Ir.), 
emit (Gael.); crwtli (W.), the chrotta Britanna of Venantius 
Fort., E. crowd, croivder. It is named from the hollow frame ; 
W. crowth = protuberance, belly, Gael, emit a hump. 

Rotella It., Sp. rodela, O. Fr. roele a round shield; It. rotella, 
Sp. rodilla, Pr. rodela knee-pan, knee; from rotella for rotula, 
cf. M. H. G. knie-rade, 

Rotir — rostire. 

Rotolo rullo It., Sp. rollo rol, Pr. rotle rolle, Fr. roUy E. roll (of 
paper &c.); from rotnlus; rotolare ruzzolare, Si^.arrollar, 
rr. rotlar, Fr. router, E. roll. Also Sp. rolde from rotulus as 
Roldan for Rotlan. Hence Fr. eontrole for eontre-role (eounter- 
roll), check , stamp on money, eontrol. 

Rotta It., Sp. Pg. Pr. rota J O. Fr. route, E. row^, Fr. deroute; 
from ruptus rupta, whence also Pr. rota, O.Fr. rote = Sitroo'p, 
L.L. rupta, G. ro^f^^, O. Fr. arouter to arrange; Fr. route road 
(E. ro^^) = via rupta, cf. 0. Fr. hrisee street, and Mala-routa 
(name of a place), Sp. Pg. rota derrota course, Fr. routier, 
routine; hence also Fr. roture == L. L. ruptura fresh land, a 
small farm , roturier one who held such a farm , a commoner, 

Roture — rotta, 

Rouche — ruche. 

Rouge — roggio. 

Rouille — ruggine, 

Rouir Fr. to ret or steep flax or hemp ; from Du. roten rotten, 
G. rosten, E. ret (part, rotten = steeped). 

Rouler — rotolo. 

Roussin — • rozza. 

Route routine — rotta. 

Rouvre — rovere. 

Roux — rosso. 

Rovajo It. north wind ; of unknown origin. Menage gets it from 
horearius (borealis), by corr. robearius rovarius. 

Rovello rovella It. anger, arrovellare to enrage; from rubellus, 
cf. L. ira mbens. 

Rover O. Fr. to desire, request; from rogare (roar rovar) L. L. 
often = command. Not found in Pr., in It. rogare is only 
juristic, Sp. Pg. Cat. rogar, Wal. ruga = to beg (a favour), 
not like the Fr. to desire, order. So 0, Fr. enter-ver, Pr. enter- 
var entre-var, Wal. intreba, from interrogare. Cf. corvee. 

Rovere It., Sp. Pg. robre roble, Pr. roure, Fr. rouvre an oak j 
from robur roboris. 

Rovescio — rivescio. 



Rovistare ruvistare It. to rummage; from revisit are (Menage). 

Roxo — roggio. 

Boyaume — reame. 

Bozar Sp. Pg. to weed out, stub up, nibble, fret, rub; a frcq. 
from rodere rosus, so for rosar, or from an iter, rositare. From 
rodicare comes Pg. rojar to scrape, sweep the ground, trail, 
rojao a scraping on the fiddle. 

Bozza It., Pr. rossa, Fr. rosse a jade, masc. Com. roz , Berg. 
ros. The It. form seems to exclude the der. from G. ross. A 
derivative is found in Pr. rossirociy 0. Fr. roussin, Sp. rocin 
and rocinante, Pg. rossi?n, and with inserted 7ij Pr. ronci, ron- 
cin 0. Fr. (hence W. rhwnsi), Pic. ronchirij It. ronzino a nag, 
Lorr. AVall. ronsin a stallion, Fr. roussin. M. H. G. runzit = 
a poor, sorry horse. 

Bu Fr., 0. Fr. rui stream, channel; from rivus (cf. tuile from 
teguia), Rouchi rieu, Pr. riu, Sp. rio, It. rivo. Rtiisseau = a 
form rivicellus for rivulus , It. ruscello (from the Fr.). 

Bua — ruga. 

Bubaldo — rihaldo. 

Buban Fr. ribbon. Not from ritbefis, for then we should have 
had ruhandier not rubanier; prob. a compound with G. band, 

, like hauban, raban, Du. ring-band? O. Fr. has also riban, E. 
riband , ribbon. 

Bubbio It. a corn- measure; from rubeus, because the divisions 
were marked with red, cf. pinta. 

Bubiglio — ervo. 

Bubino It., Sp. rubin rubi, Pr. robin, Fr. rubis, E. ruby; from 

Bubio — roggio. 

Buea It. Pr., Sp. Pg. oruga; also It. ruchetta, Sp. ruqueta, Fr. 
I'oquette, E. rocket a plant; from L. eruca. 

Buche Fr. beehive (orig. made of bark , cf . Sp. corcho = cork 
and beehive), also hulk of a ship (also written rouche), O. Fr. 
rusclie rusque, Pr. rusca rusclia, Piedm. Lomb. ruse a bark, 
Dauph. rucM tan. Com. rusca to bark (a tree); a Celtic word, 
O. Ir. riisc , Gael, riisg, Bret, rusk, W. rhisg bark (E. rusk)^ 
Bret, riisken beehive. 

Bucio Sp.,'Pg. ruco greyish, light grey; from russeus. 

Bue — ruga. 

Bueca — rocca. 

Buer Fr. to throw, se ruer to throw oneself on, Du. ruyen, ruer 
(neut.) to kick. From ruere, like other verbs in uere (e. g. 
argiier, miniler) changed to the first conjugation. 

Buf — ru/f'a. 

Buffa It. a scramble, pulling; vb. arruffare to roughen, dishevel 
the hair, Com. rufa-su to frown, Pg. Cat. arrufar to curl, con^ 


tract, roughen, Sp. arrufarse to be cross, ill tempered (cf. It. 
arricciarsi), Sp. rufo curly -haired (also red-haired), Pr. ruf 
rough (Lim. rufe), Berr. rufe rufle morose. Ar -ruff are = G. 
ravfen (cf. tuff are = taufen), r up fen (cf. zuffa zupfen), cf. E. 
ruff, ruffle f Du. ruyffel wrinkle, O. N. riifinn rough, E. adj. 
rough J O. E. ruff. In connection are Mil. ruff, Piedm. Com. 
ruf a, Romag. rofia scurf, dirt (cf. It. roffia thick mist), O. Fr. 
roife rofee scurf, all = O. H. G. hruf, M. H. G. ruf, 0. N. 
hrufa ruf a, Du. ro/ scurf, A. S. ^r^o/? leprous. Hence It. ha- 
ruffa fray, Com. haruf a tuft of hair, Pr. barrufaut fighter, 
brawler, from O. H. G. hi-roufan, cf. haroccio for hiroccio. 
Sp. arrufar to incurvate, is from E. roof, 

Rufflano It., Sp. Pr. rufian, Fr. ruffien pimp, bully, E. ruffian; 
it formerly meant not only ^'leno'^ but "amasius", hence 
many have suspected a connexion with rufo, from the red 
(blond) or curled hair (Sp. rufo^ worn by such. Others con- 
nect it with ruffa ruf a (scurf, dirt) as implying moral filth, 
cf. Inf. 11: ruffian haratti e simile lor dura. 

Ruga O. It., Sp. Pg. rua, Pr. ruda, Fr. rue street. Alb. ruga; 
from ruga a wrinkle, furrow, row. The Lat. meaning remains 
in It. ruga, Sp. arruga, Pr. ruga rua. Al. from 0. H. G. riga, 
G. reihe a row. 

Ruggine It. rust; from cerugo, Wal. rugine; Sp. robin from ru- 
bigo, orin from cerugo; Cat. rovely, Pr. roilh roilha, Fr. rouille 
a dim. from rubigo. 

Rugiada — ros. 

Rugumare — ronger. 

Ruido Sp. clamour; from rugitus, cf. rut. 

Ruin Sp., Pg. ruim roim poor, pitiful, mean; from ruina. 

Ruiponzo — raperonzo. 

Ruisenor — rossignuolo. 

Ruisseau — ru. 

RuUo — rotolo, 

Rumb — rombo. 

Runer Fr. to whisper; from O.l^.Qc.runen, G. raunen, O.E. roun, 
cf. also O.Si^.ad-runar to guess, G^oth.runa mystery ("Et. runic). 

Ruseello — ru. 

Ruse — rifusare. 

Ruspare It. to scrape. From 0. L. ruspari to examine (orig., 
prob., to scrape). 

Ruspo It. (1) new coin (2) rough. From O. H. G. ruspan to be 
stiff, cf. ruspil-hdr rough -hair. 

Russare It. to snore ; perhaps from ronchissare roncsare roxare. 
0. H. G. ruzzdn would have give It. ruzzare. 

Ruste O. Fr. strong, violent, sbst. O. Fr. rustie, Pr. rustat; from 
rusticus (cf. N. rusti a farmer), Fr. rustre a boor. 


Rustre — ruste. 

Rut Fr., E. rut (of deer) ; from rugitus. 

Ruvido It. rough; from L. ruidus found in Plin. Hist. Nat. 18, 

10 (23): major pars Italics ruido utitur pilo i. e. aspero et im- 

polito , cf . fluidus fluvido. 
Ruvistieo rovistico It. privet ; a corruption of ligustrum which 

was confounded with Ugmiicum. 
Ruzer Pr. to grunt (only in 3 sing. pres. ind. rutz); fromL. rudere. 
Ruzzolare — rotolo. 


Sabana Sp., Pr. savena, O. Fr. savene bed-covering, altar-cover- 
ing, L. L. sahanum savaniim, Goth, sabans, O. H. G. saban fine 
linen*, from Gk. Ga^avov a linen towel; hence Sic. insavonare 
to cover with a pall. The word is of Eastern origin (cf. In/fe- 
tas, camelot &c.), Ar. sabaniya a line linen made at Saban near 

Sabio — saggio. 

Sable • — sciabla. 

Sable — zibellino. 

Sabot — ciabatta. 

Sabre — sciabla. 

Sabueso — segugio. 

Saear Sp. Pg., 0. Fr. sachierj Pic. saquer to draw, draw out, 
produce &c., {¥y. saccade '^evk, puU)? orig, to take, sack; L.L. 
saccare, from saccus. 

Saceade — sacar. 

Saeeo It., Sp. Pg. saco, Fr. sac, E. sack (of a city); vb. It. sac- 
cheggiare, Sp. saquear, Fr. saccager, to sack. From L. saccus; 
cf. s. sacar, and cf. G. plunder = (l) baggage, pack, (2) 
plunder. Hence It. saccomanno = N. Pr. sacaman, Du. E. 
sackman; Sp. sacomano pillage. 

Sacbo Sp. Pg. hoe, vb. sachar sallar; from sarculum, sarculare, 
It. sarchiare &c. 

Sacoxnanno — sacco, 

Sacre — sagro. 

Saeudir — cudir. 

Sade O.Fr. sweet; from sapidus savoury, cf. Pr. f. sabeza ^orsa- 
beda = sapida. Hence Fr. maussade disagreeable, for malsade. 

Sadio Pg. wholesome; prob. a corruption of saudio (from saude 
L. salus), cf. Pr. salutatiu. 

Safara Pg. a stony waste, adj. sdfaro wild, intractable, Sp. zalia- 
reho; from Ar. ca^hrd (sahara) desert. 

Safra zafra Pg. a large anvil; from Ar. cachrah a hard stone. 


Safran — zajferano. 

Safre Fr. greedy; from Goth, safjan to taste (for term. cf. hdfre, 

goinfre, gouliafre), or = Du. schaffer (l) one who serves up 

eatables (2) a glutton, vb. schaffen. 
Sage — saggio. 
Sagerida — satureia. 
Saggio It.; Sp. Pg. sahiOy Pr. sahi satge, Fr. E. sage; from sa- 

pius (cf. Petron. nesajnus) sahius savins^ O. Fr. saive. The Sic. 

has varva sapiu beard -wise. 
Saggio It.; Sp. ensayo, Pr. ^6*5fl'2/^ Fr. ^55«/, E. «55«y essay; vb. 

It. saggiare, Sp. ensayar, Pr. essaiar, Fr. essay er, E. flfS5«j^. • 

From L. L. exagium (Sp. e;75 = ^;r) pensatio (cf. examen the 

tongue of a balance = exagimen). 

Sagire It. to put one in possession , Pr. sazir, Fr. saisir to take 
possession of, E. seize; It. sagina, Pr. sazina, O. Fr. saisine, 
E. sasine, seisin. O. Fr. had also the It. signification, and so 
in Fr. s^ saisir de. Hence dessaisir Pr. dessazir to dispossess, 
disseisin. From O. H. G. sazjan, G. setzen, E. 5^^, or, better 
for the sense, from bi-sazjan, hesetzeriy beset = occupy, so that 
the Fr. Pr. meaning would be the earlier. It. sagire = sazjan 
as palagio == palazjum palatium. 

Sagro It., Sp. Pg. Fr. sacre a small hawk; a translation of the 
Gk. ikQa\j cf. G. iveihe, 0. H. G. wiho kite, prop. = sacer, 
cf. turbot. Al. from the Ar. cakr. Sagro, sacre, O. E. saker 4 
was also used for a kind of gun , cf. moschetto. 

Sahir Pg. to depart, O. Pg. salir; from salire, Fr. saillir. The / 
was lost and h inserted to avoid the hiatus. 

Sahumar Sp. to perfume; for suhumar, L. suffumicare. 

Sale Fr. goldsmith's brush; from seta bristle. 

Saime It., Sp. sain, Pr. sagin so/in, Fr. sain-doux lard; from sa- 
gina Sp. sainete a dainty bit, also a farce. The form -ime and 
the gender (m.) are due to a L. sagimen. 

Sain sainete — saime, 

Sais Pr. (f . saissa) gray (of hair) ; perhaps the rare L. ccesius 
gray (of eyes), whence ceis sets sais, cf. plais ior pleis (plexum). 

Saisir — sagire. 

Saison — stagione. 

Saja It., Sp. Pr. saya, Fr. saie, m. It. sajo, Sp. sayo woollen over- 
coat, coat, also the stuff of which it was made, M. H. G. sei, 
O. Ir. sai; from saga (Ennius), usu. sagum a mihtary cloak, 
according to Varro, of Gallic origin. Sagulatus (clad in the 
sagulum) became in Pr. sallat, vb. Pr. sallar to cover. From 
saja comes It. sajetta, Sp. sayete, Pg. saieta saeta, Fr. sayette 
serge, M. H. G. seit. 

Sajar — sarrafar. 


Sala It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. salle, Wal. salehsM-^ from O. H. Gr. sal 

a house , dwelling. 
Salade — celata. 
Salassare It. to bleed, let blood ; from sangue lasciare, cf . O. Pg. 

sanguileixado. Also It. segnare from Fr. saigner, Pr. sanguar, 

Sp. sangrar, L. sanguinare. 
Salamoja — moja. 
Salavo It., Fr. sale dirty; the latter is from 0. H. G. uninflected 

salo muddy, the former from the inflected salawer, gen. sa- 

lawes. Hence Fr. vb. salii\ 
Salchiclia — salsa. 
Saldo • — soldo. 
Sale — salavo. 

Salitre Sp. Pg. salpetre, Wal, salitru; from sal nitrum, It. salnilro, 
Sallar — sacho. 
Salle — sala. 
Salma soma It., Sp. salma xalma enxalma, Fr. somme burden, 

Pr. sauma a she-ass; from late L. sagma (odyiia), whence also 

O. H. G. sau?7i. Isidore has: sagma quce corrupte vulgo salma 

dicitur, cf. Sip.esmeralda horn s?nat^agdus. Hence It. asso?nare to 

load, Fr. assommer to cudgel; Fr. sommelier a butler, from 

loading or packing the casks of wine in the cellar, cf. It. so- 

mella a little burden. 
Salmastro It., Fr. saumdtre briny; from salmacidus, Pr. samaciu, 

O. Fr. saumache. 
Salmuera — moja. 

Salope Fr, slut, dirty wench; for slope j cf. E. sloppy. 
Salpare — sarpare. 

Salpetre Fr., E. saltpetre; from sal petrce. 
Salpicar Sp. Pg. Pr. to besprinkle; prop, with salt, cf. Fr. sati- 

poudrer; picar = to prick. 
Salsa It. Sp. Pr., Fr. sauce (for sause), E. sauce; from salsus. 

Hence It. salsiccia, Fr. saucisse, Sp. salchicha, L. L. salsitia, 

E. sausage. 
Salsapariglia It., Sp. zarzaparilla , Fr. salsepareille , E. sarsa- 

parilla a Peruvian plant; from Sp. zarza bramble and Parillo 

the name of the physician , who first used it. 
Salvaggio selvaggio It., ^ip. salvage, Vr. salvatge , Fr. sauvage, 

E. savage; from silvaticus, It. selvatico salvatico, Wal. selbatic. 

Hence sbst. It. salvaggina , Sp. salvagina, O. Fr. salvagine 

Salvano It, night-mare ; from silvanuSj so selvatico from silvaticus. 
Sambue 0. Fr. a housing, horse-cloth, used by ladies of rank, 

\j.'L.samhuca;=O.H. G.samboh sambuoh samhuh a sedan. It is, 
)robably, the same word as the L. sambuca (l) a sort of harp 

^2) a military engine of similar shape, used for scaling walls. 



Samedi Fr. Saturday; contracted from sahhati dies, Pr. dissapte, 
It. sdbato, Wal. semhete &c, 

Sampogna zampogna It., Sp. zampona, Pg. sanfonha, Pr. siti- 
phonici, 0. Fr. sy?np}ionie chifonie , Wal. cimpoe a musical in- 
strument;, shawm, bagpipe; from symphonia, cf. Venant. Fort.: 
donee plena suo cecinit symphonia flatu, 

Sanco — zanca. 

Sancochar Sp. to parboil; from semicoctus. 

Sandio Sp., Pg. sandeu foolish, simple, perhaps orig. = one full 

of wonder, who is always saying sancte deus! cf. santiguarse 

to bless oneself, also =- to wonder, Wall, doiidiew a hypocrite 

(doux dieu). 
Sangle — cinghia. 
Sanglier — cinghiale. 
Sanglot — singhiozzo. 
Sanna — zanna. 
Sans — se?tza. 

Sansonnet Fr. starling; prop. = little Samson. 
Santiguar Sp. Pg. to make the sign of the cross ; from sanctifi- 

care, cf. amortigiiar ivom. mortificare, apaciguarixQvc^ pacific are, 

averiguar from verificare (-iguar =■ -igvar = -ivigar for ifigar, 

cf. fragua = fabrica). 
Santoreggia — ^ satureja. 
Sana Sp., Pg. sanha rage; from insania. 
Sap O. Fr. Pr. fir, whence Fr. sapin fir, sapine fir- wood (L. 

sappinus). Sap belongs to a L. primitive form, v. hubbone. 
Sape — zappa. 
Sapere savere It., Pg. Sp. Pr. saber, Fr. savoir; from sdpere with 

change of accent, following the analogy of other modal verbs 

devere, potere, volere. The L. scire is only found in the Sard. 

and Wal. 
Sapo Sp. Pg. toad; from Gk. 67]^ Grjjtog a poisonous snake, Lat. 

seps? The Basque word is apoa zapoa. 
Sarabanda It. Pg., Sp. zarabanda , Fr. sarabande, a saraband 

(sort of dance) ; from the Pers. serbend, through the Spanish. 

Saroelle — cerceta, 

Sareia — sarte, 

Sardina It. Sp., Fr. E. sardine a fish; from L. sarda, Sardinia, 

Gk. CaQdCvY], It. also sardella. 
Sargento — sergente, 
Sargia It., Sp. sarga sir go, Pr. serga, Fr. serge sarge, E. serge, 

a woollen stuff with a mixture of linen and silk, L. L. sarica; 

from sericus serica silk , Basq. ciricua. Hence Sp. xergon, Pg. 

xergao enxergdo a coarse stuffy straw-sack ^a; = 5 as in ximio 

from simius). It. sdrgano &c. 



Sargotar Pr. to talk gibberish? iov sartagoiar(sartago a medley)? 

Burg, sargoter, however, = cahotSr, cf. Sard, sarrdgu, 
Sarjar — sarrafar. 
Sarna Sp. Pg. Cat. itch. Isidore : impetigo est sicca scahies . . . hanc 

vulgus sarnam appellant. The B.: is sarra zaragarra, cf. W. 

sarn plaster, sarnaidh crusty. I^erhaps the Sp. Pg. sarro in- 
crustation, sediment, belongs to) the same root. 
Sarpare salpare It., Wal. sarpa, Sp. Pg. zarpar, Fr. sarper to 

weigh anchor. From aQ7tdt,eiv , for exJiarpagare. Hence Sp. 

zarpa claw. 
Sarraeina Sp. a tumultuous contest. From B. asserrecina. 
Sarrafar Pg. to scarify, make incisions ; prob. a corruption of 

scarificare, Sp. sarjar j sajar (scarf ear scarcar, L. re = Sp. rj), 

B. has sarciatu. 
Sarraja Sp., Pg. serralha a vegetable; lactuca agrestis est, quam 

sarraliam nominamus eo quod dorsum ejus in modum sejTw est. 
Sarria Sp. Pr. Cat. basket of rushes, net, O. Fr. sarrie, B. sar- 

rea, also Sp. sera^ Pg. seira panier. O. H. G. sahar = rush, 

L. L. sarex = car ex, cf. cc^Qixog a basket. 
Sarriette — satureja. 

Sarta Sp. string of beads; from sertum, serta. 
Sarte sartie It. (plur.), 0. Fr. sarties, Sp. xarcia xarcias cordage, 

tackling; from L. Gk. i^aQXiov ship's tackle (^a'prtov), which 

is from i^aQtit,£iv to equip a ship; the f. from Gk. neut. pi. 
Sarten Sp., Pg. sartagem sarta, Pr. sartan, cf. Sic. sartania a 

frying-pan; from L. sartago. 
Sas — staccio. 

Sastre Sp. tailor; euphonic for sartre from sartor, It. sartore. 
Satin — seta. 
Satureja santoreggia It., Sp. sagerida axedrea, Pg. saturagem 

segurelha cigurelha , Pr. sadreia, Fr. sarriette a herb, savory; 

from satureja. 
Sauce saucisse — salsa. 
Saudade Pg. (quadrisyllable) ardent longing, adj. saudoso. For 

soledade through a form soidade, and so would orig. denote 

absence from a desired object, cf. disio. But Marsh (on the 

English Language, Lect. III.) compares saudade with the 

Scandinavian saknadr, saknad , saon. 
Sauge Fr., E. sage, from L. salvia, It. Sp. Pr. salvia^ Wal. salvie 

salie jale. 
Saule Fr. (m.) willow, for which Burg. Lorr. has sausse, Pr. 

sauze sautz. It. salcio, Wal. sake, Sp. salce sauce sauz saz, B. 

saliga, all from salix salicis, whence also Fr. saussaie :== salice- 

tum. The Fr. saule , however, is to be referred to O. H. G. 

salaha, stila, cL gaule from valu. 
Saumatre — salmastro. 


Saumure — moja, 

Saure — sauro. 

Sauro soro It. sorrel (of a horse); Fr. saure yellowish brown (Pr. 
saur sor blond, yellow , red), O. Fr. sorel in Agnes Sorel i. e. 
Agnes the Blond, E. sorel sorrel. From L. G. adj. soor, E. 
sear dried up, vb. A. S. searian, O. H. G. sor en, saiiren to 
sear, Fr. saurer to smoke herrings {hareng sauret a dried, 
smoked, seared herring, or, according to Cotgrave, one that 
is smoked till it gets a sorrel hue, a red herring), cf. colora- 
ridus (Pliny)^ xerampelinus (Juv.). Malin derives sauro from 
the B. zuria white. The Pr. eisaurar = a L. exaurare (aura), 
Fr. essorer, whence It. sor are to let soar, to air, s'essorer to 
soar, Fr. sbst. essor flight; It. sciorinare to air. 

Sauvage — selvaggio. 

Savai Pr. bad, wicked, oi^^. pros. From savus, cf. ibri-ai ver-ai 
from ehrius, verus. 

Savate — ciahatta. 

Savoir — sapere. 

Say a — saja. 

Sayon Sp., Pg. saiao executioner, officer of justice; from O. H. 
G. sago (G. sdger = saivger), L. L. saio sagio. 

Sazon — stagione. 

Sbaglio — hagliore. 

Sbarro — harra. 

Sbavigliare — hadare. 

Sberleflfe — balafre. 

Sbiadato — hiavo. 

Sbieco — hieco. 

Sbiesoio — Mais. 

Sbigottire — bigot. 

Sbirro — birro. 

Sbricco — bricco. 

Sbrizzare — sprazzare. 

Sbrocco — brocco. 

Sbulimo — bulimo. 

Scabino It. oftener schiavino , Sp. esclavin, Fr. echevin a sheriff. 
A German word: A. S. scepeno , O. H. G. sceffeno sceffen, G. 
scheffen schoffe schoppe ^ from schaffen to arrange, E. shape. 
The It. scabino was formed from L. L. scabinus. 

Seaeeo It., Sp. xaque, Pg. xaque^ Pr. escac, Fr. echec, E. check 
a figure (or move) at chess, chess (jeu des echecs); from Per- 
sian shah king. Hence Fr. echiquier, E. exchequer a hall or 
court of justice, so called from its checquered (echiquete) pave- 
ment or table - cover. O. Fr. echec = robber is the O. H. G. 

Scaffale It. frame, stand; from M. H. G. scha/e, Bav. schafen, 



Du. schap. Gen. sca/f o = hed8iesid. Sic. Rh. sca/fa = sca/fale. 
For G. schaffot, E. scaffold, v. catafalco. 

Seaglia It., Fr. ecaille, E. scale; vb. scagliare , ecailler , scale. 
From G. sclmle, vb. schdlen, 0. H. G. scalja scaljan, E. 5/^^?//^ 
cf. Goth, skalja pot, tile. Hence also Fr. ecale nut or egg-shell. 

Scalabrone — calahrone. 

Scaleo It. cook; from (o^o\h. skalks, O.Yl.Q^. scale servant, found 
also in sinisccdco, ?najiscalco. 

Sealfire It. to scratch, from scalpere, cf. soffice from supplex. 
But whence scalftito for scal/ito. Is it from scarificare, scari fr- 
eer e , scar fire sealfire scalfitto? cf. Sard, scraffiri. 

Scalmo scarmo It., Sp. escalmo escalamo , N. Pr. escaume , Fr. 
ecJiome (m.) row -lock; from scalmus y cf. echameau a raised 
bank for vines from scamellum, 

Scalogno It., Sp. escalona, Fr. echalotte, E. shallot; from c(epa 
Ascalonia the Ascalon leek. 

Scalterire sealtrire to sharpen, polish, scaltrito scaliro (cf. finUo, 
adj. find) sharp, cunning. Sealtrire , according to the Crusca, 
is to shape from the rough, to make sharp, refine. It may be 
from secdpturire , so scaliro is related to scalpere, as 'yla(pvQ6g 
to yldcpBiv, The s was thought to be ex, hence caller ire to 
scratch, (caltrito = scaltrito in sense). 

Scampare — scappare, 

Scana — zanna. 

Scancia — escanciar, 

Scancio — sgiiancio. 

Scandaglio It., Sp. escandallOy Pr. escandalh plummet. Alb. scan- 
tale; vb. scandagliare scandigliare &c.; from scandere, cf. L. L. 
' scandilia steps of a ladder; the plummet -line would be so 
called, because marked at regular intervals. N. Pr. escandalid 
= to gauge. 

Scandella It., Sp. Pg. Cat. escandia &c., a kind of wheat, L. L. 
scandula, Prob. from candidus, cf. wheat , which is connected 
with ivhite ., v. Bopp, Gloss, s. v. sveta. 

Scappare It., Sp. Pg. Pr. escapar, Fr. echapper, E. escape. From 
Rom. cappa mantle; excappare would = Gk. sxdvsaaaL. 
0pp. scappare It. has incappare. It is to be distinguished from 
It. scampare, 0. Fr. escamper == ex-campare fcamjnisj to quit 
the field, Sp. escampar to clear away, Pr. Cat. to spread, cf. 
espassar from spatimn. 

Scappino — Scarpa. 

Scarafaggio It., Sp. escarahajo, Pr. escaravai beetle ; from scara- 
haeus (scarahajiis) . It. scarabone, Pg. escaravelho , Pr. escara- 
vai, Fr. escarbot are from GxccQa^og. 

SearaflFare It. to snatch away; from M. II. G. schrapfen, Bav. 
schrafen, Du. schrapen to scrape, cf. escarbar. 


Scaramuccia schermugio It., Sp. Pr. escaramuza , Fr. escar- 
mouche a skirmish, wlience G. scharmiltzel, E. scaramouch. 
From schermire to fight, O.ld.G.skerman; the -uccia is merely 
terminational, of. 0. Fr. escarm-ie. 

Scardo — cardo. 

Scarlatto It., Sp. escarlate, Pr. escarlat, f. Fr. ecarlate, E. scarlet; 
an Eastern word, not from Galaticus (as Heindorf and Marsh, 
Lect. on Eng. Lang.). 

Scarpa It., Sp. escarpa, Fr. escarpe, E. scarp precipice, declivity; 
vb. Sp. escarpar, Fr. escarperj E. scarp. From 0. N. skarj), 
0. H. G. scarf, G. scharf, E. sharp. It. Scarpa shoe is so 
called because pointed, whence It. scappino.^ O. Fr. escapin, 
Sp. 0. Fr. escarpin slipper, sock. 

Scarpello — escopro. 

Scarsella — sciarpa. 

Scarso It., Pr. escars escas, Fr. echars, Sp. escaso, Dii. schaars, 
E. scarce. From excarpsus for excerptus (root vowel used in 
comp, cf. R. Gr. 2, 344, 5?/5 for tus, cf. nascoso, perso &c.) 
reduced, contracted. In the sense of ^^ slender" the It. also 
writes scarzo. 

Scartare It., Fr. ecarter, Sp. Pg. descartar to throw out cards, 
discard; from crtfr/« a card, L. charta. The O. Pr. has only 
encariar to register, from carta, Fr. charte a document, chart. 

Scarzo — scarso. 

Scatola It. a box, Rh. scatla, Wal. scetulce; from G. schachtel. 

Scegliere It. to choose. From ex-elicjere, cf. for the doubling of 
the preposition scilinguare. Ex-Ugere for eligere gives Sp. esleir, 
Pr. eslire, Fr. ^?/r^. 

Scellino It., Sp. Pr. escalin, Fr. escalin a coin; from Goth. 5/:?'/- 
//<7^5, O.ll.G.skiiling, lEt. shilling (from schitd, shield, cf.sciido). 

Scemo It., O. It. se?no, Pied. Pr. sem diminished, dwindled; vb. 
scemare, Piedm. seme, Pr. semar to diminish, 0. Fr. semer to 
separate, Fr. sechemer to depart. L. L. has se?nus simare sce- 
matio. From semis half, cf. Sp. xeme a half- foot. 

Scempio It. punishment; from exemplum. 

Scendere It. to descend; from descendere (Sp. descender &c.), 
like struggere from destruere. 

Scernere scernire It. to discern; from excernere, Pr. eissernir to 
select, part, eissernit, Pr. eis = ex. 

Scerpare It. to tear to pieces ; for scerpere from discerpere, with 
change of conjugation , v. R. Gr. 2, 117. Rh. scarpar. Com. 
Scarpa from dis- carper e. 

Scheggia It. a splinter, scheggio a precipice; from schidia {G%i- 
diov) used by Vitruvius in the former sense. 

Scheletro It., Sp. esqueleto, Fr. squelette (m.), E. skeleton; from 
CksXexov a dried body, a mummy. 


Schencire — sguancio. 

Scherano — schiera. 

Schermo It. fight, skirmish; vb. It. schermire, Sp. Pg. esgrimir, 

Pr. O. Fr. escrimir; from O. H. G. skirm skerm shield, vb. 

skirman {skirmjan is wanted for the Rom. forms), Bav. schrc- 

men. Hence It. schermare, Cat. esgrimar, Fr. escrimer to fence; 

sbst. It. scherma scrima, Sp. Pg. esgrima, Pr. escrima, Fr. 

escrime. One of the numerous words pertaining to the use of 

arms, which the Rom. nations received from their Gothic 

Schermugio — scaramuccia, 
Scherno It., Sp. escarnio, Pg. escarnho, Pr. esfjiicrn, O. Fr. es- 

chern mockery, scorn ; vb. It. schernire, Sp. Pg. cscarnir, Pr. 

esquernir escarnir, O. Fr. eschetmir cscharnir; from O. H. G. 

skern, vb. skernon to mock, to scorn. 
Scherzare It. to sport, sbst. scherzo; from 0. H. G. schcrzcn to 

frolic, connected with 0. H. G. skeron to be wanton. 
Schiaeciare It. to squash, crack, sbst. schiaccia; from O. H. G. 

klackjan to crack, clack, with intensive s, M. H. G. zerklecken. 

Quite distinct from Fr. ecacher (quatto). 
Sch-iaflfo It. a box on the ear; from O. H. G. schlappe, E. slap, 

through a conjectural form schlapfc. N. Pr. has vb. esclafa. 
Sehiamazzare It. to cry out, sbst. schiamazzo, O. Fr. esclamasse 

(whence G. schlamasse); from cxclamare. 
Schiantare It. to crack, break, Pr. esclatar, Fr. cclater; sbst. It. 

schianto, Fr. eclat fragment, splinfer, crack, hence V^en. schi- 

antizare to lighten. The It. n is inserted, cf. lonlra = loutre; 

esclatar is from 0. H. G. skleizen for sleizen to break in pieces, 

slice, cf. O. Fr. esclier = O. H. G. sllzan, 
Sciiiatta It., Pr. esclata, O. Fr. esclate race, kind; from O. H. G. 

slatha, G. ge-schlecht. 
Schiattire — ghiattire. 
Schiavino — scabino. 
Schiavo It., Sp. esclavo, Pg. escravo, Pr. esclau, Fr. esclave (for 

eclou, O. Fr. esclo-s escla-s); from G. sclave for slave, E. slave, 

prop, a Slave taken prisoner in battle; hence also It. schiavina, 

Sp. esclavina, O. Fr. esclavine, M. H. G. slavlne a pilgrim's 

long robe. 
Schidone — spito. 
Schiena It., Ven. Piedm. Rom. Sard, schina, Sp. esquena, Pr. 

esquena esquina, Fr. echine spine. From O. H. G. skina a pin, 

cf. Lat. spina thorn and spine; It. schiniera, Sp. esquinela 

greaves, from O. H. G. skina skena a tube, bone. Not from 

spina, for in the West sp does not pass into sq. 
Schiera It., Pr. esqueira, O. Fr. eschiere a band; from O. H. G. 

scar a, G. schaar (share), Vb. Pr. escarir, O. Fr. escharir to 


part, divide, L. L. scarire to fix, design, Pr. escarida, O. Fr. 
escherie lot. Pr. escala, O. Cat. eschala, O. Fr. eschiele are 
corruptions of sccfra; from schiera Ferrari gets scherano a 

Schietto It. pure, smooth (Pr. esclei), Rh. scliliett worthless ; from 
Goth, slaihts, O. H. Gr. sleht, G. schlicht schlecht, E. slight. 
Neap, schitto, Rh. schiett = only, merely, Du. slechts, G. 
schlechthin, of. It. pure from purus. 

Schifo It., Sp. Pg. esqia/e, Fr. esquif a boat, skiff; vb. O. Fr. 
csqiiiper to fit out a ship (go on board), Fr. equiper, E. equip, 
Sp. esquif ar esquipar; from 0. H. G. skif, Goth. A. S. O. N. 
skip scip, E. ship. O. Fr. eschipre eskipre from A. S. scipcr, E. 
skipper, G. schiffer, 

Schimbescio — sghembo. 

Schineio — sguancio. 

Schiniera — schiena. 

Schioppo It. corrupted scoppio a blow, crack, fire-arm, dim. 
schioppetto scoppietto, whence Sp. escopeta, Fr. escopette a car- 
bine, blunderbuss, vb. scoppiare, L. L. sclupare to shoot. 
From the L. stloppus (or sclopus) (Persius), cf. fis{lare = fischi- 
are. For schioppo also stioppo, cf. stiaffo, stianto, stinco. 

Sehippire It. to slip away, escape ; for sclippire from M. H. G. 
slip fen, Du. slippen, A. S. slipcm, E. slip, G. schliipfen. 

Schiuma It., Sp. Pg. Pr. escuma, Fr. ecume foam, scum; from 
0. H. G. scum, N. skum, E. scum. 

Schivare sehifare It., Sp. Pg. Pr. esquivar, Fr. esquiver, 0. Fr. 
also eschiver (E. escheiv), Rh. schivir to shun; from 0. H. G. 
skiuhan, G. scheuen. Adj. It. schivo schifo, Sp. esquivo, Pr. 
e^quiu, O. Fr. eschiu, Rh. 5cA/o = G. scheu, E. ^/^y. 

ScMzzo It., whence, perhaps, Sp. esquicio, Fr. esquisse, sketch; 
from schedium (Apuleius) anything made extempore, Gk. (>;t£- 
d'tog, Gxedtd^sLv to extemporize, make a sketch. It. schizzare 
&c. As schizzo for schezzo, so L.L. schida for scheda {scindera 
and (>;|jtd'?y being thought of). 

Seiabla seiabola It., Ven. sabala, Sp, 5«&/^, Fr. E. 5^&r^. From 
the Slavonic: Hung, szahlya, Serv. sciblja, Wal. s^^/t; &c. (ac- 
cording to Frisch 2, 139 from L. Gr. ^a/3dg crooked). 

Sciagura — augur io. 

Scialacquare It. to squander; from ex-adaquare according to 
IMcnage, from It. scialare and acqua according to others. 

Scialare It. to exhale; from exhalare, Sp. exhalar. It. also aso- 
larc to pant , Mil. esalii. 

Seiame sciamo It., Sp. enxcunbre , Pg. enxame, Pr. eissam, Fr. 
essaim a swarm; from examen. Vb. Fr. echemer, L. examinare. 

Sciamito It., Sp. xamele, Pr. 0. Fr. samit, E. samite, G. sammet; 
from i^d^Ltog ^d^ixog six -threaded. 


Sciancato -^ anca. 


Sciarpa ciarpa It., Sp. charpa, from Fr. echarpe girdle, whence 
also Du. scaerpe, G. schdrpe, E. scai^f. O. Fr. also = a pil- 
grim's scrip, 0. H. G. scerhe, L. G. schrap, E. scj^ip scrap (cf. 
It. ciarpa = scraps, odds and ends). From echarpe probably 
comes the dim. escarcelle (= escarp-celle) a pouch, whence Sp. 
esc ar eel a J It. scar sella, 

Sciarra It. scuffle, fray, sciarrare to scatter, disperse; perhaps 
from G. zerran to tear, whence ciarrare, and, with prosthetic 
s, sciarrare. 

Sciatta — piatto, 

Sciatto It. rude, ugly; from ex and aptus (Menage), or from Sp. 
chato flat, whence Rh. sciait short and fat. Y.jnallo. 

Seier Fr. to saw, scie a saw. It. se^a; from secare, Pr. scf/ar (fcc, 
O. Fr. sier and soier, cf. plier and ployer from plicare. Hence 
Fr. E. scion a shoot or setting for sicion from sectio, cf. G. 
schnittling and E. cutting. 

Scilinguare It. to stutter ; from ex elinguare. 

Scimitarra It., Sp. cimilarra, Pg. also samitarra, Fr. cimelerre, 
(m.) E. scimitar. According to Larramendi, from the B. cime- 
tarra. Others derive it from the Pers. shamsher, or shemshir. 

Scioceo It. dolt, foolish; from exsuccus. 

Sciogliere sciorre (sciolsi sciolto) to loosen, also disciogliere &c. 
to loosen, dissolve. (1) from exsolverc (2), or (l) and (2) from 
dissolvc7^e. Asciogliere to absolve is from ahsolvere. 

Scioperare It. to cease from work, whence sciopero scioperone; 
from ex and operare. 

Sciorinare — saiiro. 

Scipare It. to waste; from dissipare, Sp. disipar, cf. desver, and 
E. Gr. 1, 231. So sciupare from dissupare. 

Scipido sciapido It. insipid; from in-sipidus in-sapidus. 

Sciringa scilinga It., Sp. siringa xeringa, Pr. siringua, Fr. 56'- 
ringue, syringe; from syrinx. 

Seirooco scilocco sirocco It., Sp. siroco xaloque, Pg. xaroco, Pr. 
Fr. siroc , sirocco South -East wind; from Ar. schoniq {scliarq 

Scivolare — cigolare. 

Scodella — ecuelle. 

Scoglio It., Sp. escollo, Pg. escollio, Pr. escuelh, Fr. ecueil rock; 
from scopulus. Pott, however, connects it with ETivlla (jSxvX- 
XsLv <3%vla^ ■= tearer, destroyer (of ships), v. Kuhn's Zeit- 
schrift 5, 255. 

Scojattolo It., Sp. Pg. esquilo, Arag. esquirol, escurol, Fr. ccu- 
reuilj E. squirrel; from sciuriis sciutndus , L. L. squirioltts. The 
combination in being unusual, we find scuirus (whence esquirol 
escurol squirret) and scurius (whence scoj-att-olo, v. R. Gr. 2, 


304) ; hence sci lost its soft sound. The more usual Sp. term 

is ardilla, 
Scompigliare — pigliare. 
Sconfiggere sconflssi sconfitto It. to strike, bruise, Pr. esco?i- 

fire esconfis esconfit; from ex-conficere) but inflected as if from 

ex - configere. 
Seoppiare — coppia. 
Seoppio — schioppo. 
Scorbuto It., Sp. Pg. escorbuio, Fr. scorbut , E. scurvy; from 

L. G. schorbocky Du. scheurhuik =■ G. scharhock, v. Frisch 

2, 220. 
Scorziare It., Sp. escorzar, O. Fr. escorcer escoursser, Wal. horsi 

to contract, to fold; from curtusj as hausser from alius. Sbst. 

It. scorcio, Sp. escorzo contraction, O. Fr. escors escuers fold, 

Scoreggia • — coreggia. 
Scorgere scorta • — corgere. 
Scornare It., 0. Fr. escorner, E. scorn; prop, to show pride or ^ 

insolence towards one, cornua sumere, from a form ex-cornare ; 

sbst. scorno, scorn. There is, probably, a reference to the G., 

V. s. scherno. 
Seorticare — corteccia. 
Scorza It., Wal. scoartze, Pr. escorsa, Fr. ccorce bark; vb. It. 

scorzare, Pr. escorsar, Fr. ecorcer. The sbst. is prob. derived 

from the vb. which is from ex-corticeare (corUx); for a form 

ex-corticare, v. corteccia. 
Scorzone — escuerzo. 
Scorzonera It., Sp. escorzonera, Fr. scorsonere viper's grass; 

2 derivations are given: (1) scorzone a poisonous snake (v. 

escuerzo), = L. serpentaria , but this should give scorzoniera ; 

(2) scorza nera = G. schwarz-iaurz. The orig. form may have 

scorzoniera, by corruption scorzonera. 
Seosso It. (only in Lomb. scoss) lap, bosom; from O.H. G. scdz, 

G. schooss. The Wall, has ho for hot, Du. shoot. 
Scotolare It. to swingle flax; from O. H. G. scutilon, G. schi'it- 

teln, cf. Wal. scutura to shake, agitate. Scotola = shuttle. 
Scotta It., Sp. Pg. escota sheet (naut.); from Swed. skot, G. 

schote (E. sheet), Du. shoot, from schiessen, schieten. 
Scotta It. way; from excocta; also called ricotta. Com. scocia = 

excocta as strecia = siricta &c. 
Seotto It., Sp. Pg. escote, Pr. escot, Fr. <?<:?o/^ L. L. scotum share, 

scot. It is the G. schoss (from schiessen?), O. Fris. skot, E. 

scot shot, O. Gael. sgot. The Fr. e'co/ stump of a tree is the 

O. H. G. scuz, whence scuzling, G. schossling. 
Scozzone — cozzone. 
Scranna It. bench, stool; from 0. H. G. scranna, G. schranne. 



Sericeio sericciolo It. a wren; prob. an onomatop.; cf. Illyr. 

Scrocco It. parasite, spunger, Fr. escroc swindler, Mil. scroch 
rogue, Rh. scroc wight, vb. scroccare to spiinge, Fr. escroqiier 
to cheat. Escroc is identical with Du. schrok glutton, which, 
however, may be from the Fr. They are, perhaps, to be re- 
ferred to the G. schurke rogue, 0. H. G. scurgo^ cf. It. scor- 

Scudo scudiere — ecu, 

Scuffia — cuffia, 

Scuotere It., Pr. escodre (partic. escos), O. Fr. escorre escourre 
to shake off; from cxciiterc. Sbst. It. scossa, Pr. escossa, Fr. 
escnsse concussion, spring; from exctissa. Hence It. riscuoterCj 
Pr. rescodre (partic. rescos), Fr. rccourre to recover, rescue, 
'\ from re-exciUere ; sbst. It. riscossa, Pr. rescossa, Fr. recousse, 

E. rescue. Pr. secodre, 0. Fr. secorre jsecourre, Fr. secouer, 
Sp. saciidir, Lomb. sectidi, Rh. saccuder to shake, from succu- 
lere (It. scuotere); sbst. It. secousse. 

Seure It. an axe; from securis, AVal. secure, Sp. segur. 

Seuriada It., Fr. ecourgee (for escoiiriee). Norm, coiirgee, E. 
sjl scourge, Sp. zurriago; from excoriata sc. scutica, a thong made 

of leather. 

Sdrajarsi It. to lay oneself at length; from Goth, sirmijan or 
O. H. G. strewjan sternere ; sd = st as in sdrucciolare. 

Sdrucciolo It. slippery, vb. sdrucciolare to slip, whence Sp. 
esdruxulo a word of two short final syllables; from O. II. G. 
striihhal stumbling, G. straucheln to stumble. 

Sdrucire — cucire. 

Se Pr. in anc-se , de-se, ja-sse = anc sempre &c. ; also enjasse 

per Jasse. Cherubini mentions ViWiX, pussee which he derives 

ivQui pill assai. 
Seau — secchia. 
Secehia It., Pg. Pr. selha, 0. Fr. seille, also m. It. secchio, Pr. 

selh a pail; from situla siCla, L. L. sicla, siclus. Hence Mil. 

sidell. Com. sedell, O. Fr. seel, Fr. seau, f. Mil. sidclla, Com. 

sedela, L. sitella. Hence also the Ar. al-satl assail, whence 

O. Sp. celtre, Sp. acetre. 
Seche — seppia. 
Secouer secousse — scuotere, 
Seda • — seta. 
Sedano It., Ven. seleno, Com. selar, Piedm. seler, Fr. celeri, E. 

celery; from (sklivov parsley = celery in late Greek, cf. Sp. 

apio dulce. Parsley = petro - selinum. 
Sedia seggia It., Fr. siege (m.), seat, siege, It. assedio asseggio 

siege; vb. It. assediare, Sp. asediar, Fr. assieger to besiege; 


from sedes through a form assedium assediare, no such form as 

sedia being found. 
Sega — scier. 
Segale segola It., Pr. seguel, Fr. seigle (m.), Wal. secdre, B. 

cekharea rye; from secale, L. L. sigala, sigilum. 
Segnare — salassare. 
Segno 0. It., Pg. sino, O. Cat. seny, Pr. senh, Rh. senn a bell, 

O. Fr. (corr.) seint saint; from signum = bell in L. L., hence 

also B. ceinua, cf. tocsin. 
Sego — sevo. 

Segolo It. a hatchet; from secula a sickle. 
Segugio It. bloodhound, Mil. sans saviis, Piedm. sns, L. L. sigu- 

sius siiisius seusius, Sp. sahueso, Pg. sabujo (from smisiiis sahiisiiis 

sabuiso sahueso). Probably, like many other names of dogs, 

from the name of a place, Segusium or Siisa in Piedmont. 

From Seg'usiiis for Segusianus came Seusius and Segutius Se- 
Segurelha — satureja. 
Seigle — segale. 
Seigneur — signore. 
Seille — secchia. 

Seine Fr. E. a drag-net; for same from sagena L. It. 
Seira — sarria. 
Selon Fr. particle, O. Fr. selone; from secundum^ with a reference 

to longurn. 
Sem — scemo. 
Sema sem Com., Mil. semma adv. = It. ora^ e. g. faot sem = 

Valtra volta; from semel. 
Semana semaine — settimana. 
Semaque Fr. (f.) a smack; from Du. smak, E. smack , cf. senau 

from Du. snauw , L. G. snau, E. snow (a small ship). 
Semblant semblar sembler semejar — semhrare. 
Sembrare sembiare It., Sp. Pr. semblat^ Fr. sembler; from simu- 

lare similar e. Hence It. sembiante, Sp. semblante, Fr. semblant; 

It. assembrare assembiare, Sp. Pr. asemblar, Fr. assembler, E. 

assemble y L. assimilare assimulare (with a reference to simul); 

It. rassembrare , Pr. Sp. resemblar, Fr. ressembler, E. resemble. 

Hence also It. simigliare somigliare, Sp. semejar, Pr. semelhar. 
Semillant Fr. brisk, lively. From the Celtic, W. sitn free, loose. 
Semola It. Sp., Fr. semoule, E. dim. semolina; from simila. 
Semonce — semondre. 
Semondre Fr., Pr. somondre semondre to invite, summon, partic. 

semons, whence sbst. semonse , somonsa (E. summons); from 

summonere, whence also, in the P' conj. sommer, O. Fr. semo- 

ner (whenceFr. semonneur). The Fr. has also semonce a lecture, 

semoncer to lecture , reprimand. Monere in Rom, was treated 


396 SENA — SERAN. 

as a verb of the 3'*^ conj., hence, a part, monestiis, whence 
mnonestar, v. Littre , p. 34. 
-4 Sena It., Sp. sena sen, Pg. senne, Fr. sene, E. senna; from Ar. 

Seneillo Sp. simple ; a dim. from simplex = It. semplicello, 

Senda Sp. Cat. path; from semita; It. sender o, Sp. sender o, Pr. 
semdier sendieira, Fr. sentier from semitarius. 

Sendos Sp., Pg. senhos, O. Pg. 56?//?05 the only distributive re- 
maining in the Rom. languages in the orig. sense, L. singtdi 
singulos, R. Gr. 3; 15. O. Sp. sehero is from singulajius. 

Seneehal senescal — siniscalco. 

Senno It., O. Sp. Pr. O. Fr. Rh. sen understanding; from O. H. 
G. sin, G. Sinn. Hence Sp. senado, Pr. senat, 0. Fr. sene 
sensible, Fr. for-cene = It. for-sennato senseless. 

Senopia — sinople. 

Sensale It., Fr. censal, Pr. (7<?6-5«/ broker ; from ccnsualis a col- 
lector, cf. Papias: censuales sunt of/iciales qui censum per pro- 
vincias exigunt. 

Sentare It. (Com.), Sp. Pg. Pr. seniar (Pr. only in part, sental) 
to place, set, settle; a participial verb from sedere sedens, R. 
Gr. 2, 333. Hence It. assentare, Sp. Pg. asentar, O. Fr. assen- 
ter, Sp. sbst. asiento a seat &c. 

Sentier sentiero — senda. 

Sentinella It., Sp. centinela, Fr. sentinelle, E. sentinel, sentry. 

^ From It. sentire to hear, listen, cf. scolta (scout) from scoltare. 

But this would leave the middle syllable unaccounted for. 

Galvani derives it from sentina the well-room of a ship, where 

the sentinator was stationed to give notice of any leakage. 

Senza It., 0. It. also sanza, N. Pr. senso, O. Sp. sines, O. Pr. 
senes sens ses, O. Fr, sens, Fr. sans, also O. It. sen, Sp. sin, 
Pg. sern, Pr. sen preposition from L. sine, with epenthetic s 
senes sens, with euphonic a senza for sensa, as manzo for ma?iso. 

Sena — insegna. 

Senor — signore. 

Sepoule — spola. 

Seppia It., Sp. xihiay Fr. seche the cuttle-fish; from sejna. 

Ser — essere. 

Sera It. Pr., Wal. seare, Pr. m. ser, Fr. soir evening ; Pr. vb. 
aserar, O. Fr. aserier aserir enserir, Wal. inscra vesperascere ; 
from serenus, Sp. sereno evening dew, Pr. seren, Fr. serein. 
Neap. Serena, also Pr. serena = It. serenata, Fr. serenade, E. 
serenade. For the sense, cf. Gk. evcpQovrj. 

Sera — ■ sarria. 

Serail — serrare. 

Seran Fr. heckle, serancer to heckle; from M. Du. schrantsen to 
tear, M. H. G. schrenzen, sbst. M. Du. schrantse, M. H. G. 


schraniz. The regular form in Fr. would be ecrancer, but cf. 

M. H. G. sranz for schrantz. 
Serba Sp. service -berry; for suerha from sorhum, It. sorha. For -t 

ue from o , cf . f rente. 
Serge — sargia, 
Sergente It. 0. Sp., Sp. sargento, Fr. sergent, E. sergeant; from 

serviens, cf. pioggia from phwia, cf. Pr. sZ/t^w ^= sergente) 

part, of servir, Piedm. servient, 
Sergozzone — gozzo. 
Serin Fr. a canary-bird; from (Ta^jfi/ (= a singing bird in He- - , 


Sermar — esmar. 

Serment Fr. an oath; from s acr amentum , 0. Fr. sairement y Pr. 
sagramen, L. prop, a soldier^s oath of allegiance, a word 
spread throughout the Roman provinces by the soldiery, v. 
Pott, Kuhn's Zeitschrift 1, 348. 

Sermollino It. wild thyme; from serpyllum, It. also serpillo ser- 
pollo, Sp. Pr. serpoty Fr. serpolet. 

Serorge 0. Fr. brother-in-law; from sororius. 

Serpe It. Pg. O. Fr., Sp. sierpe, Pr. Rh. serp, Wal. serpe a ser- 
pent; a very old abbreviation of serpens , cf. W. sarf, Sk. 
sarpa (nom. sarpas). 

Serpe Fr., O. Fr. satye a bill, a pruning - hook ; from sarpere, 
Fest. sarpere antiqui pro pur g are dicehant, L. L. sarpa sarcu- 
lum. From sarpa in a passive sense , cf. sarmentum for sarp- 
mentum, would come Sp. serpa a shoot, layer; ^ for a as in 
alerce, lexos. 

Serper — sarpare. 

Serra O.It., Sp. sierra, Pg. Pr. serra a mountain chain or ridge; 
prop, a saw, L. serra, cf. serratus serrated, Montserrat. 

Serrare It., Sp. Pg. cerrar, Pr. serrar, Fr. server to fasten, to 
press; sbst. It. serra a throng, Fr. serre talon, grasp; It. ser- 
raglio, O. Sp. cerraje, Pr. serralh, Fr. serail prison, seraglio; 
from sera a lock, bolt, L. L. serra. Sp. c is to distinguish the 
word from serrar to saw. 

Serrin Sp. (m.) saw -dust; from serrago serraginis , as orin from 

Sertir Fr. to set a jewel; from sertum, L. L. sertare to festoon, 
surround, enclose. N. Pr. is sartir. 

Serventese — sirvente. . • 

Serviette Fr. mapkin. Servir une table = to arrange the plates 
&c., L. ministrare, service = E. service (of plate &c.), ministe- 
rium. It. servito course, Pr. servil service, whence serviette (for 
servilette, cf. Sp. servilletd) not from servir. Hence desservir to 
clear the table, dessert, E. dessert. -=^ 

Serzir — zurcir. 


Sescha cesea Pr. reed; sedge, S^. xisca sugar-cane, "B, sesccij 
L. L. sisca. From the Celtic : Ir., Gael, seisff^ W. hesff, A. S. 
sege secg, E. se^ge. 

Seso Sp., Pg. siso understanding; from sensus. 

Sesta seste It. compasses, It. O.Pg. sesta measurement, measure; 
vb. It. sestare assestare to measure, cut off, Sp. asestar to ad- 
just a cannon, aim, level. From Gk. ^vCxov a mason's tool, 
a trowel, a level, or a square. From sestare come O. H. G. 
seston disponere, sestunga dispositio. 

Sestiere It., Sp. sextario, Pr. sestier, Fr. setter a measure; from 
sextarius, O. H. G. sehtari; hence also It. stcijo for sesta jo, cf. 
Rh. ster for sester, Lorr. steire. 

Seta It., Sp. Pr. sechij Fr. sole , L. L. seta; from the form seda is 
O.H. G. sida (as pm« from jy<?/irt iov poena, prls from pret'nmi)^ 
G. 5^/<?<?, Ir. sloda, W. sidan. From L. ir^« a bristle, a mean- 
ing still belonging to the Sp. and Fr., whence also It. setone, 
Fr. setoiij E. seton. The full expression is found in L. L. seta 
serica. Hence It. setinOj whence Pg. setim, Fr. E. satin. 

Setier — sestiere. 

Seton — seta. 

Seto Sp. hedge; from septum. 

Settimana semmana It., Sp. Pg. sema?ia, Pr. setmana, Fr. se- 
maine week; from L. L. septimana , prop. == seventh , AVal. 
septemene, Ir. sechtmaine. The Cat. O.Pg. have, instead, dojua 
from hehdo?nas, Sp. hehdomada. 

Seuil — suolo. 

Seve Fr. sap; from sapa, Pg. seve &c. 

Severonde — gronda. 

Sevo sego It. {g for v R. Gr. 1, 187), Sp. Pg. seho, Pr. Wal. seu, 
Fr. suif (coYV.)j Norm. Rouchi sieu (E. suet) fat, suet; from 
sebum sevum. 

Sevrer Fr. to wean; from separare, It. soever are. 

Sezzo sezzajo zezzo It. = ultimo; from secius, cf. L. L. Gloss. 
secius segnius, found also in da sezzo opp. da prima. 

Sfidare — disftdare. 

Sgarrare — garer. 

Sghembo It. oblique, crooked. Pied, sginho; from O. H. G. 
slinih , Bav. schlimm schlemm oblique. Sic. has scalemhru for 
sclembru sclembu. Compounded with biescio (v. biais) we have 
schimbescio ^chimbecio. 

Sghignare — gliignare. 

Sgneppa It. woodcock; Com. sgnep, Wal. sneap (m.); from O. 
H. G. snepfa snepfo, G. schnepfa, E. snipe. 

Sgombrare — colmo. 

Sgomentare It. to frighten, be frightened; from commeniari to 
meditate, excommentari to make one out of his senses. 


Sgorbia — guhia. 

Sgridare — gridare. 

Sguancio It. crookedness , obliquity ; from G. schwank flexible, 
Swed. sbst. svank crookedness, Du. zivanken to distort, hence 
perhaps scancio for sguancio, and, with inserted i = I schian- 
cio, vb. schiancire. The Sic. sguinciu, Neap, sguinzo awry 
(hence Sp. esguince?) is either a form of sguancio or from Gr. 
wincUscli, ivinsch oblique, cf. E. squint. It. schincio = sguinciu. 

Sguizzare — guizzare. 

Sgurare It. (Lomb. sgura), Sp. Cat. escurar, Fr. ecurer to scour-, 
not from Gr. scheuern, Du. schuren, E. scour, which are, prob., "T 
themselves from the L., but from ex- curare. Ven. and Pr. 
curare = to clean, Wal. curat = clean. 

Si It., Sp. si, O. Sp. sin, Pg. sim, Pr. Fr. 67*; from sic (ita was 
more commonly used as an affirmative). Sard, has imo or 
e?nmo from L. immo. 

Si 0. Fr. particle = until. In comp. de si, dessi, desi que, 
tressi tressi que, entressi, enfressi. I'he It. has si in the same 
sense. Inf. 29, 30: non guardasti in la, si fu partito; Cocc. Dec. 
3, 9 : ne mai ristette, si fu in Firenze. This may be a shortened 
form of sin (cf. no for nori)^ and the word may have passed 
from Italy into France , or the Fr. word may be independent 
of the It., and may be derived from signum scopus. 

Sicrano Pg. pronoun for l^.quidam; from securus in the sense of 
certus. Pr. has seguran. 

Sido It. excessive cold , assiderarsi to be benumbed with cold ; 
from sidus numbness , siderari to be benumbed , G. erslarren. 

Sidro cidro It., S^.sidra, Fr. cidre (E*. cider) y Wal. eigheariu; 
from sicera {pCKSQa), by corruption cicera, whence cidra as 
Fr. ladre from Lazarus. The 0. Sp. has sizra. 

Siege — sedia. 

Sien Sp. (f.) temple (of the head); from somnus (v. tempia), 
whence somn, suen, sien, or from segmen segm segn sien (cf. 
des-den) from dignus, and cf., according to Pott, tempus (from 
root T£ft) orig. = a division or part of the head (Forsch. 

2, 54.). 
Sien — mien. 
Sierra — serra. 
Siffler Fr. to whistle (O. Fr. also sihler); from sifilare an old 

form of sibilare, Pr. sihlar, siular, also cliiflar, Sp. silljar and 

chiflar, v. chifolo. 
Siglaton — ciclaton. 
Sigle — singlar. 
Signore It., Sp. senor, Pg. Pr. senhor, Fr. seigneur; from senior, 

like Gk. TtQSGpvtsQog and A. S. ealdor, E. alderman. Senior 

replaced the m. dominus whilst the f. domina remained. In 


Pg., however ; senhor was used f. as in L. Senior for dominus 
is found in L. L.^ and is sometimes opposed to vasalliis. The 
oldest Fr. form is nom. sendra, contr. sire , ace. seigneur , 
contr. sieur, whence nom. ?nessire, ace. monseigneur and rnon- 
sieur. For sire = sendre (prob. a North -French contraction) 
cf. Picard. ierons = tiendrons, tere = tendre. Of Fr. origin 
are the Pr. sire sira (nom. and ace), Sp. ser sire, It. ser and 
sire (Pr. sior)^ E. sir, which replaced the A. S. hearra. 

Silhouette Fr. a profile ; so called from M, de Silhouette a finance- 
minister under Louis XV., who was notorious for his par- 
simony. V. Sismondi Hist, des Francais 29, 94. 

Siller Fr. (intrans.) to run ahead (nav.), prop, to furrow the sea, 
sillon a furrow, wake; from N. sila to cut, sever, with liquid 
//, as in piller from pillare, Cf. Mil. sciloira, Pied, sloira a 
plough, V. aratro. 

Siller Fr. to sew up a falcon's eyes ; for oilier, from cilium. 

Silo Sp., B. siloa, ciloa a granary, N. Pr. silo. Perhaps from L. 
slrus, Gk. CeLQog, 

Sim — s'l. 

Simigliare — sembrare. 

Sin — senza. 

Singelo Pg. single; from a dim. L. singillus, whence singillarius 

Singhiozzo singozzo It., Sp. collozo, Pr. singlot, sanglot, Fr. 
sanglot , Rh. sanglut a sob; vb. singhiozzare , singhiottire , sollo- 
zaTj sanglot ary sangloter; corrupted from singidtus, singultare, 

Singlar Sp., Pg. singrar, Fr. cingler to sail (with a favourable 
wind); from O. H. G. segelen, 0. N. sigla, G. segeln to saily 
with inserted n as in singlaton. Immediately from the G. are 
O. Fr. sigle, G. segel a sail, vb. sigler. 

Sinisealeo sesealco It., Sp. Pr. senescal, Fr. senechal, E. seneschal 
= prop, aged servant, from 0. H. G. sini-scalh, L. L. sini- 
scalcus y cf. mariscalco , scalco. 

Sino and insino It. particle for L. tonus; prob. from signutn, cf. 
fino from finis, 

Sinople Fr. green (in blazonry), whence Sp. sinople , and also 
Pg. sinople a green jasper. But It. senopia, Pg. sinopla, E. 
sinoper = red , red ochre, from L. sinopis red ochre, so called 
from Sinope on the Black Sea. Cf. a MS. of 1400 (quoted in 
Menestrier orig. des arm.) : sicut et in urhe Sinopoli ruhicundum 
invenitur et viride dictum sinoplum. 

Sione It. whirlwind; from aCfpcuv a waterspout, Fr. siphon, L. 
sip] ion. 

Siquier siquiera siquiere Sp. adv. for L. saltim; from si and 
quiera conjuctive from querer, so == si velit. 


Sire — signore. 

Sirgar Sp. Pg. Cat, to tow (naut.), sbst. sirga it tow-line; from 
a form siricare formed with suffix ic from oeiQav. 

Sirima It. the end of a strophe ; from syrma (avQfia) a train, Wal. 
serme a thread , Alb. sirme silk. 

Siroe — scirocco. 

Siroppo sciroppo It., Sp. xarope, Pg. xarope, enxarope, Fr. 
strop, E. syrup, strop, shrub; from Ar. schardh drink, wine, 

Sirvente Fr. (m.), 0. Fr. serventois, Pr. sirventeSj sirventesc, f. 
sirventesca , hence It. sirventese, a kind of song, eulogistic or 
satirical, opp. a love-song; from serviens, so lit. a service-lay. 

Sisa Sp. Pg. petty theft, pilfering, excise, vb. Sp. sisar^ Pg. 
scisar to filch, cut away. Due. makes it the same as Fr. assise, 
but, according toDiez, from Pr. sensa = Li. census, as siso 
from sensus. Scisar, sisar may, however, be a freq. from scin- 

Sisclar ciselar Pr., xisclar Cat. to whistle; from fistulare (It. 
fischiare), with the s of sibilare. 

Sitio Sp., Pr. seti setje place, site, vb. Sp. siiiar asitiar, Pr. ase- 
tiar, aseljar to besiege; perhaps from O. H. G. sizan, 0. S. 
sittian (E. sit), cf. hisittian to besiege. 

Sitot Pr. conj. for L. etsi; from si tot (tout) although, cf. It. tut- 

Sivels — viaus. 

Sizel — cincel. 

Slandra — landra. 

Slinga (schlinga) Rh., Sp. eslingua, Pg. eslinga, Yv.elingue sling; 
vb. Pic. clinguer to sling (0. Fr. tinder) ; from O.H. Gr. slinga, 
G. schlinge, E. sling. 

Slitta It. sledge; from O.H. G. slito. Hence Com. slitiga to make -4. 

Smaccare — macco. 

Smacco It. insult, vb. smaccare (to be distinguished from smac- 
care, from macco) ; from O. H. G. smdhi, G. schmach disgrace, 
vb. smdheii, G. schmdhen to abuse, smdhjan to debase. The 
double cc is found also in ricco from rthhi, taccola from tdha. 

Smagare O. It., 0. Pg. esmaiar to be dispirited, dismayed, Pr. 
esmaiar, 0. Fr. esmaier esmoyer, Berr. emeger to dismay; also 
Sp. Pg. desmayar, E. dismay; sbst. It. smago, Pr. esmai esmbij 
Sp. desmayo, E. dismay, swoon. The Fr. emoi anxiety, emo- ' 
tion, though usu. derived from mouvoir, is only another form 
of esmai. It is from the O. H. G. magan to be able (may) with 
the Rom. privative es = des, cf. 0. H. G. magen to be strong, 
unmagen to faint. We seldom find the Rom. using the German 
word only in compounds, but cf. tra-stullarc from O. H. G. 



stuUan. Some derive smagare from O. H. G. smdhjan to degrade; 
but this is found in smaccare, v. smacco. 
Smalto It.; Wal. stnaltz (jumaltz), Sp. Pg. es?nalte, Fr. email, E. 
^ enamel (from the frequent combination en email, peindre eii 

email &c.); L. L. smaltum. From O. H. G. smelzan stnalzjan 
smaltjan, Gr. schmelzen, E. smelt. In the Fr. email, i is inserted 
after a (esmailt) and the t dropt as in gal for gall from G. 

Smalzo Ven. butter; from G. schmalz grease. 

Smania It. madness, smaniare to rage; from mania, Gk. \ia.via^ 
It. also mania. 

Smarrire — marrir, 

Smeraldo It.; Sp. Pg. f. esmeralda, Pr. esmerauda, Fr. emeraude, 
E. emerald; from smaragdus (oiidgaydog m. f.) Sansk. mara- 
kala, g changed to / as in salma from ady^a^ Baldacco from 
Bagdad; O. Sp. has also esmeracde, Pr. maracdc. 

Smerare It.; Sp. Pr. esmerar, 0. Fr. esmerer to clean; from ^rr- 
merare as spur are from ex -pur are, sgurare from ex -curare, 
,i Smeriglio It.; Sp. esmeril, Fr. emeri, E. emery; from G^vQig 


Smeriglione — sme?io. 

Smerlo It.; Pr. esmirle a sparrow hawk ; merlin ; Sp. Pg. es?neril 
i a small piece of ordnance (cf. falconete , moschetto &c.); It. 

smeriglione, Sp. esmerejon, Pg. esmerilhdo, Fr. emerillon, E. 

merlin. From merla, L. merula a blackbird? The O. H. G. 

has smirl. 
Smilzo — milza. 
Smorfia — morfia. 
Smussare — 7Jiozzo, 
Snello It.; Pr. ?.v;z^/ ?rw^/, O. Fr. ?V;?^/ /^;z^/ ^/?^/ nimble. Prom 

O. H. G. snel, G. schnell, though the i for ^ (esnel) is not easily 

accounted for. 
So — ^/o. 
Soanar — sosanar. 
Sobaco — harcar, 
Sobajar — sobar, 
Sobar Sp.; Pg. sovar to knead; rub; from subigere, in usu. Rom. 

subagere (Sp. sobajar), contr. into sobar as exporrigere into 

Sobbissare — obisso, 
Sobrino — cugino. 
Sobriquet Fr. nickname; also written soibriquet, so perhaps from 

sot and O. Fr. briquet = It. bricchetto a young ass ; Piedm. 

subrichet = obstinate. The Pic. form is siirpiquei. Others 

derive it from a form supricus (supra). But here the suffix 

icus instead of aticus is doubtful. 

SOC — SOGNA. 403 

Soc Fr. plough - share, coulter, L. L. socus, L. Gk. r^oxog, Gael. 
SOC, W.swch plough -share, snout; It zocco, Vr.soc, f. Pr. 
Cat. soca, Fr. souche stock, stem. From the L. soccus 
(l) wooden shoe (2) support, stem, stock. ^S becomes z also 
in It. zoccolo, Sp. zocalo, zocio zucco, Pr. zocs a wooden shoe, 
Fr. zocle, socle. 

Soearrar Sp. Cat. to singe; from B. sucartu, according to Lar- 
ramendi, from sua fire and carta flame, but the so in the Sp. 
is prob. the preposition as in the synon. sollamar. Yor socarra 
= craft, cf. soflama. 

Soda It. Sp. Pg. E., Fr. sonde; from solida. The Sp. sosa (from 
salsus) = the plant from which it is made. 

Sodo — soldo. 

Sofa It. Pg., Fr. sopha, sofa (m.), E. sofa; {vom.A.v.coffali a bench. 

Sofflare It., 0. Sp. Pr. suflar, Fr. souffler, Sp. soplar, Pg. soprar 
to blow; from sufflare. Hence' Fr. soufflet (l) bellows (2) box 
on the ear, cf, s. huf, and E. blow. The Pg. assoviar is con- 

Sofflce It. weak, supple, yielding; from supplex, whence also 
Fr. souple. F for p is also found in catafalco , caffo and a few 
other words. 

Soffratta O. It., Pr. sofraita, sofraclia, O. Fr. souffraite defect, 
injury; O. It. soffrettoso, Pr. sofraitos, Fr. souffreteux poor, 
poorly; from su/f ringer e soffr actus, Pr. sofranlier. 

Soga It. (prov.) Sp. a cord, rope (in Dante = belt), Pg. Rh. 
suga, B. soca^ Sp. also = a measure of length (L. Gk. Ga'ud- 
QLoVf L. L. soca soga), vb. soguear. Diefenbach compares W. 
syg a chain, Bret, siig a towing-rope, Gael, sugan. In Sp. 
the word has the widest range. 

Soglio — suolo. 

Sogna O.It., Pr. sonli, Fr. soin care; vb. Fr. soigner; It. hisogno, 
Pr. hesonh hesonha, Fr. hesoin, Rh. hasengs need (Fr. hesogne 
work, task), It. hisognare, Pr. hcsonhar; O. Fr. essoigne, es- 
someneed, necessity, difficulty, excuse, essoigner to excuse 
oneself; O. Fr. ensounier to employ, resoigner to fear. InL. L. 
we find sunnis sunnia soma in the sense of legal impediment 
(hence delaying about a thing, careful attention, care), in 
which Grimm recognises a Frank word = 0. N. syn, vb. 
synja, L. L. soniare to take care of. Goth, has sunja truth, 
sunjon to justify, O. S, sunnea excuse, necessity, hindrance, 
0. H. G. sunne = essoigne (L. L. exonia exonium) and hesoin, 
which latter may be referred to an 0. H. G. form (from an- 
other root) hi-siunigi scrupulositas , whence a sbst. M-siuni 
may be inferred. Due. derives from L. somnium and quotes a 
L. L. Gloss, somnium cpQovttg, but this may be merely an 
adaptation of sonium (soin), v. Pott, Kuhn's Zeitschrift 1, 340. 




From soigner is O. Fr. suignante concubine; soignentage con- 

Sohez soez Sp. dirty, mean. Not from suh fcece, which would 
be too artificial, but, probably, from a form (used by the 
Spaniard Prudentius) suis for sus, z for s which the Sp. is fond 
of retaining, cf. Bios, Carlos &c.\ for the accent on the last 
syllable , cf . juez. Porcus gives adj . puerco. 

Sole — seta. 

Soif Fr. thirst, O. Fr. (more correctly) soiy Pr. set; from sitis. 
For / from / cf. moeiif from modus, Maimheuf from Magnobo- 
dusj and R. Gr. 1, 213. 

Soin — sogna. 

Soir — sera, 

Solapar — lapo. 

Soldo It. brine; from O. PI. G. sulza , G. sulze, Pr. solz soutz 
"carnes in aceto'\ Soldo is a rare instance of an It. m. from 
an O. G. f. in a. A G. form sulz is also given. 

Soldo It., Sp. sueldo, Pr. sol y Fr. sol sou a coin; from solidus a 
coin formerly of gold, afterwards of silver, prop, of thick, 
solid metal not of thin plate. Hence It. soldo, Sp. sueldo, Pr. 
sout, Fr. solde (f., solde m. = balance) payment, pay; It. sol- 
dato, Sp. soldadOj Fr. soldat, Pr. soudadier, 0. Fr. soudoier, E. 
soldier, Liorr. Pic. Dauph. souda?^d, cf. It. pag a =: soldier. By 
a change of the o into a we have It. adj. saldo also sodo (cf. 
ta/pa topo\ vb. saldare = Sp. soldar, Fr. souder^ E. solder; but 
It. soldare^ Fr. solder to pay. 

Sole — 5wo/o. 

Solfa It. Sp. Pg. Pr. gamut (in Sp. also = harmony); from 
G,uido's ut re mi fa sol la taken backwards , the la serving as 
the article (la solfa); hence vb. It. solfeggiare (whence Fr. 
solfege), Sp. sol fear, Fr. solfier; Sp. solfeo, solfeador, solfista. 

Solfo zolfo It., Sp. azufre, Pg. enxofre , Pr. solfre, solpre, Fr. 
soufre; from sulphur. 

Solive Fr. rafter, joist. Perhaps from the L. solum, Fr. sol (in 
the sense of the floor of a house. It. suolo , Sp. suelo) and 
0. Fr. ive^= L. equa, cf. Fr. poutre = (l) mare (2) beam. 
Isaac Vossius derives it from sublica, as 0. Fr. mendive from 
mendica, but the sense hardly suits; others again from suhle- 
vare through a sbst. suhlevium = Sp. solivio. It. sollievo a 
raising, support; but here we should expect soulive^ cf. sou- 
lever, soulager. 

Sollar Sp. to blow , breathe ; from sufflare, 

SoUastre — souil. 

SoUazzo It., Sp. solas solaz, Pr. solatz , O. Fr. soulasy E. solace; 
from solatium; vb. sollazzare, solazar, soulacier, L.L. solatiari, 


SoUeticare It. to tickle; for so-tellicare from stib-titillicare, cf. 
Neap, tellecare. From titillicare we have also dileticare for 
SoUione It. dog-days ; from sub leone, the sun being then in the 

sign of the Lion. 
SoUo It. loose. For soUlo soUolo a dim. of solutus as mutolo of 

mutus (cf. assoUd). So spalla for spafla. 
Sollo Sp. a sea-pike, Pg. solho; from suillus. 
Sollozo — singhiozzo, 

Soltar Sp. to loosen ; for solutar, freq. from solvo. 
Sombra Sp. Pg. Cat. shade. Suhumbrare = so-omhrar = som- 

hrar (Fr. sombrer to founder), whence the sbst. sombra, cf. Sp. 

sombrage = It. ombraggio. The Pr. form sotz-ombrar supports 

this derivation. The O. Sp. solombra shade, vb. Pr. Dauph. 

solombrar may be a mere corruption or may involve the article 

so Vombra, cf. Lorr. ailaurbe = ombre, prop, a f ombre. The 

Fr. E. adj. sombre (Du. somber) is the same word. Hence Sp. 

sombrero a hat. 
Sommaco It., S]).ziimaque, Tg.sumagre, Vr.Yr. sumac^ E. sumach; i- 

from Ar. sommdq. 
Sonune sommelier — salma. 
Sommeil Fr., Pr. sonelh sleep; dim. from somnus (somniculus), 

the dim. being used to distinguish between som (somnus) and 

son (soniis). Hence someilleux, Pr. somelhos, It. sonnachioso, 

L. somniculosus. 
Sommer — semondre. 
Sommet son — sommo. 
Sommo It., Sp. somo, Pr. som, O.Fr. som son summit; from sum- 

mum, Fr. son bran (what is uppermost in the sieve), Sp. soma 

coarse flour. Hence O. Sp. prepositional en somo, 0. Fr. en 

som, en son and par som, par son, e. g. par son Vaube = Pr. 

sus I' alba, sus en Valba, It. in suW alba. Hence Fr. sommet (for 

O. Fr. som), E. summit. Sp. Pg. Pr. asomar, O. Fr. assommer 

to bring up, or out, show, appear. 
Somorgujo Sp. diver, vb. somorgujar ; from submergere , with a 

rare suffix, cf. gran- u jo, burb-uja. 
Sonda Sp, Pg., Fr. sonde sounding -line; vb. sondar, sonder, E. 

sound. As Sp. sombra, Fr. sombre from sub umbra, so sondar 

from sub undare. 
Sopa Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. soupe, E. soup. From O.N. saup, O. H. G. 

5«w/ broth, O. N. sup, L. Gr. soppe, O. H. G. suf, E. sop, sup; 

vb. Sp. sopar to sop, Pr. sopar, Fr. soiiper to sup (eat supper), 

cf. Bav. saufen to eat sop. Of a different origin are the It. 

zuppa, Sp. Pg. chupar to sip, sup, Fr. super, cf. G. zuppe 

zupfen supfen. 
Soplar — sof flare. 


Sorare — saiiro. 

Sorbetto It., Sp. sorhete, Pg. sorvetc, Fr. sorhet, E. sherbet; from 
Ar. sharha, sharhat a drink. Others derive it from sorhere, but 
derivatives in -ett from verbs are doubtful. 

Sorce sorcio It., Sp. sorce, Pr. soritz, Fr. soiiris, Wal. soarece 
mouse; from sorex. 

Sorcier Fr. f. sorciere, E. sorcerer sorceress, sbst. O. Fr. sorcerie, 
E. sorcery; from sort lot, also = spell, enchantment. Sorcier 
is from sortiarius, It. sortiere, Sp. sorter o from sortarius, 

Sorgozzone — gozzo. 

Sorn Pr. gloomy, sullen, sbst. sornura; O.Fr. sorwe twilight, Sp. 
5orw« night; Fr. sournois malicious; It. sormone, susornmie a 
dissembler, sneak, susorniare to grumble, mutter. From the 
Celtic, W. sivrn-ach growl, Corn. sofTCfi to be angry, or from 
Saturnus, Pg. Com. soiiirno, Piedm. saturno, Sard., saturnii, 
Gen. saturne, Sp. Flor. saturnino, E. saturnine, Cf. 50z// from 

Sornette Fr. trifle, nonsense; prob. from W. swrn trifle. An 
old Fr. vb. sorner is also given. 

Sorra — zavorra. 

Sortija Sp., Pg. sortilha ring. From soriicnla (sors) so = prop, 
a magic ring. In a will dated 1258 we find: que as suas sorte- 
las das vertudes (rings of magical virtue) as gardem para as 
enfermas. Cf. Pr. sortilhier a sorcerer. 

Sortire It., Fr. sortir (sorto, sors) to go out, issue, spring. Cat. 
surtir to issue, spring, Vw. sortir, Sp. surtir , Pg. surdir to 
spring out or back, reboimd; Fr. ressortir (ressors) to go out 
again, S^.resutiir to spring back, Fv.ressort spring, elasticity. 
The most probable derivation is that from surrectire (cf. sortir 
de son siege, de table &c.), though participial verbs are usually 
of the 1*^ conj., but cf. ammortire, qualir (from coactus). 

Sortire It., Fr. sortir (sortisco, sortisj to get, obtain. It. also to 
draw lots, S^. surtir, Com. surti. to provide; irom sortiri; It. 
assortire, Sp. asortir, Fr. assortir, E. assort; Fr. ressortir to be 
in the jurisdiction of, to appeal, resort, sbst. r^55or/ appeal, 
jurisdiction, resort. It. risorto, cf. Due. ressortum quicquid intra 
sortes continetur seu jurisdictionis terminos. The juristic mean- 
ing of the word is derived from that of the O. Fr. resortir to 
draw back, take refuge, resort to, sbst. resort; thence the 
sense of getting (sortir), recovering (ressortir) cf. ricovrare 
(1) to recover (2) to seek refuge at; ricovrare ad un luogo is 
like les pairies ressortissent au parlement. 

Sosanar O. Sp. to mock, scorn, sbst. sosaho, O. Pg. sosano scorn ; 
from siibsannare (sanna) ; Pr. soanar, O. Fr. sooner, sbst. soan, 

Sosegar (pres. sosiego)j Pg. socegar to calm, be calm, sbst. so- 


siego, socego, whence It. 5M55/^^o. For sos-eguar, from a L. 

suh-wquare? From cequare in 0. Sp. we find igiiar eguar, Pg. 

igar. % 

Soso Sp. (also zonzd) insipid; from i?tsulsus, Pg. insosso. 
Sostare It. to still, calm, Pg. Pr. sostar to stop, restrain; from 

siibstare. Hence, perhaps, also Sp. Pg. susto, Sard, assustu 

fright. Com. sust, Ven. sustOj Sic. sustu sorrow, trouble, 
Sote — zote. 

Soto Sp., Pg. sonto a wood; from saltus, O. Pg. It. salto. 
Sotteceo sottecchi It. adv. clandestinel